Abstract

Absorption spectra of cold Cs atoms in a magneto-optical trap under the influence of a strong external pump laser field with arbitrary detuning and intensity have been systematically investigated. The spectra featured the Rabi sidebands of each transition, and their behavior was nicely fitted by the dressed-atom theory. A pronounced dispersion-type profile with sub-natural linewidth at the pump frequency may be attributable to the stimulated Raman process by sublevels that are lightshifted and optically pumped by the pump laser.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. E. L. Raab, M. Prentiss, A. Cable, S. Chu, and D. E. Pritchard, “Trapping of neutral atoms with radiation pressure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2631–2634 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. D. Grison, B. Lounis, C. Salomon, J. Y. Courtois, and G. Grynberg, “Raman spectroscopy of cesium atoms in a laser trap,” Europhys. Lett. 15, 149–154 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. W. R. Tabosa, G. Chen, Z. Hu, R. B. Lee, and H. J. Kimble, “Nonlinear spectroscopy of cold atoms in a spontaneous-force optical trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 3245–3248 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. L. Hilico, C. Fabre, and E. Giacobino, “Operation of a ‘cold-atom laser’ in a magneto-optical trap,” Europhys. Lett. 18, 685–688 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. Cohen-Tannoudji, J. Dupont-Roc, and G. Grynberg, Atom-Photon Interactions (Wiley, New York, 1992), Chap. 6.
  6. B. R. Mollow, “Stimulated emission and absorption near resonance for driven systems,” Phys. Rev. A 5, 2217–2222 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  7. F. Y. Wu, S. Ezekiel, M. Ducloy, and B. R. Mollow, “Observation of amplification in a strongly driven two-level atomic system at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1077–1080 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  8. When Bloch equations are solved for a strong pump beam and a weak probe beam,9 or in a more elaborate treatment as in Ref. 10, a small dispersion-type structure appears at Δ=0. In Fig. 4 we simply neglect this structure. In fact, as we see below, the stimulated Raman contribution is dominant compared with this structure.
  9. P. Meystre and M. Sargent, Elements of Quantum Optics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1991), p. 255.
  10. G. Grynberg and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, “Central resonance of the Mollow absorption spectrum: physical origin of gain without population inversion,” Opt. Commun. 96, 150–163 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. H. Autler and C. H. Townes, “Stark effect in rapidly varying fields,” Phys. Rev. 100, 703–722 (1955).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. W. Fox, S. L. Gilbert, L. Hollberg, J. H. Marquardt, and H. G. Robinson, “Optical probing of cold trapped atoms,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1456–1458 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. P. Verkerk, B. Lounis, C. Salomon, C. Cohen-Tannoudji, J.-Y. Courtois, and G. Grynberg, “Dynamics and spatial order of cold cesium atoms in a periodic optical potential,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3861–3864 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. A. Hemmerich and T. W. Hänsch, “Two-dimensional atomic crystal bound by light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 410–413 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J.-Y. Courtois, G. Grynberg, B. Lounis, and P. Verkerk, “Recoil-induced resonances in cesium: an atomic analog to the free-electron laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3017–3020 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. P. R. Berman, B. Dubetsky, and J. Guo, “Recoil-induced resonances in a pump-probe spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 3947–3958 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

P. R. Berman, B. Dubetsky, and J. Guo, “Recoil-induced resonances in a pump-probe spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 3947–3958 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

J.-Y. Courtois, G. Grynberg, B. Lounis, and P. Verkerk, “Recoil-induced resonances in cesium: an atomic analog to the free-electron laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3017–3020 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (3)

A. Hemmerich and T. W. Hänsch, “Two-dimensional atomic crystal bound by light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 410–413 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. W. Fox, S. L. Gilbert, L. Hollberg, J. H. Marquardt, and H. G. Robinson, “Optical probing of cold trapped atoms,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1456–1458 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Grynberg and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, “Central resonance of the Mollow absorption spectrum: physical origin of gain without population inversion,” Opt. Commun. 96, 150–163 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

L. Hilico, C. Fabre, and E. Giacobino, “Operation of a ‘cold-atom laser’ in a magneto-optical trap,” Europhys. Lett. 18, 685–688 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P. Verkerk, B. Lounis, C. Salomon, C. Cohen-Tannoudji, J.-Y. Courtois, and G. Grynberg, “Dynamics and spatial order of cold cesium atoms in a periodic optical potential,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3861–3864 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (2)

D. Grison, B. Lounis, C. Salomon, J. Y. Courtois, and G. Grynberg, “Raman spectroscopy of cesium atoms in a laser trap,” Europhys. Lett. 15, 149–154 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. W. R. Tabosa, G. Chen, Z. Hu, R. B. Lee, and H. J. Kimble, “Nonlinear spectroscopy of cold atoms in a spontaneous-force optical trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 3245–3248 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

E. L. Raab, M. Prentiss, A. Cable, S. Chu, and D. E. Pritchard, “Trapping of neutral atoms with radiation pressure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2631–2634 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1977 (1)

F. Y. Wu, S. Ezekiel, M. Ducloy, and B. R. Mollow, “Observation of amplification in a strongly driven two-level atomic system at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1077–1080 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

B. R. Mollow, “Stimulated emission and absorption near resonance for driven systems,” Phys. Rev. A 5, 2217–2222 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1955 (1)

S. H. Autler and C. H. Townes, “Stark effect in rapidly varying fields,” Phys. Rev. 100, 703–722 (1955).
[CrossRef]

Autler, S. H.

