Abstract

Electroabsorption spectroscopy (Stark spectroscopy) was used to characterize the poling process of three guest–host systems containing stilbene, azobenzene, and biphenyl dyes in a polycarbonate matrix. The poling was carried out at room temperature by application of a dc field under simultaneous irradiation of the sample with nonpolarized light. Investigating different types of chromophore permitted evaluation of the influence of a local heating process on the whole poling mechanism. The intensity dependence of the induced polar order of the azobenzene dye was correlated with the rates of optical and thermally induced transitions between cis and trans isomers.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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  1. Z. Sekkat and M. Dumont, “Photoassisted poling of azo dye doped polymeric films at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. B 54, 486 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Z. Sekkat and M. Dumont, “Photoinduced orientation of azo dyes in polymeric films. Characterization of angular rotational mobility,” Synth. Met. 54, 373 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. Loucif-Saïbi, K. Nakatani, J. A. Delaire, M. Dumont, and Z. Sekkat, “Photoisomerization and second harmonic generation in disperse red one-doped and-functionalized poly(methyl methacrylate) films,” Chem. Mater. 5, 229 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Z. Sekkat and W. Knoll, “Creation of second order nonlinear optical effects by photoisomerization of poly azo dyes in polymeric films: a theoretical study of the steady-state and transient properties,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1855 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  5. L. M. Blinov, M. I. Barnik, T. Weyrauch, S. P. Palto, A. A. Tevosov, and W. Haase, “Photoassisted poling of polymer materials studied by Stark spectroscopy (electroabsorption) technique,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 231, 246 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. I. Barnik, L. M. Blinov, W. Haase, S. P. Palto, A. A. Tevosov, and T. Weyrauch, “Stark spectroscopy as a tool for the characterization of poled polymers for nonlinear optics,” in Polymers for Second Order Nonlinear Optics, G. A. Lindsay and K. D. Singer, eds., ACS Symp. Ser. 601, 288 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. Meier, “Die Photochemie stilbenoider Verbindungen und ihre materialwissenschaftliche Aspekte,” Angew. Chem. 104, 1425 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. Schulte-Frohlinde, H. Blume, and H. Güsten, “Photochemical cis–trans-isomerization of substituted stilbenes,” J. Phys. Chem. 66, 2486 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. D. Singer, M. G. Kuzyk, and J. E. Sohn, “Second-order nonlinear-optical processes in orientationally ordered materials: relationship between molecular and macroscopic properties,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 968 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. I. Barnik, L. M. Blinov, S. P. Palto, A. A. Tevosov, and T. Weyrauch, “Stark-spectroscopy (electroabsorption) as a tool for the characterization of poled polymers for non-linear optics,” Mol. Mater. 3, 319 (1994).
  11. W. Liptay, in Modern Quantum Chemistry, O. Sinanoglu, ed. (Academic, New York, 1965), Vol. 3, p. 45.
  12. L. M. Blinov, S. P. Palto, and S. G. Yudin, “Stark-spectroscopy of Langmuir–Blodgett films,” Mol. Mater. 1, 183 (1992).
  13. M. Eich, Ph.D. dissertation (Technische Hochschule Darmstadt, Darmstadt, Germany, 1987).
  14. K. Anderle and J. H. Wendorff, “Holographic recording, using liquid crystalline side chain polymers,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 243, 51 (1994).
    [CrossRef]

1995

Z. Sekkat and W. Knoll, “Creation of second order nonlinear optical effects by photoisomerization of poly azo dyes in polymeric films: a theoretical study of the steady-state and transient properties,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1855 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Barnik, L. M. Blinov, W. Haase, S. P. Palto, A. A. Tevosov, and T. Weyrauch, “Stark spectroscopy as a tool for the characterization of poled polymers for nonlinear optics,” in Polymers for Second Order Nonlinear Optics, G. A. Lindsay and K. D. Singer, eds., ACS Symp. Ser. 601, 288 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

L. M. Blinov, M. I. Barnik, T. Weyrauch, S. P. Palto, A. A. Tevosov, and W. Haase, “Photoassisted poling of polymer materials studied by Stark spectroscopy (electroabsorption) technique,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 231, 246 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Barnik, L. M. Blinov, S. P. Palto, A. A. Tevosov, and T. Weyrauch, “Stark-spectroscopy (electroabsorption) as a tool for the characterization of poled polymers for non-linear optics,” Mol. Mater. 3, 319 (1994).

