Abstract

The age-related losses in the sensitivity of a short-wave (S) cone mechanism were determined by measuring the threshold-versus-radiance (t.v.r.) functions for nine older (mean age, 71.0 years) and six younger (mean age, 24.4 years) subjects. Measurements were obtained for a 250-ms, 1.03°-diameter, 440-nm foveally viewed test light presented on 470-nm adapting fields and on a 570-nm auxiliary field. A comparison of t.v.r. functions revealed intensity-dependent sensitivity losses in the older group. By applying a quantitative model of an S-cone pathway to the t.v.r. data obtained from the older subjects, we found that the age-related changes in the ocular media and the receptor sensitivities can account for much but not all of the difference in the sensitivity of an S-cone mechanism demonstrated by eight of our nine older subjects.

© 1992 Optical Society of America

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    [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  36. W. S. Geisler, “Adaptation, afterimages and cone saturation,” Vis. Res. 18, 279–289 (1978).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  37. M. M. Hayhoe, N. I. Benimoff, D. C. Hood, “The time course of multiplicative and subtractive adaptation process,” Vis. Res. 27, 1981–1987 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  38. V. C. Greenstein, D. C. Hood, I. M. Siegel, R. E. Carr, “Adaptation dependent sensitivity losses: implications for cone receptor involvement in RP,” in Noninvasive Assessment of the Visual System, Vol. 3 of 1988 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 1988), pp. 6–8.
  39. D. C. Hood, V. Greenstein, “Models of the normal and abnormal rod system,” Vis. Res. 30, 51–68 (1990).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

1990 (2)

1989 (4)

V. J. Volbrecht, J. S. Werner, B. R. Wooten, “Temporal induction of blackness—I. color appearance,” Vis. Res. 29, 1425–1436 (1989).
[Crossref]

V. C. Greenstein, D. C. Hood, R. Ritch, D. Steinberger, R. E. Carr, “S (blue) cone pathway vulnerability in retinitis pigmentosa, diabetes, and glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 30, 1732–1737 (1989).
[PubMed]

C. A. Johnson, A. J. Adams, R. A. Lewis, “Evidence for a neural basis of age-related visual field loss in normal observers,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 30, 2056–2064 (1989).
[PubMed]

G. Haegerstrom-Portnoy, S. E. Hewlett, S. A. N. Barr, “S cone loss with aging,” Doc. Ophthalmol. Proc. Ser. 52, 345–352 (1989).
[Crossref]

1988 (4)

1987 (3)

J. E. E. Keunen, D. van Norren, G. J. van Meel, “Density of foveal cone pigments at older age,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 28, 985–991 (1987).
[PubMed]

A. Eisner, S. A. Fleming, M. L. Klein, W. M. Mauldin, “Sensitivities in older eyes with good acuity: cross-sectional norms,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 28, 1824–1831 (1987).
[PubMed]

M. M. Hayhoe, N. I. Benimoff, D. C. Hood, “The time course of multiplicative and subtractive adaptation process,” Vis. Res. 27, 1981–1987 (1987).
[Crossref]

1986 (2)

P. E. Kilbride, L. P. Hutman, M. Fishman, J. S. Read, “Foveal cone pigment density difference in the human eye,” Vis. Res. 26, 321–325 (1986).
[Crossref]

C. Yuodelis, A. Hendrickson, “A qualitative and quantitative analysis of the human fovea during development,” Vis. Res. 26, 847–855 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1985 (2)

D. B. Farber, J. G. Flannery, R. N. Lolley, D. Bok, “Distribution patterns of photoreceptors, protein, and cyclic nucleotides in the human retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 26, 1558–1568 (1985).
[PubMed]

D. van Norren, G. J. van Meel, “Density of human cone photopigments as a function of age,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 26, 1014–1016 (1985).
[PubMed]

1984 (1)

A. G. Balazsi, J. Rootman, S. M. Drance, M. Schulzer, G. R. Douglas, “The effect of age on the nerve fiber population of the human optic nerve,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 97, 760–766 (1984).
[PubMed]

1982 (2)