S. H. Autler and C. H. Townes, “Stark effect in rapidly varying fields,” Phys. Rev. 100, 703–722 (1955).
[CrossRef]

Berman, P. R.

P. R. Berman, B. Dubetsky, and J. Guo, “Recoil-induced resonances in a pump-probe spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 3947–3958 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cable, A.

E. L. Raab, M. Prentiss, A. Cable, S. Chu, and D. E. Pritchard, “Trapping of neutral atoms with radiation pressure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2631–2634 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, G.

J. W. R. Tabosa, G. Chen, Z. Hu, R. B. Lee, and H. J. Kimble, “Nonlinear spectroscopy of cold atoms in a spontaneous-force optical trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 3245–3248 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chu, S.

E. L. Raab, M. Prentiss, A. Cable, S. Chu, and D. E. Pritchard, “Trapping of neutral atoms with radiation pressure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2631–2634 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cohen-Tannoudji, C.

G. Grynberg and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, “Central resonance of the Mollow absorption spectrum: physical origin of gain without population inversion,” Opt. Commun. 96, 150–163 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. Verkerk, B. Lounis, C. Salomon, C. Cohen-Tannoudji, J.-Y. Courtois, and G. Grynberg, “Dynamics and spatial order of cold cesium atoms in a periodic optical potential,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3861–3864 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Cohen-Tannoudji, J. Dupont-Roc, and G. Grynberg, Atom-Photon Interactions (Wiley, New York, 1992), Chap. 6.

Courtois, J. Y.

D. Grison, B. Lounis, C. Salomon, J. Y. Courtois, and G. Grynberg, “Raman spectroscopy of cesium atoms in a laser trap,” Europhys. Lett. 15, 149–154 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Courtois, J.-Y.

J.-Y. Courtois, G. Grynberg, B. Lounis, and P. Verkerk, “Recoil-induced resonances in cesium: an atomic analog to the free-electron laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3017–3020 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Verkerk, B. Lounis, C. Salomon, C. Cohen-Tannoudji, J.-Y. Courtois, and G. Grynberg, “Dynamics and spatial order of cold cesium atoms in a periodic optical potential,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3861–3864 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dubetsky, B.

P. R. Berman, B. Dubetsky, and J. Guo, “Recoil-induced resonances in a pump-probe spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 3947–3958 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ducloy, M.

F. Y. Wu, S. Ezekiel, M. Ducloy, and B. R. Mollow, “Observation of amplification in a strongly driven two-level atomic system at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1077–1080 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Dupont-Roc, J.

C. Cohen-Tannoudji, J. Dupont-Roc, and G. Grynberg, Atom-Photon Interactions (Wiley, New York, 1992), Chap. 6.

Ezekiel, S.

F. Y. Wu, S. Ezekiel, M. Ducloy, and B. R. Mollow, “Observation of amplification in a strongly driven two-level atomic system at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1077–1080 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Fabre, C.

L. Hilico, C. Fabre, and E. Giacobino, “Operation of a ‘cold-atom laser’ in a magneto-optical trap,” Europhys. Lett. 18, 685–688 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Fox, R. W.

Giacobino, E.

L. Hilico, C. Fabre, and E. Giacobino, “Operation of a ‘cold-atom laser’ in a magneto-optical trap,” Europhys. Lett. 18, 685–688 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gilbert, S. L.

Grison, D.

D. Grison, B. Lounis, C. Salomon, J. Y. Courtois, and G. Grynberg, “Raman spectroscopy of cesium atoms in a laser trap,” Europhys. Lett. 15, 149–154 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Grynberg, G.

J.-Y. Courtois, G. Grynberg, B. Lounis, and P. Verkerk, “Recoil-induced resonances in cesium: an atomic analog to the free-electron laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3017–3020 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Grynberg and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, “Central resonance of the Mollow absorption spectrum: physical origin of gain without population inversion,” Opt. Commun. 96, 150–163 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. Verkerk, B. Lounis, C. Salomon, C. Cohen-Tannoudji, J.-Y. Courtois, and G. Grynberg, “Dynamics and spatial order of cold cesium atoms in a periodic optical potential,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3861–3864 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Grison, B. Lounis, C. Salomon, J. Y. Courtois, and G. Grynberg, “Raman spectroscopy of cesium atoms in a laser trap,” Europhys. Lett. 15, 149–154 (1991).
[CrossRef]

C. Cohen-Tannoudji, J. Dupont-Roc, and G. Grynberg, Atom-Photon Interactions (Wiley, New York, 1992), Chap. 6.

Guo, J.

