Abstract

Thomas Young’s slit experiment lies at the heart of classical interference and quantum mechanics. Over the last 50 years, it has been shown that particles (e.g., photons, electrons, large molecules), even individual particles, generate an interference pattern at a distant screen after passage through a double slit, thereby demonstrating wave-particle duality. We revisit this famous experiment by replacing both slits with single-mode fiber inputs to two independent quantum memories that are capable of storing the incident electromagnetic field’s amplitude and phase as a function of time. At a later time, the action is reversed: the quantum memories are read out in synchrony, and the single-mode fiber outputs are allowed to interact, consistent with the original observation. In contrast to any classical memory device, the write and read processes of a quantum memory are non-destructive and hence preserve the photonic quantum states. In principle, with sufficiently long storage times and sufficiently high photonic storage capacity, quantum memories operating at widely separated telescopes can be brought together to achieve optical interferometry over arbitrarily long baselines.

© 2021 Optical Society of America

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2021 (2)

Y.-A. Chen, Q. Zhang, T.-Y. Chen, W.-Q. Cai, S.-K. Liao, J. Zhang, K. Chen, J. Yin, J.-G. Ren, Z. Chen, S.-L. Han, Q. Yu, K. Liang, F. Zhou, X. Yuan, M.-S. Zhao, T.-Y. Wang, X. Jiang, L. Zhang, W.-Y. Liu, Y. Li, Q. Shen, Y. Cao, C.-Y. Lu, R. Shu, J.-Y. Wang, L. Li, N.-L. Liu, F. Xu, X.-B. Wang, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “An integrated space-to-ground quantum communication network over 4,600 kilometres,” Nature 589, 214–219 (2021).
[Crossref]

Y. Ma, Y.-Z. Ma, Z.-Q. Zhou, C.-F. Li, and G.-C. Guo, “One-hour coherent optical storage in an atomic frequency comb memory,” Nat. Commun. 12, 2381 (2021).
[Crossref]

2020 (3)

C. Lupo, Z. Huang, and P. Kok, “Quantum limits to incoherent imaging are achieved by linear interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 124, 080503 (2020).
[Crossref]

W. Li, P. Islam, and P. Windpassinger, “Controlled transport of stored light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 125, 150501 (2020).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, N. Galland, N. Lučić, R. Le Targat, A. Ferrier, P. Goldner, B. Fang, Y. Le Coq, and S. Seidelin, “Inhomogeneous response of an ion ensemble from mechanical stress,” Phys. Rev. Res. 2, 013306 (2020).
[Crossref]

2019 (5)

B. Norris and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Astrophotonics: the rise of integrated photonics in astronomy,” Opt. Photon. News 30(5), 26–33 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, J. Li, S. Zhang, K. Su, Y. Zhou, K. Liao, S. Du, H. Yan, and S. L. Zhu, “Efficient quantum memory for single-photon polarization qubits,” Nat. Photonics 13, 346–351 (2019).
[Crossref]

Event Horizon Telescope Collaboration, “First M87 event horizon telescope results. I. The shadow of the supermassive black hole,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 875, L1 (2019).
[Crossref]

E. T. Khabiboulline, J. Borregaard, K. De Greve, and M. D. Lukin, “Quantum-assisted telescope arrays,” Phys. Rev. A 100, 022316 (2019).
[Crossref]

E. T. Khabiboulline, J. Borregaard, K. De Greve, and M. D. Lukin, “Optical interferometry with quantum networks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 123, 070504 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (2)

P. Kaufmann, T. F. Gloger, D. Kaufmann, M. Johanning, and C. Wunderlich, “High-fidelity preservation of quantum information during trapped-ion transport,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 010501 (2018).
[Crossref]

T.-S. Yang, Z.-Q. Zhou, Y.-L. Hua, X. Liu, Z.-F. Li, Y. Ma, C. Liu, P.-J. Liang, X. Li, Y.-X. Xiao, J. Hu, C.-F. Li, and G.-C. Guo, “Multiplexed storage and real-time manipulation based on a multiple degree-of-freedom quantum memory,” Nat. Commun. 9, 3407 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (6)