H. A. Quigley, E. M. Addicks, W. R. Green, “Optic nerve damage in human glaucoma. III. Quantitative correlation of nerve fiber loss and visual field defect in glaucoma, ischemic neuropathy, papilledema, and toxic neuropathy,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 100, 135–146 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. S. Werner, “Development of scotopic sensitivity and the absorption spectrum of the human ocular media,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 247–258 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1981 (2)

S. Gartner, P. Henkind, “Aging and degeneration of the human macula. 1. Outer nuclear layer and photoreceptors,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 65, 23–28 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Powell, “Lenses for correcting chromatic aberration of the eye,” Appl. Opt. 20, 4152–4155 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1980 (3)

E. N. Pugh, J. Larimer, “Test of the identity of the site of blue/yellow hue cancellation and the site of chromatic antagonism in the π1pathway,” Vis. Res. 20, 779–788 (1980).
[Crossref]

P. G. Polden, J. D. Mollon, “Reversed effect of adapting stimuli on visual sensitivity,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 210, 235–272 (1980).
[Crossref]

K. O. Devaney, H. A. Johnson, “Neuron loss in aging visual cortex of man,”J. Gerontol. 35, 836–841 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1979 (1)

E. N. Pugh, J. D. Mollon, “A theory of the Π1and Π3color mechanisms of Stiles,” Vis. Res. 19, 293–312 (1979).
[Crossref]

1978 (2)

D. I. A. MacLeod, “Visual sensitivity,” Annu. Rev. Psychol. 29, 613–645 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. S. Geisler, “Adaptation, afterimages and cone saturation,” Vis. Res. 18, 279–289 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1976 (1)

E. N. Pugh, “The nature of the π1colour mechanism of W. S. Stiles,”J. Physiol. 257, 713–747 (1976).
[PubMed]

1974 (1)

D. V. Norren, J. J. Vos, “Spectral transmission of the human ocular media,” Vis. Res. 14, 1237–1244 (1974).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1962 (1)

E. A. Boettner, J. R. Wolter, “Transmission of the ocular media,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 1, 776–783 (1962).

1960 (1)

R. A. McFarland, R. G. Domey, A. B. Warren, D. C. Ward, “Dark adaptation as a function of age: I. A. statistical analysis,”J. Gerontol. 15, 149–154 (1960).
[Crossref]

1958 (1)

V. Kadlecová, M. Peleška, A. Vaško, “Dependence on age of the diameter of the pupil in the dark,” Nature (London) 18, 1520–1521 (1958).
[Crossref]

1949 (1)

W. S. Stiles, “Increment thresholds & the mechanisms of colour vision,” Doc. Ophthalmol. 3, 138–163 (1949).
[Crossref]

Adams, A. J.

C. A. Johnson, A. J. Adams, R. A. Lewis, “Evidence for a neural basis of age-related visual field loss in normal observers,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 30, 2056–2064 (1989).
[PubMed]

C. A. Johnson, A. J. Adams, J. D. Twelker, J. M. Quigg, “Age-related changes in the central visual field for short-wavelength-sensitive pathways,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 2131–2139 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Addicks, E. M.

H. A. Quigley, E. M. Addicks, W. R. Green, “Optic nerve damage in human glaucoma. III. Quantitative correlation of nerve fiber loss and visual field defect in glaucoma, ischemic neuropathy, papilledema, and toxic neuropathy,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 100, 135–146 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Balazsi, A. G.

A. G. Balazsi, J. Rootman, S. M. Drance, M. Schulzer, G. R. Douglas, “The effect of age on the nerve fiber population of the human optic nerve,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 97, 760–766 (1984).
[PubMed]

Barr, S. A. N.

G. Haegerstrom-Portnoy, S. E. Hewlett, S. A. N. Barr, “S cone loss with aging,” Doc. Ophthalmol. Proc. Ser. 52, 345–352 (1989).
[Crossref]

Benimoff, N. I.

M. M. Hayhoe, N. I. Benimoff, D. C. Hood, “The time course of multiplicative and subtractive adaptation process,” Vis. Res. 27, 1981–1987 (1987).
[Crossref]

Berk, L.

Boettner, E. A.

E. A. Boettner, J. R. Wolter, “Transmission of the ocular media,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 1, 776–783 (1962).

Bok, D.

D. B. Farber, J. G. Flannery, R. N. Lolley, D. Bok, “Distribution patterns of photoreceptors, protein, and cyclic nucleotides in the human retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 26, 1558–1568 (1985).
[PubMed]

Burns, S. A.