P. R. Berman, B. Dubetsky, and J. Guo, “Recoil-induced resonances in a pump-probe spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 3947–3958 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hänsch, T. W.

A. Hemmerich and T. W. Hänsch, “Two-dimensional atomic crystal bound by light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 410–413 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hemmerich, A.

A. Hemmerich and T. W. Hänsch, “Two-dimensional atomic crystal bound by light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 410–413 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hilico, L.

L. Hilico, C. Fabre, and E. Giacobino, “Operation of a ‘cold-atom laser’ in a magneto-optical trap,” Europhys. Lett. 18, 685–688 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hollberg, L.

Hu, Z.

J. W. R. Tabosa, G. Chen, Z. Hu, R. B. Lee, and H. J. Kimble, “Nonlinear spectroscopy of cold atoms in a spontaneous-force optical trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 3245–3248 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kimble, H. J.

J. W. R. Tabosa, G. Chen, Z. Hu, R. B. Lee, and H. J. Kimble, “Nonlinear spectroscopy of cold atoms in a spontaneous-force optical trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 3245–3248 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, R. B.

J. W. R. Tabosa, G. Chen, Z. Hu, R. B. Lee, and H. J. Kimble, “Nonlinear spectroscopy of cold atoms in a spontaneous-force optical trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 3245–3248 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lounis, B.

J.-Y. Courtois, G. Grynberg, B. Lounis, and P. Verkerk, “Recoil-induced resonances in cesium: an atomic analog to the free-electron laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3017–3020 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Verkerk, B. Lounis, C. Salomon, C. Cohen-Tannoudji, J.-Y. Courtois, and G. Grynberg, “Dynamics and spatial order of cold cesium atoms in a periodic optical potential,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3861–3864 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Grison, B. Lounis, C. Salomon, J. Y. Courtois, and G. Grynberg, “Raman spectroscopy of cesium atoms in a laser trap,” Europhys. Lett. 15, 149–154 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Marquardt, J. H.

Meystre, P.

P. Meystre and M. Sargent, Elements of Quantum Optics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1991), p. 255.

Mollow, B. R.

F. Y. Wu, S. Ezekiel, M. Ducloy, and B. R. Mollow, “Observation of amplification in a strongly driven two-level atomic system at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1077–1080 (1977).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Mollow, “Stimulated emission and absorption near resonance for driven systems,” Phys. Rev. A 5, 2217–2222 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Prentiss, M.

E. L. Raab, M. Prentiss, A. Cable, S. Chu, and D. E. Pritchard, “Trapping of neutral atoms with radiation pressure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2631–2634 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pritchard, D. E.

E. L. Raab, M. Prentiss, A. Cable, S. Chu, and D. E. Pritchard, “Trapping of neutral atoms with radiation pressure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2631–2634 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raab, E. L.

E. L. Raab, M. Prentiss, A. Cable, S. Chu, and D. E. Pritchard, “Trapping of neutral atoms with radiation pressure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2631–2634 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robinson, H. G.

Salomon, C.

P. Verkerk, B. Lounis, C. Salomon, C. Cohen-Tannoudji, J.-Y. Courtois, and G. Grynberg, “Dynamics and spatial order of cold cesium atoms in a periodic optical potential,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3861–3864 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Grison, B. Lounis, C. Salomon, J. Y. Courtois, and G. Grynberg, “Raman spectroscopy of cesium atoms in a laser trap,” Europhys. Lett. 15, 149–154 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sargent, M.

P. Meystre and M. Sargent, Elements of Quantum Optics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1991), p. 255.

Tabosa, J. W. R.

J. W. R. Tabosa, G. Chen, Z. Hu, R. B. Lee, and H. J. Kimble, “Nonlinear spectroscopy of cold atoms in a spontaneous-force optical trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 3245–3248 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Townes, C. H.

S. H. Autler and C. H. Townes, “Stark effect in rapidly varying fields,” Phys. Rev. 100, 703–722 (1955).
[CrossRef]

Verkerk, P.

J.-Y. Courtois, G. Grynberg, B. Lounis, and P. Verkerk, “Recoil-induced resonances in cesium: an atomic analog to the free-electron laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3017–3020 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Verkerk, B. Lounis, C. Salomon, C. Cohen-Tannoudji, J.-Y. Courtois, and G. Grynberg, “Dynamics and spatial order of cold cesium atoms in a periodic optical potential,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3861–3864 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, F. Y.

