Abstract

Various holographic methods for imaging through scattering media such as biological tissue are described. The methods utilize light of either reduced spatial coherence or reduced temporal coherence.

© 1992 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. E. N. Leith, J. Upatnieks, “Reconstructed wavefronts and communication theory,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 1123–1130 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  2. E. N. Leith, J. Upatnieks, “Holograms: their properties and uses,” SPIE J. 4, 3–6 (1965).
  3. H. Kogelnik, “Holographic image projection through inhomogeneous media,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 44, 2451–2455 (1965).
  4. K. A. Stetson, “Holographic fog penetration,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 1060–1061 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  5. E. Spitz, “Holographic reconstruction of objects through a diffusing medium in motion,”C. R. Acad. Sci. Ser. B 264, 1449–1452 (1967).
  6. A. W. Lohmann, C. A. Schmalfuss, “Holography through fog, a new version,” Opt. Commun. 26, 318–321 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  7. E. Leith, B. J. Chang, “Image formation with an achromatic interferometer,” Opt. Commun. 23, 217–219 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Tai, C. Alexoff, “Transmission of incoherent images through scattering media with a grating interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 6, 308–310 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. W. Goodman, W. H. Huntley, D. W. Jackson, M. Lehman, “Wave front reconstruction through random media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 8, 311–313 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. Chen, L. Shentu, “Achromatic interferometer for imaging through turbulence,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1274–1278 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. E. Leith, C.-P. Kuei, “Interferometric method for imaging through inhomogeneities,” Opt. Lett. 12, 149–151 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. A. Cunha, E. Leith, “Generalized one-way phase conjugation system,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 1803–1812 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. A. Duguay, A. T. Mattick, “Ultra-high-speed photography of picosecond light pulses and echoes,” Appl. Opt. 10, 2162–2170 (1971).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. K. M. Yoo, R. R. Alfano, “Time-resolved coherent and incoherent components of forward light scattering in random media,” Opt. Lett. 15, 320–322 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. L. Wang, P. P. Ho, C. Liu, G. Zhang, R. R. Alfano, “Ballistic 2-D imaging through scattering walls using an ultrafast optical Kerr gate,” Science 253, 769–771 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. K. M. Yoo, Q. Xing, R. R. Alfano, “Imaging objects hidden in highly scattering media using femtosecond second-harmonic-generation cross-correlation time gating,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1019–1021 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. K. M. Yoo, F. Liu, R. R. Alfano, “Imaging through a scattering wall using absorption,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1068–1070 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. J. C. Hebden, R. A. Kruger, “Transillumination imaging performance: time of flight imaging system,” Med. Phys. 17, 351–356 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. J. C. Hebden, R. A. Kruger, K. S. Wong, “Time resolved imaging through a highly scattering medium,” Appl. Opt. 30, 788–794 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. H. J. Gerritsen, “Holography and four wave mixing to see through the skin,” in Analog Optical Processing and Computing, H. J. Caulfield, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.519, 128–131 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  21. N. H. Abramson, K. G. Spears, “Single pulse light-in-flight recording by holography,” Appl. Opt. 28, 1834–1841 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. K. G. Spears, J. Serafin, N. Abramson, X. Zhu, H. Bjelkhagen, “Chrono-coherent imaging for medicine,”IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1210–1214 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. C. P. Henze, S. K. Case, “Polychromatic laser light source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 54, 1334–1337 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  24. H. Chen, Y. Chen, D. Dilworth, E. Leith, J. Lopez, J. Valdmanis, “Two-dimensional imaging through diffusing media using 150-fs gated electronic holography techniques,” Opt. Lett. 16, 487–489 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. D. Gorlitz, R. Lanzl, “Methods of zero-order noncoherent filtering,” Opt. Commun. 20, 68–72 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  26. A. Lohmann, “Incoherent optical processing of complex data,” Appl. Opt. 16, 261–263 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. W. T. Rhodes, “Bipolar point-spread function synthesis by phase switching,” Appl. Opt. 16, 265–267 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. A. W. Lohmann, W. T. Rhodes, “Two-pupil synthesis of optical transfer function,” Appl. Opt. 17, 1141–1151 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. W. Stoner, “Incoherent optical processing via spatially offset pupil masks,” Appl. Opt. 17, 2454–2467 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  30. See, for example, J. Chamberlain, The Principles of Interferometric Spectroscopy (Wiley, New York, 1979), pp. 305–306.