Carr, R. E.

V. C. Greenstein, D. C. Hood, R. Ritch, D. Steinberger, R. E. Carr, “S (blue) cone pathway vulnerability in retinitis pigmentosa, diabetes, and glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 30, 1732–1737 (1989).
[PubMed]

V. C. Greenstein, D. C. Hood, I. M. Siegel, R. E. Carr, “Adaptation dependent sensitivity losses: implications for cone receptor involvement in RP,” in Noninvasive Assessment of the Visual System, Vol. 3 of 1988 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 1988), pp. 6–8.

Devaney, K. O.

K. O. Devaney, H. A. Johnson, “Neuron loss in aging visual cortex of man,”J. Gerontol. 35, 836–841 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Domey, R. G.

R. A. McFarland, R. G. Domey, A. B. Warren, D. C. Ward, “Dark adaptation as a function of age: I. A. statistical analysis,”J. Gerontol. 15, 149–154 (1960).
[Crossref]

Douglas, G. R.

A. G. Balazsi, J. Rootman, S. M. Drance, M. Schulzer, G. R. Douglas, “The effect of age on the nerve fiber population of the human optic nerve,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 97, 760–766 (1984).
[PubMed]

Drance, S. M.

A. G. Balazsi, J. Rootman, S. M. Drance, M. Schulzer, G. R. Douglas, “The effect of age on the nerve fiber population of the human optic nerve,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 97, 760–766 (1984).
[PubMed]

Eisner, A.

A. Eisner, S. A. Fleming, M. L. Klein, W. M. Mauldin, “Sensitivities in older eyes with good acuity: cross-sectional norms,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 28, 1824–1831 (1987).
[PubMed]

Elsner, A. E.

Farber, D. B.

D. B. Farber, J. G. Flannery, R. N. Lolley, D. Bok, “Distribution patterns of photoreceptors, protein, and cyclic nucleotides in the human retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 26, 1558–1568 (1985).
[PubMed]

Fishman, M.

P. E. Kilbride, L. P. Hutman, M. Fishman, J. S. Read, “Foveal cone pigment density difference in the human eye,” Vis. Res. 26, 321–325 (1986).
[Crossref]

Flannery, J. G.

D. B. Farber, J. G. Flannery, R. N. Lolley, D. Bok, “Distribution patterns of photoreceptors, protein, and cyclic nucleotides in the human retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 26, 1558–1568 (1985).
[PubMed]

Fleming, S. A.

A. Eisner, S. A. Fleming, M. L. Klein, W. M. Mauldin, “Sensitivities in older eyes with good acuity: cross-sectional norms,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 28, 1824–1831 (1987).
[PubMed]

Friedman, L. J.

E. N. Pugh, J. E. Thornton, L. J. Friedman, M. H. Yim, “Stile’s [sic] Π1and Π2colour mechanisms: isolation of a blue/yellow pathway in normals and dichromats,” in Central and Peripheral Mechanisms of Colour Vision, D. Ottoson, S. Zeki, eds. (Macmillan, London, 1985).

Gartner, S.

S. Gartner, P. Henkind, “Aging and degeneration of the human macula. 1. Outer nuclear layer and photoreceptors,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 65, 23–28 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Geisler, W. S.

W. S. Geisler, “Adaptation, afterimages and cone saturation,” Vis. Res. 18, 279–289 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Green, W. R.

H. A. Quigley, E. M. Addicks, W. R. Green, “Optic nerve damage in human glaucoma. III. Quantitative correlation of nerve fiber loss and visual field defect in glaucoma, ischemic neuropathy, papilledema, and toxic neuropathy,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 100, 135–146 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Greenstein, V.

D. C. Hood, V. Greenstein, “Models of the normal and abnormal rod system,” Vis. Res. 30, 51–68 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Greenstein, V. C.

V. C. Greenstein, D. C. Hood, R. Ritch, D. Steinberger, R. E. Carr, “S (blue) cone pathway vulnerability in retinitis pigmentosa, diabetes, and glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 30, 1732–1737 (1989).
[PubMed]

V. C. Greenstein, D. C. Hood, I. M. Siegel, R. E. Carr, “Adaptation dependent sensitivity losses: implications for cone receptor involvement in RP,” in Noninvasive Assessment of the Visual System, Vol. 3 of 1988 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 1988), pp. 6–8.