T. Zhong, J. M. Kindem, J. G. Bartholomew, J. Rochman, I. Craiciu, E. Miyazono, M. Bettinelli, E. Cavalli, V. Verma, S. Nam, F. Marsili, M. Shaw, A. Beyer, and A. Faraon, “Nanophotonic rare-earth quantum memory with optically controlled retrieval,” Science 357, 1392–1395 (2017).
[Crossref]

N. Jovanovic, C. Schwab, O. Guyon, J. Lozi, N. Cvetojevic, F. Martinache, S. Leon-Saval, B. Norris, S. Gross, D. Doughty, T. Currie, and N. Takato, “Efficient injection from large telescopes into single-mode fibres: enabling the era of ultra-precision astronomy,” Astron. Astrophys. 604, A122 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Bland-Hawthorn and S. G. Leon-Saval, “Astrophotonics: molding the flow of light in astronomical instruments,” Opt. Express 25, 15549–15557 (2017).
[Crossref]

S.-K. Liao, W.-Q. Cai, W.-Y. Liu, L. Zhang, Y. Li, J.-G. Ren, J. Yin, Q. Shen, Y. Cao, Z.-P. Li, F.-Z. Li, X.-W. Chen, L.-H. Sun, J.-J. Jia, J.-C. Wu, X.-J. Jiang, J.-F. Wang, Y.-M. Huang, Q. Wang, Y.-L. Zhou, L. Deng, T. Xi, L. Ma, T. Hu, Q. Zhang, Y.-A. Chen, N.-L. Liu, X.-B. Wang, Z.-C. Zhu, C.-Y. Lu, R. Shu, C.-Z. Peng, J.-Y. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, “Satellite-to-ground quantum key distribution,” Nature 549, 43–47 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Cui, J. Su, X. Li, and Z. Y. Ou, “Distribution of entangled photon pairs over few-mode fibers,” Sci. Rep. 7, 14954 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Laplane, P. Jobez, J. Etesse, N. Gisin, and M. Afzelius, “Multimode and long-lived quantum correlations between photons and spins in a crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 210501 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (8)

P. Jobez, N. Timoney, C. Laplane, J. Etesse, A. Ferrier, P. Goldner, N. Gisin, and M. Afzelius, “Towards highly multimode optical quantum memory for quantum repeaters,” Phys. Rev. A 93, 032327 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Laplane, P. Jobez, J. Etesse, N. Timoney, N. Gisin, and M. Afzelius, “Multiplexed on-demand storage of polarization qubits in a crystal,” New J. Phys. 18, 013006 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. J. Devitt, A. D. Greentree, A. M. Stephens, and R. Van Meter, “High-speed quantum networking by ship,” Sci. Rep. 6, 36163 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Heshami, D. G. England, P. C. Humphreys, P. J. Bustard, V. M. Acosta, J. Nunn, and B. J. Sussman, “Quantum memories: emerging applications and recent advances,” J. Mod. Opt. 63, 2005–2028 (2016).
[Crossref]

LIGO Scientific Collaboration, and Virgo Collaboration, “Observation of gravitational waves from a binary black hole merger,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 61102 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Arcangeli, A. Ferrier, and P. Goldner, “Stark echo modulation for quantum memories,” Phys. Rev. A 93, 062303 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. L. Ahlefeldt, M. R. Hush, and M. J. Sellars, “Ultranarrow optical inhomogeneous linewidth in a stoichiometric rare-earth crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 250504 (2016).
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2015 (6)

M. Afzelius, N. Gisin, and H. De Riedmatten, “Quantum memory for photons,” Phys. Today 68(12), 42 (2015).
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2014 (2)

