Abstract

The utility of partially redundant pupil geometries has been studied in the context of near-infrared speckle imaging with ground-based telescopes. Using both numerical simulations and experimental data collected with a 4-m-class telescope, we find that the decrease in redundancy resulting from apodizing the telescope pupil results in an enhancement of the quality of reconstructed images at high light levels. This improvement in imaging fidelity is particularly valuable when short-term variations in the statistics of the atmosphere make the seeing calibration of speckle interferograms difficult. However, the use of an apodizing mask necessarily restricts the faintest source that can be imaged, leading to a loss in sensitivity of one to two magnitudes. For many of the brighter near-infrared astrophysical sources in the sky that have been the subject of previous speckle-imaging studies, the use of a partially redundant pupil is expected to enhance the fidelity of the imaging procedure considerably.

© 1992 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. I. Gatley, D. L. DePoy, A. M. Fowler, “Astronomical imaging with infrared array detectors,” Science 242, 1264–1270 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. See, e.g., Infrared Astronomy with Arrays, C. G. Wynn-Williams, E. E. Becklin, L. H. Good, eds. (Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii, 1988).
  3. J. M. Beckers, J. C. Christou, R. G. Probst, S. T. Ridgway, O. von der Lühe, “First results with the NOAO 2-d speckle camera for infrared wavelengths,” in High Resolution Imaging by Interferometry, F. Merkle, ed., Vol. 29 of European Southern Observatory Conference Proceedings (European Southern Observatory, Garching bei München, Germany, 1988), pp. 393–400.
  4. J. C. Christou, S. T. Ridgway, D. F. Buscher, C. A. Haniff, D. W. McCarthy, “High spatial resolution imaging of circumstellar envelopes in the near infrared,” in Astrophysics with Infrared Arrays, R. Elston, ed., Vol. 14 of ASP Conference Series (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Tucson, Ariz., 1991), pp. 133–138.
  5. J. C. Dainty, A. H. Greenaway, “Estimation of spatial power spectra in speckle interferometry,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 786–790 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Nakajima, “Signal-to-noise ratio of the bispectral analysis of speckle interferometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 1477–1491 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. R. Ayers, M. J. Northcott, J. C. Dainty, “Knox–Thompson and triple correlation imaging through atmospheric turbulence,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 963–985 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  8. W. T. Rhodes, J. W. Goodman, “Interferometric technique for recording and restoring images degraded by unknown aberrations,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 647–657 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. E. Baldwin, C. A. Haniff, C. D. Mackay, P. J. Warner, “Closure phase in high-resolution optical imaging,” Nature (London) 320, 595–597 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. A. Haniff, C. D. Mackay, D. J. Titterington, D. Sivia, J. E. Baldwin, P. J. Warner, “The first images from optical aperture synthesis,” Nature (London) 328, 694–696 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. Nakajima, S. R. Kulkarni, P. W. Gorham, A. M. Ghez, G. Neugebauer, J. B. Oke, T. A. Prince, A. C. S. Readhead, “Diffraction-limited imaging. II. Optical aperture synthesis imaging of two binary stars,” Astron. J. 97, 1510–1521 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. F. Buscher, C. A. Haniff, J. E. Baldwin, P. J. Warner, “Detection of a bright feature on the surface of Betelgeuse,”M. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 245, 7P–11P (1990).
  13. J. G. Robertson, T. R. Bedding, R. G. Marson, P. R. Gillingham, R. H. Frater, J. D. O’Sullivan, R. P. Norris, “High resolution imaging by optical aperture synthesis—first results from the MAPPIT project,” Proc. Astron. Soc. Aust. 9, 162–163 (1991).
  14. W. N. Weir, A. M. Ghez, P. W. Gorham, C. A. Haniff, S. R. Kulkarni, K. Matthews, G. Neugebauer, “Infrared non-redundant mask imaging at Palomar,” in Amplitude and Intensity Spatial Interferometry, J. B. Breckinridge, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1237, 274–285 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  15. C. A. Haniff, D. F. Buscher, J. C. Christou, S. T. Ridgway, “Synthetic aperture imaging at infrared wavelengths,”M. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 241, 51P–56P (1989).