Haegerstrom-Portnoy, G.

G. Haegerstrom-Portnoy, S. E. Hewlett, S. A. N. Barr, “S cone loss with aging,” Doc. Ophthalmol. Proc. Ser. 52, 345–352 (1989).
[Crossref]

Hayhoe, M. M.

M. M. Hayhoe, N. I. Benimoff, D. C. Hood, “The time course of multiplicative and subtractive adaptation process,” Vis. Res. 27, 1981–1987 (1987).
[Crossref]

Hendrickson, A.

C. Yuodelis, A. Hendrickson, “A qualitative and quantitative analysis of the human fovea during development,” Vis. Res. 26, 847–855 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Henkind, P.

S. Gartner, P. Henkind, “Aging and degeneration of the human macula. 1. Outer nuclear layer and photoreceptors,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 65, 23–28 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hewlett, S. E.

G. Haegerstrom-Portnoy, S. E. Hewlett, S. A. N. Barr, “S cone loss with aging,” Doc. Ophthalmol. Proc. Ser. 52, 345–352 (1989).
[Crossref]

Hood, D. C.

D. C. Hood, V. Greenstein, “Models of the normal and abnormal rod system,” Vis. Res. 30, 51–68 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. C. Greenstein, D. C. Hood, R. Ritch, D. Steinberger, R. E. Carr, “S (blue) cone pathway vulnerability in retinitis pigmentosa, diabetes, and glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 30, 1732–1737 (1989).
[PubMed]

M. M. Hayhoe, N. I. Benimoff, D. C. Hood, “The time course of multiplicative and subtractive adaptation process,” Vis. Res. 27, 1981–1987 (1987).
[Crossref]

V. C. Greenstein, D. C. Hood, I. M. Siegel, R. E. Carr, “Adaptation dependent sensitivity losses: implications for cone receptor involvement in RP,” in Noninvasive Assessment of the Visual System, Vol. 3 of 1988 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 1988), pp. 6–8.

Hutman, L. P.

P. E. Kilbride, L. P. Hutman, M. Fishman, J. S. Read, “Foveal cone pigment density difference in the human eye,” Vis. Res. 26, 321–325 (1986).
[Crossref]

Johnson, C. A.

C. A. Johnson, A. J. Adams, R. A. Lewis, “Evidence for a neural basis of age-related visual field loss in normal observers,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 30, 2056–2064 (1989).
[PubMed]

C. A. Johnson, A. J. Adams, J. D. Twelker, J. M. Quigg, “Age-related changes in the central visual field for short-wavelength-sensitive pathways,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 2131–2139 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Johnson, H. A.

K. O. Devaney, H. A. Johnson, “Neuron loss in aging visual cortex of man,”J. Gerontol. 35, 836–841 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kadlecová, V.

V. Kadlecová, M. Peleška, A. Vaško, “Dependence on age of the diameter of the pupil in the dark,” Nature (London) 18, 1520–1521 (1958).
[Crossref]

Keunen, J. E. E.

J. E. E. Keunen, D. van Norren, G. J. van Meel, “Density of foveal cone pigments at older age,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 28, 985–991 (1987).
[PubMed]

Kilbride, P. E.

P. E. Kilbride, L. P. Hutman, M. Fishman, J. S. Read, “Foveal cone pigment density difference in the human eye,” Vis. Res. 26, 321–325 (1986).
[Crossref]

Klein, M. L.

A. Eisner, S. A. Fleming, M. L. Klein, W. M. Mauldin, “Sensitivities in older eyes with good acuity: cross-sectional norms,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 28, 1824–1831 (1987).
[PubMed]

Larimer, J.

E. N. Pugh, J. Larimer, “Test of the identity of the site of blue/yellow hue cancellation and the site of chromatic antagonism in the π1pathway,” Vis. Res. 20, 779–788 (1980).
[Crossref]

Lewis, R. A.

C. A. Johnson, A. J. Adams, R. A. Lewis, “Evidence for a neural basis of age-related visual field loss in normal observers,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 30, 2056–2064 (1989).
[PubMed]

Lolley, R. N.

