David H. Brainard and Brian A. Wandell, "Asymmetric color matching: how color appearance depends on the illuminant," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 1433-1448 (1992)

We report the results of matching experiments designed to study the color appearance of objects rendered under different simulated illuminants on a CRT monitor. Subjects set asymmetric color matches between a standard object and a test object that were rendered under illuminants with different spectral power distributions. For any illuminant change, we found that the mapping between the cone coordinates of matching standard and test objects was well approximated by a diagonal linear transformation. In this sense, our results are consistent with von Kries’s hypothesis {
Handb. Physiol. Menschen 3,
109 (
1905) [
in
Sources of Color Vision,
D. L. MacAdam, ed. (
MIT Press,
Cambridge, Mass.,
1970)]}that adaptation simply changes the relative sensitivity of the different cone classes. In addition, we examined the dependence of the diagonal transformation on the illuminant change. For the range of illuminants tested, we found that the change in the diagonal elements of the linear transformation was a linear function of the illuminant change.

David H. Brainard, Wendy A. Brunt, and Jon M. Speigle J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14(9) 2091-2110 (1997)

References

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Each of our illuminants is specified by its CIE x and y chromaticity coordinates and luminance in candelas per square meter. Also given are the weights that are used to construct the illuminant as a linear combination of the published mean and first characteristic vector of Judd et al.8 The units of the resulting spectral power distributions are milliwatts per square centimeter nanometer steradian.

Each row specifies the results for one experimental condition. The standard object and test illuminant designators refer to Tables 1 and 2.

Table 4

Parameters of the Diagonal Model That Best Fits the Data^{a}

Diagonal Matrix Number

L Cone Entry

M Cone Entry

S Cone Entry

1

8.76 × 10^{6}

9.10 × 10^{6}

1.12 × 10^{7}

2

3.92 × 10^{5}

7.51 × 10^{5}

2.64 × 10^{6}

Each row provides the diagonal elements for one of the two diagonal matrices T_{i} that are required for specification of the parameters of the diagonal model. For any illuminant change, these two matrices should be combined according to Eq. (A2) to produce the diagonal matrix that predicts the match changes. For each illuminant change the appropriate values of Δe_{1} and Δe_{2} may be found by subtracting the standard and the test illuminant linear model weights given in Table 2. For our entire data set, the rms prediction error (in cone coordinates) of this diagonal model is 0.235.

Each of our illuminants is specified by its CIE x and y chromaticity coordinates and luminance in candelas per square meter. Also given are the weights that are used to construct the illuminant as a linear combination of the published mean and first characteristic vector of Judd et al.8 The units of the resulting spectral power distributions are milliwatts per square centimeter nanometer steradian.

Each row specifies the results for one experimental condition. The standard object and test illuminant designators refer to Tables 1 and 2.

Table 4

Parameters of the Diagonal Model That Best Fits the Data^{a}

Diagonal Matrix Number

L Cone Entry

M Cone Entry

S Cone Entry

1

8.76 × 10^{6}

9.10 × 10^{6}

1.12 × 10^{7}

2

3.92 × 10^{5}

7.51 × 10^{5}

2.64 × 10^{6}

Each row provides the diagonal elements for one of the two diagonal matrices T_{i} that are required for specification of the parameters of the diagonal model. For any illuminant change, these two matrices should be combined according to Eq. (A2) to produce the diagonal matrix that predicts the match changes. For each illuminant change the appropriate values of Δe_{1} and Δe_{2} may be found by subtracting the standard and the test illuminant linear model weights given in Table 2. For our entire data set, the rms prediction error (in cone coordinates) of this diagonal model is 0.235.