1992 (1)

1991 (5)

1990 (2)

J. C. Hebden, R. A. Kruger, “Transillumination imaging performance: time of flight imaging system,” Med. Phys. 17, 351–356 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Yoo, R. R. Alfano, “Time-resolved coherent and incoherent components of forward light scattering in random media,” Opt. Lett. 15, 320–322 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (3)

1987 (1)

1983 (1)

C. P. Henze, S. K. Case, “Polychromatic laser light source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 54, 1334–1337 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

1978 (3)

1977 (4)

W. T. Rhodes, “Bipolar point-spread function synthesis by phase switching,” Appl. Opt. 16, 265–267 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Leith, B. J. Chang, “Image formation with an achromatic interferometer,” Opt. Commun. 23, 217–219 (1977).
[CrossRef]

D. Gorlitz, R. Lanzl, “Methods of zero-order noncoherent filtering,” Opt. Commun. 20, 68–72 (1977).
[CrossRef]

A. Lohmann, “Incoherent optical processing of complex data,” Appl. Opt. 16, 261–263 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1971 (1)

1967 (2)

K. A. Stetson, “Holographic fog penetration,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 1060–1061 (1967).
[CrossRef]

E. Spitz, “Holographic reconstruction of objects through a diffusing medium in motion,”C. R. Acad. Sci. Ser. B 264, 1449–1452 (1967).

1966 (1)

J. W. Goodman, W. H. Huntley, D. W. Jackson, M. Lehman, “Wave front reconstruction through random media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 8, 311–313 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1965 (2)

E. N. Leith, J. Upatnieks, “Holograms: their properties and uses,” SPIE J. 4, 3–6 (1965).

H. Kogelnik, “Holographic image projection through inhomogeneous media,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 44, 2451–2455 (1965).

1962 (1)

Abramson, N.

K. G. Spears, J. Serafin, N. Abramson, X. Zhu, H. Bjelkhagen, “Chrono-coherent imaging for medicine,”IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1210–1214 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abramson, N. H.

Alexoff, C.

Alfano, R. R.

Bjelkhagen, H.

K. G. Spears, J. Serafin, N. Abramson, X. Zhu, H. Bjelkhagen, “Chrono-coherent imaging for medicine,”IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1210–1214 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Case, S. K.

C. P. Henze, S. K. Case, “Polychromatic laser light source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 54, 1334–1337 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Chamberlain, J.

See, for example, J. Chamberlain, The Principles of Interferometric Spectroscopy (Wiley, New York, 1979), pp. 305–306.

Chang, B. J.

E. Leith, B. J. Chang, “Image formation with an achromatic interferometer,” Opt. Commun. 23, 217–219 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

Chen, Y.

Cunha, A.

Dilworth, D.

Duguay, M. A.

Gerritsen, H. J.

H. J. Gerritsen, “Holography and four wave mixing to see through the skin,” in Analog Optical Processing and Computing, H. J. Caulfield, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.519, 128–131 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, W. H. Huntley, D. W. Jackson, M. Lehman, “Wave front reconstruction through random media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 8, 311–313 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Gorlitz, D.

D. Gorlitz, R. Lanzl, “Methods of zero-order noncoherent filtering,” Opt. Commun. 20, 68–72 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Hebden, J. C.

J. C. Hebden, R. A. Kruger, K. S. Wong, “Time resolved imaging through a highly scattering medium,” Appl. Opt. 30, 788–794 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Hebden, R. A. Kruger, “Transillumination imaging performance: time of flight imaging system,” Med. Phys. 17, 351–356 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Henze, C. P.

C. P. Henze, S. K. Case, “Polychromatic laser light source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 54, 1334–1337 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Ho, P. P.

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, C. Liu, G. Zhang, R. R. Alfano, “Ballistic 2-D imaging through scattering walls using an ultrafast optical Kerr gate,” Science 253, 769–771 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huntley, W. H.