K. Anderle and J. H. Wendorff, “Holographic recording, using liquid crystalline side chain polymers,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 243, 51 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

R. Loucif-Saïbi, K. Nakatani, J. A. Delaire, M. Dumont, and Z. Sekkat, “Photoisomerization and second harmonic generation in disperse red one-doped and-functionalized poly(methyl methacrylate) films,” Chem. Mater. 5, 229 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

H. Meier, “Die Photochemie stilbenoider Verbindungen und ihre materialwissenschaftliche Aspekte,” Angew. Chem. 104, 1425 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sekkat and M. Dumont, “Photoassisted poling of azo dye doped polymeric films at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. B 54, 486 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sekkat and M. Dumont, “Photoinduced orientation of azo dyes in polymeric films. Characterization of angular rotational mobility,” Synth. Met. 54, 373 (1992).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Blinov, S. P. Palto, and S. G. Yudin, “Stark-spectroscopy of Langmuir–Blodgett films,” Mol. Mater. 1, 183 (1992).

1987

1962

D. Schulte-Frohlinde, H. Blume, and H. Güsten, “Photochemical cis–trans-isomerization of substituted stilbenes,” J. Phys. Chem. 66, 2486 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Anderle, K.

K. Anderle and J. H. Wendorff, “Holographic recording, using liquid crystalline side chain polymers,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 243, 51 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Barnik, M. I.

M. I. Barnik, L. M. Blinov, W. Haase, S. P. Palto, A. A. Tevosov, and T. Weyrauch, “Stark spectroscopy as a tool for the characterization of poled polymers for nonlinear optics,” in Polymers for Second Order Nonlinear Optics, G. A. Lindsay and K. D. Singer, eds., ACS Symp. Ser. 601, 288 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Blinov, M. I. Barnik, T. Weyrauch, S. P. Palto, A. A. Tevosov, and W. Haase, “Photoassisted poling of polymer materials studied by Stark spectroscopy (electroabsorption) technique,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 231, 246 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Barnik, L. M. Blinov, S. P. Palto, A. A. Tevosov, and T. Weyrauch, “Stark-spectroscopy (electroabsorption) as a tool for the characterization of poled polymers for non-linear optics,” Mol. Mater. 3, 319 (1994).

Blinov, L. M.

M. I. Barnik, L. M. Blinov, W. Haase, S. P. Palto, A. A. Tevosov, and T. Weyrauch, “Stark spectroscopy as a tool for the characterization of poled polymers for nonlinear optics,” in Polymers for Second Order Nonlinear Optics, G. A. Lindsay and K. D. Singer, eds., ACS Symp. Ser. 601, 288 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Blinov, M. I. Barnik, T. Weyrauch, S. P. Palto, A. A. Tevosov, and W. Haase, “Photoassisted poling of polymer materials studied by Stark spectroscopy (electroabsorption) technique,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 231, 246 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Barnik, L. M. Blinov, S. P. Palto, A. A. Tevosov, and T. Weyrauch, “Stark-spectroscopy (electroabsorption) as a tool for the characterization of poled polymers for non-linear optics,” Mol. Mater. 3, 319 (1994).

L. M. Blinov, S. P. Palto, and S. G. Yudin, “Stark-spectroscopy of Langmuir–Blodgett films,” Mol. Mater. 1, 183 (1992).

Blume, H.

D. Schulte-Frohlinde, H. Blume, and H. Güsten, “Photochemical cis–trans-isomerization of substituted stilbenes,” J. Phys. Chem. 66, 2486 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Delaire, J. A.