F. Y. Wu, S. Ezekiel, M. Ducloy, and B. R. Mollow, “Observation of amplification in a strongly driven two-level atomic system at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1077–1080 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Europhys. Lett. (2)

D. Grison, B. Lounis, C. Salomon, J. Y. Courtois, and G. Grynberg, “Raman spectroscopy of cesium atoms in a laser trap,” Europhys. Lett. 15, 149–154 (1991).
[CrossRef]

L. Hilico, C. Fabre, and E. Giacobino, “Operation of a ‘cold-atom laser’ in a magneto-optical trap,” Europhys. Lett. 18, 685–688 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

G. Grynberg and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, “Central resonance of the Mollow absorption spectrum: physical origin of gain without population inversion,” Opt. Commun. 96, 150–163 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. (1)

S. H. Autler and C. H. Townes, “Stark effect in rapidly varying fields,” Phys. Rev. 100, 703–722 (1955).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (2)

P. R. Berman, B. Dubetsky, and J. Guo, “Recoil-induced resonances in a pump-probe spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 3947–3958 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. Mollow, “Stimulated emission and absorption near resonance for driven systems,” Phys. Rev. A 5, 2217–2222 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (6)

F. Y. Wu, S. Ezekiel, M. Ducloy, and B. R. Mollow, “Observation of amplification in a strongly driven two-level atomic system at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1077–1080 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. W. R. Tabosa, G. Chen, Z. Hu, R. B. Lee, and H. J. Kimble, “Nonlinear spectroscopy of cold atoms in a spontaneous-force optical trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 3245–3248 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. L. Raab, M. Prentiss, A. Cable, S. Chu, and D. E. Pritchard, “Trapping of neutral atoms with radiation pressure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2631–2634 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Verkerk, B. Lounis, C. Salomon, C. Cohen-Tannoudji, J.-Y. Courtois, and G. Grynberg, “Dynamics and spatial order of cold cesium atoms in a periodic optical potential,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3861–3864 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Hemmerich and T. W. Hänsch, “Two-dimensional atomic crystal bound by light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 410–413 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-Y. Courtois, G. Grynberg, B. Lounis, and P. Verkerk, “Recoil-induced resonances in cesium: an atomic analog to the free-electron laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3017–3020 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

C. Cohen-Tannoudji, J. Dupont-Roc, and G. Grynberg, Atom-Photon Interactions (Wiley, New York, 1992), Chap. 6.

When Bloch equations are solved for a strong pump beam and a weak probe beam,9 or in a more elaborate treatment as in Ref. 10, a small dispersion-type structure appears at Δ=0. In Fig. 4 we simply neglect this structure. In fact, as we see below, the stimulated Raman contribution is dominant compared with this structure.

P. Meystre and M. Sargent, Elements of Quantum Optics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1991), p. 255.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Probe absorption spectra of cold Cs atoms dressed by cooling laser photons for the F=4F=3, 4, 5 transitions. Cooling laser detuning Δ is indicated by the arrows at Δ/2π=-16 MHz. The dashed lines indicate the absorption frequencies (ω3/2π=-455.2 MHz, ω4/2π=-252.6 MHz, and ω5=0) for the bare atoms.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Timing sequence and schematic of the experimental system; P.D., photodetector. A, Cooling–trapping period when atoms are exposed to three counterpropagating cooling beams; B, pump–probe period when dressed-atom spectroscopy is carried out.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Energy levels of Cs atoms dressed by the pump laser for Ω=0 and Ω0 when Δ<0. When Δ>0, the |g, n level and the |e5, n-1 level switch positions.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Three-dimensional plot of numerical simulation of probe absorption spectra dressed by the pump laser photons based on the formula of Table 1. The Rabi frequency is Ω=50 MHz.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimental (lower) and best-fit theoretical (upper) probe absorption spectra of cold Cs atoms dressed by pump-laser photons. Pump-laser detuning Δ is indicated by the arrow at Δ/2π=-34.8 MHz. The dotted lines indicate the absorption frequencies for the bare atoms.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Probe absorption spectra of cold Cs atoms. Top trace: bare-atom case (no pump beam). Lower five traces: spectra with various detunings Δ. (b) Plot of peak positions in absorption spectra for various detuning parameters Δ. The solid curves are theoretical results with fitting parameter Ω/2π=55 MHz. Open circles, gain; filled diamonds, squares, and circles, absorption of L3±, L4±, and L5± lines, respectively.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Probe absorption spectra of cold Cs atoms for the F=3F=2, 3, 4 transitions with various pump detunings Δ.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Line Positions (Peak Frequencies), Peak Heights, and Line Widths of Rabi Sidebands in Cs F=4F=3, 4, 5 (L3±, L4± and L5±) Transitions for Negative Detuning Δ < 0 Based on Dressed-Atom Theorya

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