J. W. Goodman, W. H. Huntley, D. W. Jackson, M. Lehman, “Wave front reconstruction through random media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 8, 311–313 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, D. W.

J. W. Goodman, W. H. Huntley, D. W. Jackson, M. Lehman, “Wave front reconstruction through random media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 8, 311–313 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Kogelnik, H.

H. Kogelnik, “Holographic image projection through inhomogeneous media,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 44, 2451–2455 (1965).

Kruger, R. A.

J. C. Hebden, R. A. Kruger, K. S. Wong, “Time resolved imaging through a highly scattering medium,” Appl. Opt. 30, 788–794 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Hebden, R. A. Kruger, “Transillumination imaging performance: time of flight imaging system,” Med. Phys. 17, 351–356 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuei, C.-P.

Lanzl, R.

D. Gorlitz, R. Lanzl, “Methods of zero-order noncoherent filtering,” Opt. Commun. 20, 68–72 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Lehman, M.

J. W. Goodman, W. H. Huntley, D. W. Jackson, M. Lehman, “Wave front reconstruction through random media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 8, 311–313 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Leith, E.

Leith, E. N.

E. N. Leith, J. Upatnieks, “Holograms: their properties and uses,” SPIE J. 4, 3–6 (1965).

E. N. Leith, J. Upatnieks, “Reconstructed wavefronts and communication theory,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 1123–1130 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C.

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, C. Liu, G. Zhang, R. R. Alfano, “Ballistic 2-D imaging through scattering walls using an ultrafast optical Kerr gate,” Science 253, 769–771 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, F.

Lohmann, A.

Lohmann, A. W.

A. W. Lohmann, W. T. Rhodes, “Two-pupil synthesis of optical transfer function,” Appl. Opt. 17, 1141–1151 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. W. Lohmann, C. A. Schmalfuss, “Holography through fog, a new version,” Opt. Commun. 26, 318–321 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Lopez, J.

Mattick, A. T.

Rhodes, W. T.

Schmalfuss, C. A.

A. W. Lohmann, C. A. Schmalfuss, “Holography through fog, a new version,” Opt. Commun. 26, 318–321 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Serafin, J.

K. G. Spears, J. Serafin, N. Abramson, X. Zhu, H. Bjelkhagen, “Chrono-coherent imaging for medicine,”IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1210–1214 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shentu, L.

Spears, K. G.

N. H. Abramson, K. G. Spears, “Single pulse light-in-flight recording by holography,” Appl. Opt. 28, 1834–1841 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. G. Spears, J. Serafin, N. Abramson, X. Zhu, H. Bjelkhagen, “Chrono-coherent imaging for medicine,”IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1210–1214 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spitz, E.

E. Spitz, “Holographic reconstruction of objects through a diffusing medium in motion,”C. R. Acad. Sci. Ser. B 264, 1449–1452 (1967).

Stetson, K. A.

Stoner, W.

Tai, A.

Upatnieks, J.

E. N. Leith, J. Upatnieks, “Holograms: their properties and uses,” SPIE J. 4, 3–6 (1965).

E. N. Leith, J. Upatnieks, “Reconstructed wavefronts and communication theory,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 1123–1130 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Valdmanis, J.

Wang, L.

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, C. Liu, G. Zhang, R. R. Alfano, “Ballistic 2-D imaging through scattering walls using an ultrafast optical Kerr gate,” Science 253, 769–771 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wong, K. S.

Xing, Q.

Yoo, K. M.

Zhang, G.

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, C. Liu, G. Zhang, R. R. Alfano, “Ballistic 2-D imaging through scattering walls using an ultrafast optical Kerr gate,” Science 253, 769–771 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, X.

K. G. Spears, J. Serafin, N. Abramson, X. Zhu, H. Bjelkhagen, “Chrono-coherent imaging for medicine,”IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1210–1214 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (8)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. W. Goodman, W. H. Huntley, D. W. Jackson, M. Lehman, “Wave front reconstruction through random media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 8, 311–313 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

H. Kogelnik, “Holographic image projection through inhomogeneous media,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 44, 2451–2455 (1965).