R. Loucif-Saïbi, K. Nakatani, J. A. Delaire, M. Dumont, and Z. Sekkat, “Photoisomerization and second harmonic generation in disperse red one-doped and-functionalized poly(methyl methacrylate) films,” Chem. Mater. 5, 229 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dumont, M.

R. Loucif-Saïbi, K. Nakatani, J. A. Delaire, M. Dumont, and Z. Sekkat, “Photoisomerization and second harmonic generation in disperse red one-doped and-functionalized poly(methyl methacrylate) films,” Chem. Mater. 5, 229 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sekkat and M. Dumont, “Photoassisted poling of azo dye doped polymeric films at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. B 54, 486 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sekkat and M. Dumont, “Photoinduced orientation of azo dyes in polymeric films. Characterization of angular rotational mobility,” Synth. Met. 54, 373 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Güsten, H.

D. Schulte-Frohlinde, H. Blume, and H. Güsten, “Photochemical cis–trans-isomerization of substituted stilbenes,” J. Phys. Chem. 66, 2486 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Haase, W.

M. I. Barnik, L. M. Blinov, W. Haase, S. P. Palto, A. A. Tevosov, and T. Weyrauch, “Stark spectroscopy as a tool for the characterization of poled polymers for nonlinear optics,” in Polymers for Second Order Nonlinear Optics, G. A. Lindsay and K. D. Singer, eds., ACS Symp. Ser. 601, 288 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Blinov, M. I. Barnik, T. Weyrauch, S. P. Palto, A. A. Tevosov, and W. Haase, “Photoassisted poling of polymer materials studied by Stark spectroscopy (electroabsorption) technique,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 231, 246 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Knoll, W.

Kuzyk, M. G.

Loucif-Saïbi, R.

R. Loucif-Saïbi, K. Nakatani, J. A. Delaire, M. Dumont, and Z. Sekkat, “Photoisomerization and second harmonic generation in disperse red one-doped and-functionalized poly(methyl methacrylate) films,” Chem. Mater. 5, 229 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Meier, H.

H. Meier, “Die Photochemie stilbenoider Verbindungen und ihre materialwissenschaftliche Aspekte,” Angew. Chem. 104, 1425 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nakatani, K.

R. Loucif-Saïbi, K. Nakatani, J. A. Delaire, M. Dumont, and Z. Sekkat, “Photoisomerization and second harmonic generation in disperse red one-doped and-functionalized poly(methyl methacrylate) films,” Chem. Mater. 5, 229 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Palto, S. P.

M. I. Barnik, L. M. Blinov, W. Haase, S. P. Palto, A. A. Tevosov, and T. Weyrauch, “Stark spectroscopy as a tool for the characterization of poled polymers for nonlinear optics,” in Polymers for Second Order Nonlinear Optics, G. A. Lindsay and K. D. Singer, eds., ACS Symp. Ser. 601, 288 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Blinov, M. I. Barnik, T. Weyrauch, S. P. Palto, A. A. Tevosov, and W. Haase, “Photoassisted poling of polymer materials studied by Stark spectroscopy (electroabsorption) technique,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 231, 246 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Barnik, L. M. Blinov, S. P. Palto, A. A. Tevosov, and T. Weyrauch, “Stark-spectroscopy (electroabsorption) as a tool for the characterization of poled polymers for non-linear optics,” Mol. Mater. 3, 319 (1994).

L. M. Blinov, S. P. Palto, and S. G. Yudin, “Stark-spectroscopy of Langmuir–Blodgett films,” Mol. Mater. 1, 183 (1992).

Schulte-Frohlinde, D.

D. Schulte-Frohlinde, H. Blume, and H. Güsten, “Photochemical cis–trans-isomerization of substituted stilbenes,” J. Phys. Chem. 66, 2486 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Sekkat, Z.