D. B. Farber, J. G. Flannery, R. N. Lolley, D. Bok, “Distribution patterns of photoreceptors, protein, and cyclic nucleotides in the human retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 26, 1558–1568 (1985).
[PubMed]

MacLeod, D. I. A.

D. I. A. MacLeod, “Visual sensitivity,” Annu. Rev. Psychol. 29, 613–645 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marshall, J.

J. Marshall, “Ageing changes in human cones,” in XXIII Concilium Opthalmologicum, Kyoto, K. Shimizu, J. A. Oosterhuis, eds. (Elsevier/North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1978), pp. 375–378.

Mauldin, W. M.

A. Eisner, S. A. Fleming, M. L. Klein, W. M. Mauldin, “Sensitivities in older eyes with good acuity: cross-sectional norms,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 28, 1824–1831 (1987).
[PubMed]

McFarland, R. A.

R. A. McFarland, R. G. Domey, A. B. Warren, D. C. Ward, “Dark adaptation as a function of age: I. A. statistical analysis,”J. Gerontol. 15, 149–154 (1960).
[Crossref]

Mollon, J. D.

P. G. Polden, J. D. Mollon, “Reversed effect of adapting stimuli on visual sensitivity,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 210, 235–272 (1980).
[Crossref]

E. N. Pugh, J. D. Mollon, “A theory of the Π1and Π3color mechanisms of Stiles,” Vis. Res. 19, 293–312 (1979).
[Crossref]

Norren, D. V.

D. V. Norren, J. J. Vos, “Spectral transmission of the human ocular media,” Vis. Res. 14, 1237–1244 (1974).
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V. Kadlecová, M. Peleška, A. Vaško, “Dependence on age of the diameter of the pupil in the dark,” Nature (London) 18, 1520–1521 (1958).
[Crossref]

Polden, P. G.

P. G. Polden, J. D. Mollon, “Reversed effect of adapting stimuli on visual sensitivity,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 210, 235–272 (1980).
[Crossref]

Powell, I.

Pugh, E. N.

E. N. Pugh, J. Larimer, “Test of the identity of the site of blue/yellow hue cancellation and the site of chromatic antagonism in the π1pathway,” Vis. Res. 20, 779–788 (1980).
[Crossref]

E. N. Pugh, J. D. Mollon, “A theory of the Π1and Π3color mechanisms of Stiles,” Vis. Res. 19, 293–312 (1979).
[Crossref]

E. N. Pugh, “The nature of the π1colour mechanism of W. S. Stiles,”J. Physiol. 257, 713–747 (1976).
[PubMed]

E. N. Pugh, J. E. Thornton, L. J. Friedman, M. H. Yim, “Stile’s [sic] Π1and Π2colour mechanisms: isolation of a blue/yellow pathway in normals and dichromats,” in Central and Peripheral Mechanisms of Colour Vision, D. Ottoson, S. Zeki, eds. (Macmillan, London, 1985).

Quigg, J. M.

Quigley, H. A.

H. A. Quigley, E. M. Addicks, W. R. Green, “Optic nerve damage in human glaucoma. III. Quantitative correlation of nerve fiber loss and visual field defect in glaucoma, ischemic neuropathy, papilledema, and toxic neuropathy,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 100, 135–146 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Read, J. S.

P. E. Kilbride, L. P. Hutman, M. Fishman, J. S. Read, “Foveal cone pigment density difference in the human eye,” Vis. Res. 26, 321–325 (1986).
[Crossref]

Ritch, R.

V. C. Greenstein, D. C. Hood, R. Ritch, D. Steinberger, R. E. Carr, “S (blue) cone pathway vulnerability in retinitis pigmentosa, diabetes, and glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 30, 1732–1737 (1989).
[PubMed]

Rootman, J.

A. G. Balazsi, J. Rootman, S. M. Drance, M. Schulzer, G. R. Douglas, “The effect of age on the nerve fiber population of the human optic nerve,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 97, 760–766 (1984).
[PubMed]

Rosenberg, P. R.

Schefrin, B. E.

Schulzer, M.

A. G. Balazsi, J. Rootman, S. M. Drance, M. Schulzer, G. R. Douglas, “The effect of age on the nerve fiber population of the human optic nerve,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 97, 760–766 (1984).
[PubMed]

Siegel, I. M.