C. R. Acad. Sci. Ser. B (1)

E. Spitz, “Holographic reconstruction of objects through a diffusing medium in motion,”C. R. Acad. Sci. Ser. B 264, 1449–1452 (1967).

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (1)

K. G. Spears, J. Serafin, N. Abramson, X. Zhu, H. Bjelkhagen, “Chrono-coherent imaging for medicine,”IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1210–1214 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Med. Phys. (1)

J. C. Hebden, R. A. Kruger, “Transillumination imaging performance: time of flight imaging system,” Med. Phys. 17, 351–356 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (3)

A. W. Lohmann, C. A. Schmalfuss, “Holography through fog, a new version,” Opt. Commun. 26, 318–321 (1978).
[CrossRef]

E. Leith, B. J. Chang, “Image formation with an achromatic interferometer,” Opt. Commun. 23, 217–219 (1977).
[CrossRef]

D. Gorlitz, R. Lanzl, “Methods of zero-order noncoherent filtering,” Opt. Commun. 20, 68–72 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (6)

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

C. P. Henze, S. K. Case, “Polychromatic laser light source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 54, 1334–1337 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, C. Liu, G. Zhang, R. R. Alfano, “Ballistic 2-D imaging through scattering walls using an ultrafast optical Kerr gate,” Science 253, 769–771 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

SPIE J. (1)

E. N. Leith, J. Upatnieks, “Holograms: their properties and uses,” SPIE J. 4, 3–6 (1965).

Other (2)

H. J. Gerritsen, “Holography and four wave mixing to see through the skin,” in Analog Optical Processing and Computing, H. J. Caulfield, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.519, 128–131 (1984).
[CrossRef]

See, for example, J. Chamberlain, The Principles of Interferometric Spectroscopy (Wiley, New York, 1979), pp. 305–306.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

System for holography with a swept-frequency dye laser.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental results with 1-cm-thick chicken meat with bar pattern behind. Coherence lengths are (a) 600 fs, (b) 200 fs, (c) 67 fs.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

System for electronic holography.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental results of imaging 1- and 0.5-mm-diameter wires through 6 mm of chicken meat: (a) continuous wave, (b) swept frequency, one image, (c) swept frequency, 16 images integrated.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Interferometer for two-aperture synthesis used for imaging through scattering medium. S, source; G1, G2, G3, gratings used as beam splitters and combiners; D1, D2, diffusers; O, object; H, hologram.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Point-spread functions.

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

u t = a 1 ( x , y ) n ( t - t 1 ) + a 2 ( x , y ) n ( t - t 2 ) + exp ( i 2 π α x ) n ( t - t 0 ) ,
u t = a 1 ( x , y ) N ( f ) exp [ i 2 π f ( t 1 - t ) ] d f + a 2 ( x , y ) N ( f ) exp [ i 2 π f ( t 2 - t ) ] d f + exp ( i 2 π α x ) N ( f ) exp [ i 2 π f ( t 0 - t ) ] d f .
u h = a 1 ( x , y ) N ( f ) exp ( i 2 π f t 1 ) exp ( - i 2 π f t ) + a 2 ( x , y ) N ( f ) exp ( i 2 π f t 2 ) exp ( - i 2 π f t ) + N ( f ) exp ( i 2 π f t 0 ) exp ( - i 2 π f t ) exp ( i 2 π α x ) .
a 1 ( x , y ) N ( f ) 2 cos [ 2 π α x + 2 π f ( t 1 - t 0 ) ] + a 2 ( x , y ) N ( f ) 2 cos [ 2 π α x + 2 π f ( t 2 - t 0 ) ] .
a 1 ( x , y ) N ( f ) 2 cos ( 2 π α x ) + a 2 ( x , y ) N ( f ) 2 × cos [ 2 π α x + 2 π f ( t 2 - t 1 ) ] .
a 1 ( x , y ) N ( f ) 2 + a 2 ( x , y ) N ( f ) 2 exp [ i 2 π f ( t 2 - t 1 ) ] ,
Δ f N ( f ) 2 { a 1 ( x , y ) + a 2 ( x , y ) exp [ i 2 π f ( t 2 - t 1 ) ] } d f .
I im = a 1 ( x , y ) 2 Δ f N ( f ) 2 d f ,

Metrics