Z. Sekkat and W. Knoll, “Creation of second order nonlinear optical effects by photoisomerization of poly azo dyes in polymeric films: a theoretical study of the steady-state and transient properties,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1855 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Loucif-Saïbi, K. Nakatani, J. A. Delaire, M. Dumont, and Z. Sekkat, “Photoisomerization and second harmonic generation in disperse red one-doped and-functionalized poly(methyl methacrylate) films,” Chem. Mater. 5, 229 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sekkat and M. Dumont, “Photoassisted poling of azo dye doped polymeric films at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. B 54, 486 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sekkat and M. Dumont, “Photoinduced orientation of azo dyes in polymeric films. Characterization of angular rotational mobility,” Synth. Met. 54, 373 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Singer, K. D.

Sohn, J. E.

Tevosov, A. A.

M. I. Barnik, L. M. Blinov, W. Haase, S. P. Palto, A. A. Tevosov, and T. Weyrauch, “Stark spectroscopy as a tool for the characterization of poled polymers for nonlinear optics,” in Polymers for Second Order Nonlinear Optics, G. A. Lindsay and K. D. Singer, eds., ACS Symp. Ser. 601, 288 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Blinov, M. I. Barnik, T. Weyrauch, S. P. Palto, A. A. Tevosov, and W. Haase, “Photoassisted poling of polymer materials studied by Stark spectroscopy (electroabsorption) technique,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 231, 246 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Barnik, L. M. Blinov, S. P. Palto, A. A. Tevosov, and T. Weyrauch, “Stark-spectroscopy (electroabsorption) as a tool for the characterization of poled polymers for non-linear optics,” Mol. Mater. 3, 319 (1994).

Wendorff, J. H.

K. Anderle and J. H. Wendorff, “Holographic recording, using liquid crystalline side chain polymers,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 243, 51 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Weyrauch, T.

M. I. Barnik, L. M. Blinov, W. Haase, S. P. Palto, A. A. Tevosov, and T. Weyrauch, “Stark spectroscopy as a tool for the characterization of poled polymers for nonlinear optics,” in Polymers for Second Order Nonlinear Optics, G. A. Lindsay and K. D. Singer, eds., ACS Symp. Ser. 601, 288 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Blinov, M. I. Barnik, T. Weyrauch, S. P. Palto, A. A. Tevosov, and W. Haase, “Photoassisted poling of polymer materials studied by Stark spectroscopy (electroabsorption) technique,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 231, 246 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Barnik, L. M. Blinov, S. P. Palto, A. A. Tevosov, and T. Weyrauch, “Stark-spectroscopy (electroabsorption) as a tool for the characterization of poled polymers for non-linear optics,” Mol. Mater. 3, 319 (1994).

Yudin, S. G.

L. M. Blinov, S. P. Palto, and S. G. Yudin, “Stark-spectroscopy of Langmuir–Blodgett films,” Mol. Mater. 1, 183 (1992).

ACS Symp. Ser.

M. I. Barnik, L. M. Blinov, W. Haase, S. P. Palto, A. A. Tevosov, and T. Weyrauch, “Stark spectroscopy as a tool for the characterization of poled polymers for nonlinear optics,” in Polymers for Second Order Nonlinear Optics, G. A. Lindsay and K. D. Singer, eds., ACS Symp. Ser. 601, 288 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Angew. Chem.

H. Meier, “Die Photochemie stilbenoider Verbindungen und ihre materialwissenschaftliche Aspekte,” Angew. Chem. 104, 1425 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B

Z. Sekkat and M. Dumont, “Photoassisted poling of azo dye doped polymeric films at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. B 54, 486 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater.

R. Loucif-Saïbi, K. Nakatani, J. A. Delaire, M. Dumont, and Z. Sekkat, “Photoisomerization and second harmonic generation in disperse red one-doped and-functionalized poly(methyl methacrylate) films,” Chem. Mater. 5, 229 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett.

L. M. Blinov, M. I. Barnik, T. Weyrauch, S. P. Palto, A. A. Tevosov, and W. Haase, “Photoassisted poling of polymer materials studied by Stark spectroscopy (electroabsorption) technique,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 231, 246 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Phys. Chem.