V. C. Greenstein, D. C. Hood, I. M. Siegel, R. E. Carr, “Adaptation dependent sensitivity losses: implications for cone receptor involvement in RP,” in Noninvasive Assessment of the Visual System, Vol. 3 of 1988 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 1988), pp. 6–8.

Steele, V. G.

Steinberger, D.

V. C. Greenstein, D. C. Hood, R. Ritch, D. Steinberger, R. E. Carr, “S (blue) cone pathway vulnerability in retinitis pigmentosa, diabetes, and glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 30, 1732–1737 (1989).
[PubMed]

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W. S. Stiles, “Increment thresholds & the mechanisms of colour vision,” Doc. Ophthalmol. 3, 138–163 (1949).
[Crossref]

G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1982).

Thornton, J. E.

E. N. Pugh, J. E. Thornton, L. J. Friedman, M. H. Yim, “Stile’s [sic] Π1and Π2colour mechanisms: isolation of a blue/yellow pathway in normals and dichromats,” in Central and Peripheral Mechanisms of Colour Vision, D. Ottoson, S. Zeki, eds. (Macmillan, London, 1985).

Twelker, J. D.

van Meel, G. J.

J. E. E. Keunen, D. van Norren, G. J. van Meel, “Density of foveal cone pigments at older age,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 28, 985–991 (1987).
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D. van Norren, G. J. van Meel, “Density of human cone photopigments as a function of age,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 26, 1014–1016 (1985).
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J. E. E. Keunen, D. van Norren, G. J. van Meel, “Density of foveal cone pigments at older age,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 28, 985–991 (1987).
[PubMed]

D. van Norren, G. J. van Meel, “Density of human cone photopigments as a function of age,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 26, 1014–1016 (1985).
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V. Kadlecová, M. Peleška, A. Vaško, “Dependence on age of the diameter of the pupil in the dark,” Nature (London) 18, 1520–1521 (1958).
[Crossref]

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V. J. Volbrecht, J. S. Werner, B. R. Wooten, “Temporal induction of blackness—I. color appearance,” Vis. Res. 29, 1425–1436 (1989).
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D. V. Norren, J. J. Vos, “Spectral transmission of the human ocular media,” Vis. Res. 14, 1237–1244 (1974).
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R. A. McFarland, R. G. Domey, A. B. Warren, D. C. Ward, “Dark adaptation as a function of age: I. A. statistical analysis,”J. Gerontol. 15, 149–154 (1960).
[Crossref]

Warren, A. B.

R. A. McFarland, R. G. Domey, A. B. Warren, D. C. Ward, “Dark adaptation as a function of age: I. A. statistical analysis,”J. Gerontol. 15, 149–154 (1960).
[Crossref]

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R. A. Weale, “Age and the transmittance of the human crystalline lens,”J. Physiol. 395, 577–587 (1988).
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R. A. Weale, “Senile ocular changes, cell death, and vision,” in Aging and Human Visual Function, R. Sekuler, D. Kline, K. Dismukes, eds. (Liss, New York, 1982).

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Wolter, J. R.

E. A. Boettner, J. R. Wolter, “Transmission of the ocular media,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 1, 776–783 (1962).

Wooten, B. R.

V. J. Volbrecht, J. S. Werner, B. R. Wooten, “Temporal induction of blackness—I. color appearance,” Vis. Res. 29, 1425–1436 (1989).
[Crossref]

Wyszecki, G.

G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1982).

Yim, M. H.

E. N. Pugh, J. E. Thornton, L. J. Friedman, M. H. Yim, “Stile’s [sic] Π1and Π2colour mechanisms: isolation of a blue/yellow pathway in normals and dichromats,” in Central and Peripheral Mechanisms of Colour Vision, D. Ottoson, S. Zeki, eds. (Macmillan, London, 1985).