P. Jobez, I. Usmani, N. Timoney, C. Laplane, N. Gisin, and M. Afzelius, “Cavity-enhanced storage in an optical spin-wave memory,” New J. Phys. 16, 083005 (2014).
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2013 (5)

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2012 (5)

C. Clausen, F. Bussières, M. Afzelius, and N. Gisin, “Quantum storage of heralded polarization qubits in birefringent and anisotropically absorbing materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 190503 (2012).
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2011 (5)

M. J. Thorpe, L. Rippe, T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, and T. Rosenband, “Frequency stabilization to 6×10-16 via spectral-hole burning,” Nat. Photonics 5, 688–693 (2011).
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2010 (2)

M. P. Hedges, J. J. Longdell, Y. Li, and M. J. Sellars, “Efficient quantum memory for light,” Nature 465, 1052–1056 (2010).
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2009 (5)

A. I. Lvovsky, B. C. Sanders, and W. Tittel, “Optical quantum memory,” Nat. Photonics 3, 706–714 (2009).
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2008 (1)

J. J. Longdell, G. Hétet, P. K. Lam, and M. J. Sellars, “Analytic treatment of controlled reversible inhomogeneous broadening quantum memories for light using two-level atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 032337 (2008).
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2006 (1)

H. Walther, B. T. H. Varcoe, B.-G. Englert, and T. Becker, “Cavity quantum electrodynamics,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 69, 1325–1382 (2006).
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2005 (2)

T. Chanelière, D. N. Matsukevich, S. D. Jenkins, S.-Y. Lan, T. A. B. Kennedy, and A. Kuzmich, “Storage and retrieval of single photons transmitted between remote quantum memories,” Nature 438, 833–836 (2005).
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2003 (2)

J. D. Monnier, “Optical interferometry in astronomy,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 789–857 (2003).
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Data Availability