D. Schulte-Frohlinde, H. Blume, and H. Güsten, “Photochemical cis–trans-isomerization of substituted stilbenes,” J. Phys. Chem. 66, 2486 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.

K. Anderle and J. H. Wendorff, “Holographic recording, using liquid crystalline side chain polymers,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 243, 51 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Mater.

L. M. Blinov, S. P. Palto, and S. G. Yudin, “Stark-spectroscopy of Langmuir–Blodgett films,” Mol. Mater. 1, 183 (1992).

M. I. Barnik, L. M. Blinov, S. P. Palto, A. A. Tevosov, and T. Weyrauch, “Stark-spectroscopy (electroabsorption) as a tool for the characterization of poled polymers for non-linear optics,” Mol. Mater. 3, 319 (1994).

Synth. Met.

Z. Sekkat and M. Dumont, “Photoinduced orientation of azo dyes in polymeric films. Characterization of angular rotational mobility,” Synth. Met. 54, 373 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Other

W. Liptay, in Modern Quantum Chemistry, O. Sinanoglu, ed. (Academic, New York, 1965), Vol. 3, p. 45.

M. Eich, Ph.D. dissertation (Technische Hochschule Darmstadt, Darmstadt, Germany, 1987).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Structure of the dye molecules investigated.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Poling procedures. (a) Method A: simultaneous application of light and the electric field, (b) method B: longer application of the electric field.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Wave-number dependence of the normalized absorbance for a DMANA–PC film. (b) Quadratic in-field Stark spectrum of a DMANA–PC film. λmax=483 nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Linear Stark effect of a DMANA–PC film. Experimental data are shown as filled circles; the curve represents the best fit.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Linear Stark spectra of (a) DEANS (λmax=443 nm) and (b) DMANB (λmax=410 nm). Experimental data are shown as filled circles; the result of fitting, as straight lines.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Dependence of the polar-order parameter cos θ on the poling temperature in a poling procedure without illumination.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Dependence of the polar-order parameter cos θ on the light intensity during photoassisted poling at room temperature according to method B (30-min illumination, 30+15-min application of poling field).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Polar-Order Parameters cos θ Normalized to the Value cosθth=μE/5kT Anticipated from Boltzmann Distribution of Dipoles μ in Poling Field E

Equations (18)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ΔWi=μiE+1/2(E,αiE).
hc Δv˜=-ΔμE-1/2(ΔαE)E,
ΔA=32 ΔμEhc v˜ (A/v˜)v˜ cos θ sin2 θ+12 E2Δαhc v˜ (A/v˜)v˜+32 Δμhc2v˜ 2(A/v˜)v˜2 cos2 θ sin2 θ,
ΔA=-ΔI/(I ln 10).
ΔAqueff(2ω)=12 Eeff,loc2Δα2hc v˜ (A/v˜)v˜+(Δμ)210h2c2 v˜ 2(A/v˜)v˜2.
ΔAlin=32 ΔμEefflochc v˜ (A/v˜)v˜ cos θ sin2 θ.
cos θth=μE/5kT.
ncncmax=II+κ,
nceq=nKεtftK(εtft+εcfc)+kth,
ncncmax=II+κ,ncmax=nεtftεtft+εcfc,
κ=kthhvln 10(εtft+εcfc).
dIdx=ln 10[nt(x)εt+nc(x)εc]I=ln 10{[n-nc(x)]εt+nc(x)εc}I.
dIdx=-ln 10nIεt+Iεt(εt-εc)ftI(εtft+εcfc)+kthhv.
kvi(v)=ln 10Iv(v)εi(v)hv(i=t, c)
dncdt=ntkvt(v)ft(v)dv-nckvc(v)fc(v)dv+kth.
nceq=nKtKt+Kc+kth,
Ki=kvifi(v)dv(i=t, c).
dIv(v)dx=-nεt(v)Iv(v)+nKt[εt(v)-εc(v)]Iv(v)Kt+Kc+kth,

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