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C. Yuodelis, A. Hendrickson, “A qualitative and quantitative analysis of the human fovea during development,” Vis. Res. 26, 847–855 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

A. G. Balazsi, J. Rootman, S. M. Drance, M. Schulzer, G. R. Douglas, “The effect of age on the nerve fiber population of the human optic nerve,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 97, 760–766 (1984).
[PubMed]

Annu. Rev. Psychol. (1)

D. I. A. MacLeod, “Visual sensitivity,” Annu. Rev. Psychol. 29, 613–645 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Arch. Ophthalmol. (1)

H. A. Quigley, E. M. Addicks, W. R. Green, “Optic nerve damage in human glaucoma. III. Quantitative correlation of nerve fiber loss and visual field defect in glaucoma, ischemic neuropathy, papilledema, and toxic neuropathy,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 100, 135–146 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Br. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

S. Gartner, P. Henkind, “Aging and degeneration of the human macula. 1. Outer nuclear layer and photoreceptors,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 65, 23–28 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Doc. Ophthalmol. (1)

W. S. Stiles, “Increment thresholds & the mechanisms of colour vision,” Doc. Ophthalmol. 3, 138–163 (1949).
[Crossref]

Doc. Ophthalmol. Proc. Ser. (1)

G. Haegerstrom-Portnoy, S. E. Hewlett, S. A. N. Barr, “S cone loss with aging,” Doc. Ophthalmol. Proc. Ser. 52, 345–352 (1989).
[Crossref]

Invest. Ophthalmol. (1)

E. A. Boettner, J. R. Wolter, “Transmission of the ocular media,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 1, 776–783 (1962).

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (6)

A. Eisner, S. A. Fleming, M. L. Klein, W. M. Mauldin, “Sensitivities in older eyes with good acuity: cross-sectional norms,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 28, 1824–1831 (1987).
[PubMed]

C. A. Johnson, A. J. Adams, R. A. Lewis, “Evidence for a neural basis of age-related visual field loss in normal observers,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 30, 2056–2064 (1989).
[PubMed]

D. B. Farber, J. G. Flannery, R. N. Lolley, D. Bok, “Distribution patterns of photoreceptors, protein, and cyclic nucleotides in the human retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 26, 1558–1568 (1985).
[PubMed]

D. van Norren, G. J. van Meel, “Density of human cone photopigments as a function of age,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 26, 1014–1016 (1985).
[PubMed]

J. E. E. Keunen, D. van Norren, G. J. van Meel, “Density of foveal cone pigments at older age,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 28, 985–991 (1987).
[PubMed]

V. C. Greenstein, D. C. Hood, R. Ritch, D. Steinberger, R. E. Carr, “S (blue) cone pathway vulnerability in retinitis pigmentosa, diabetes, and glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 30, 1732–1737 (1989).
[PubMed]

J. Gerontol. (2)

K. O. Devaney, H. A. Johnson, “Neuron loss in aging visual cortex of man,”J. Gerontol. 35, 836–841 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. A. McFarland, R. G. Domey, A. B. Warren, D. C. Ward, “Dark adaptation as a function of age: I. A. statistical analysis,”J. Gerontol. 15, 149–154 (1960).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (4)

J. Physiol. (2)

E. N. Pugh, “The nature of the π1colour mechanism of W. S. Stiles,”J. Physiol. 257, 713–747 (1976).
[PubMed]

R. A. Weale, “Age and the transmittance of the human crystalline lens,”J. Physiol. 395, 577–587 (1988).
[PubMed]

Nature (London) (1)

V. Kadlecová, M. Peleška, A. Vaško, “Dependence on age of the diameter of the pupil in the dark,” Nature (London) 18, 1520–1521 (1958).
[Crossref]

Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B (1)

P. G. Polden, J. D. Mollon, “Reversed effect of adapting stimuli on visual sensitivity,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 210, 235–272 (1980).
[Crossref]

Vis. Res. (9)

D. V. Norren, J. J. Vos, “Spectral transmission of the human ocular media,” Vis. Res. 14, 1237–1244 (1974).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. S. Geisler, “Adaptation, afterimages and cone saturation,” Vis. Res. 18, 279–289 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. M. Hayhoe, N. I. Benimoff, D. C. Hood, “The time course of multiplicative and subtractive adaptation process,” Vis. Res. 27, 1981–1987 (1987).
[Crossref]

E. N. Pugh, J. D. Mollon, “A theory of the Π1and Π3color mechanisms of Stiles,” Vis. Res. 19, 293–312 (1979).
[Crossref]

E. N. Pugh, J. Larimer, “Test of the identity of the site of blue/yellow hue cancellation and the site of chromatic antagonism in the π1pathway,” Vis. Res. 20, 779–788 (1980).
[Crossref]