Data underlying the results presented in this paper are not publicly available at this time but may be obtained from the authors upon reasonable request.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Conventional Young’s double slit experiment illustrating how a coherent source generates an interferogram at a distant screen, assuming the slits are diffraction limited. The line trace is the amplitude of the electric field. (b) To illustrate our new concept, the same experiment is now split into two parts. Two single-mode fibers act as the double slit and direct photonic states to be written into independent quantum memories (QMs). The ellipses represent time passing ($\delta$T), after which the photonic data stored in the QMs are read out into single-mode fibers, and their well-aligned outputs are allowed to interfere. The interferogram is recovered for which every detected photon arises from a superposition of information stored in both QMs.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. When QMs are employed at two or more distributed identical telescopes, it is possible to reconstruct (left) the diffraction-limited response of a single telescope with diameter D and (right) the diffraction-limited response of each baseline, B, where ${\rm{B}} \gg {\rm{D}}$.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Optical VLBI enabled by QHDs. (a) Two terrestrial telescopes separated by some baseline collect light from a source (Fig. 2), with ${\phi _{\textit{Ai}}}$ and ${\phi _{\textit{Bi}}}$ representing path dependent phase shifts during the different processes. Following the signal capture and routing into single-mode fibers at each telescope, the signal is prefiltered with a series of narrow spectral bandpass filters (BPFs) and written onto a QHD (see text and Fig. 5 for further details). Accurate clocking is needed to synchronize the QHD exposure periods and to track their relative phase evolutions. Once the writing process is completed, the QHDs are transported (feasibly of the order of 100 km) to a third site for data processing. The preserved photonic signals are read out and combined, in this case to produce a spatial interferogram. (b) Conceptual framework for the QHD based on long-term storage of light on the internal energy levels of atoms embedded in crystals. A jukebox mechanism sequentially loads disks into an optical cavity. The signal from the telescope is coupled to the cavity, allowing the photons to be absorbed by the atomic ensemble in the active voxel through a collective coherent interaction. The active voxel is controlled by rastering the cavity waist relative to the disk, allowing a large number of photons to be stored across the spatial degree of freedom. The 20-disk jukebox as shown contains $2 \times {10^7}$ voxels and could store up to $2 \times {10^{10}}$ optical modes under our current assumptions. To enable the data to be written, stored, transported, and read out, the QHD must be maintained at a stable temperature of ${\sim}2 {\rm{K}}$, with a precisely aligned orientation relative to a static external magnetic field, and be controlled using pulsed radio frequency signals. The pictured configuration would have a polarization-dependent storage efficiency because absorption is anisotropic in ${{\rm{Eu}}^{3 +}}{:}{\rm{YSO}}$. A simple extension that makes use of two perpendicular crystal orientations in a single disk [21] would allow storage of arbitrary polarization states.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Schematic diagram of a ${{\rm{Eu}}^{3 +}}{:}{\rm{YSO}}$ crystal coupled to a high-$Q$ optical cavity. A specific voxel can be addressed for the read/write operation with the aid of one or more address lasers (dashed lines). Direct write of a photon’s quantum state into a voxel with a single laser path is possible (solid line), but the operation is far more efficient if the voxel resides within an optical cavity (shown by the triangle) at the time of the read/write operation. Two mirrors are highly reflective, but the third mirror on the read/write path is partially reflective; this mirror admits the photon if it couples to the cavity mode. The coherent interaction between the cavity mode and the atoms within the voxel allow for light to be transferred to an atomic excitation with near-unity efficiency [44] (see Section 3.C).
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Writing, storing, and reading photons into an atomic QHD. (a) The $^7{{\rm{F}}_0}{\leftrightarrow ^5}{{\rm{D}}_0}$ optical transition of ${{\rm{Eu}}^{3 +}}{:}{\rm{YSO}}$ has an inhomogeneous linewidth of order 10 GHz. Within this 10 GHz band, it is possible to identify ${n_{{\rm{band}}}} \approx 10$ bands of atoms that have no overlap in their optical transitions. We set the bandwidth of each absorption band to be 5 MHz. This provides a total 50 MHz bandwidth for storage. (b) The optical transition from $|g\rangle$ to $|e\rangle$ is chosen to store signal photons from the telescope. Following the cavity-assisted absorption of photons, a control pulse maps the generated atomic coherence to the nuclear spin transition $|g\rangle \leftrightarrow |s\rangle$ for long-term storage. To preserve the quantum superposition on hour-long time scales, radio frequency ($\approx 10 \;{\rm{MHz}}$) spin control pulses are needed to rephase slow spectral diffusion. (c) Example QHD pulse sequence discussed in the text. A series of RF inversion pulses with different phases [Knill dynamic decoupling (${{\rm{KDD}}_{\rm{x}}}$)] are used to preserve an arbitrary quantum state encoded on the nuclear spin transition. The pulses are separated by time $\tau$, and we assume 1000 voxels can be written for a time $\tau /2 = 50 \;{\rm{ms}}$ every five-pulse sequence. The writing procedure uses a previously initialized voxel (e.g., disks can be initialized through optical pumping before being loaded into the optical cavity) and exposes for ${T_{{\rm{expose}}}}$. An optical rephasing pulse is applied, and the exposure time is rephased but under conditions where the optical echoes are suppressed (silenced). The ensemble coherence is then mapped to the nuclear spin clock transition for long-term storage with an optical control pulse. The readout proceeds similarly. A control pulse maps the nuclear spin coherence back to the optical transition, which is then rephased by a second rephasing pulse. The ${T_{{\rm{expose}}}}$-long time window is then rephased under conditions that generate coherent emission back into the cavity. As shown, the timing of the readout is matched to the writing process such that 1000 voxels can be read in $\tau /2$.

Equations (5)

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|ψ(t)=j=1Nα(rj,δj)ei(krjδjt)βt|g1ejgN,
|ψ(t)=j=1Nα(rj,δj)ei(krj)βt|g1ejgN.
β=1T1,o,
NEu=nYfsitefspecCV,
SNR=MNγN+γ2,

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