V. J. Volbrecht, J. S. Werner, B. R. Wooten, “Temporal induction of blackness—I. color appearance,” Vis. Res. 29, 1425–1436 (1989).
[Crossref]

C. Yuodelis, A. Hendrickson, “A qualitative and quantitative analysis of the human fovea during development,” Vis. Res. 26, 847–855 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. E. Kilbride, L. P. Hutman, M. Fishman, J. S. Read, “Foveal cone pigment density difference in the human eye,” Vis. Res. 26, 321–325 (1986).
[Crossref]

D. C. Hood, V. Greenstein, “Models of the normal and abnormal rod system,” Vis. Res. 30, 51–68 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (5)

J. Marshall, “Ageing changes in human cones,” in XXIII Concilium Opthalmologicum, Kyoto, K. Shimizu, J. A. Oosterhuis, eds. (Elsevier/North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1978), pp. 375–378.

R. A. Weale, “Senile ocular changes, cell death, and vision,” in Aging and Human Visual Function, R. Sekuler, D. Kline, K. Dismukes, eds. (Liss, New York, 1982).

E. N. Pugh, J. E. Thornton, L. J. Friedman, M. H. Yim, “Stile’s [sic] Π1and Π2colour mechanisms: isolation of a blue/yellow pathway in normals and dichromats,” in Central and Peripheral Mechanisms of Colour Vision, D. Ottoson, S. Zeki, eds. (Macmillan, London, 1985).

V. C. Greenstein, D. C. Hood, I. M. Siegel, R. E. Carr, “Adaptation dependent sensitivity losses: implications for cone receptor involvement in RP,” in Noninvasive Assessment of the Visual System, Vol. 3 of 1988 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 1988), pp. 6–8.

G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1982).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Mean foveal increment thresholds (subject BS) for 1.0°-diameter, 250-ms, 470-nm test lights on 5.9°-diameter, 570-nm adapting fields. The error bars represent ±1 SEM. The arrow indicates the field intensity for the test spectral sensitivities in Fig. 2.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Test spectral sensitivity determined on a 570-nm adapting field. The solid and the dashed curves passing through the data represent the relative field sensitivities of Stiles’s π1 and π4 mechanisms, respectively. The error bars represent ±1 SEM.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Mean foveal increment thresholds for the younger subjects. The data points represent the thresholds for 1.0°-diameter, 250-ms, 440-nm test lights on 5.9°-diameter, 470-nm adapting and 570-nm auxiliary fields. The solid curves passing through the data represent the t.v.r. function best fitted to the data by Eqs. (1) and (2) and the parameters shown in Table 2 below. The error bars represent ±1 SEM.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Mean foveal increment thresholds for the older subjects. The dashed curves passing through the data are the t.v.r. curves predicted by using Eqs. (1) and (2) and specific assumptions concerning age-related changes in the ocular media, the diminished abilities of cones to capture quanta effectively, and the spectral locus of unique green. Other details are as in Fig. 3.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Relative loss in sensitivity of an S-cone mechanism for older versus younger subjects. The open circles represent the empirical differences between the averaged increment thresholds of the older and the younger groups. The filled circles represent the differences in sensitivity predicted by using Eqs. (1) and (2) and the average curve-fitting parameters for each group (see Table 2).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Predicted t.v.r. functions for 440-nm test lights presented on 470-nm adapting and 570-nm auxiliary fields. The upper and the lower curves represent modeled t.v.r. functions based on the average curve-fitting parameters (Table 2) for the older and the younger groups, respectively.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Ocular Media Density of Younger and Older Subjects

Tables Icon

Table 2 Parameters of Eq. (1) That Were Used To Fit Individual t.v.r. Functions

Tables Icon

Table 3 Unique Green Loci for Older Subjects

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

log U 440 = log U 0 440 - log ζ 1 [ K 0 S ( A A ) ] - log ζ 2 [ K 1 S ( A A ) ] - [ K 2 M ( A A ) ] - [ K 3 L ( A A ) ] .
0 = [ K 1 S ( A ) 500 ] - [ K 2 M ( A ) 500 ] - [ K 3 L ( A ) 500 ] ,

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