  16. J. C. Christou, A. Y. S. Cheng, E. K. Hege, “Seeing calibration of optical astronomical speckle interferometric data,” Astron. J. 90, 2644–2651 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. C. Christou, “Application of speckle interferometry techniques: working with real data,” in High Resolution Imaging by Interferometry, F. Merkle, ed., Vol. 29 of European Southern Observatory Conference Proceedings (European Southern Observatory, Garching bei München, Germany, 1988), pp. 97–111.
  18. F. Roddier, “The effects of atmospheric turbulence in optical astronomy,” Prog. Opt. 19, 281–376 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics (Wiley, New York, 1985).
  20. D. F. Buscher, “Optimising a ground-based optical interferometer for sensitivity at low light levels,”M. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 235, 1203–1226 (1988).
  21. G. R. Ayers, J. C. Dainty, “Iterative blind deconvolution method and its applications,” Opt. Commun. 13, 547–549 (1988).
  22. A. C. S. Readhead, T. Nakajima, T. J. Pearson, G. Neugebauer, J. B. Oke, W. L. W. Sargent, “Diffraction-limited imaging with ground-based optical telescopes,” Astron. J. 95, 1278–1296 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  23. See, e.g., D. M. Alloin, J.-M. Mariotti, eds., Diffraction-Limited Imaging with Very Large Telescopes, NATO ASI Series C (Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1990), Vol. 274.
  24. D. Korff, “Analysis of a method for obtaining near-diffraction-limited information in the presence of atmospheric turbulence,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 971–980 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  25. C. A. Haniff, D. F. Buscher, J. C. Christou, S. T. Ridgway, “Diffraction-limited imaging at IR wavelengths using aperture masks and fully-filled apertures,” in Amplitude and Intensity Spatial Interferometry, J. B. Breckinridge, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1237, 259–271 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  26. F. Roddier, “Triple correlation as a phase-closure technique,” Opt. Commun. 60, 145–148 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  27. T. J. Cornwell, “Radio interferometric imaging of weak objects in conditions of poor phase stability—the relationship between speckle masking and phase-closure methods,” Astron. Astrophys. 180, 269–274 (1987).
  28. E. Pehlemann, O. von der Lühe, “Technical aspects of the speckle masking phase reconstruction algorithm,” Astron. Astrophys. 216, 337–346 (1989).
  29. P. W. Gorham, A. M. Ghez, S. R. Kulkarni, T. Nakajima, G. Neugebauer, J. B. Oke, T. A. Prince, “Diffraction-limited imaging. III. 30mas closure phase imaging of six binary stars with the Hale 5m telescope,” Astron. J. 98, 1783–1799 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  30. H. Bartelt, A. W. Lohmann, B. Wirnitzer, “Phase and amplitude recovery from the bispectrum,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3121–3129 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. A. Lannes, “On a new class of iterative algorithms for phase-closure imaging and bispectral analysis,” in High Resolution Imaging by Interferometry, F. Merkle, ed., Vol. 29 of European Southern Observatory Conference Proceedings (European Southern Observatory, Garching bei München, Germany, 1988), pp. 169–180.
  32. J. C. Marron, P. P. Sanchez, R. C. Sullivan, “Unwrapping algorithm for least-squares phase recovery from the modulo 2πbispectrum,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 14–20 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  33. C. A. Haniff, “Least-squares Fourier phase estimation from the modulo 2πbispectrum phase,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 134–140 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  34. T. J. Pearson, A. C. S. Readhead, “Image formation by self-calibration in radio astronomy,” Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 22, 97–130 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  35. F. Roddier, “Redundant versus non-redundant beam recombination in an aperture synthesis with coherent optical arrays,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 1396–1401 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  36. D. F. Buscher, “Getting the most out of C.O.A.S.T.,” Ph.D. dissertation (Cambridge University, Cambridge, 1988).

1991

J. G. Robertson, T. R. Bedding, R. G. Marson, P. R. Gillingham, R. H. Frater, J. D. O’Sullivan, R. P. Norris, “High resolution imaging by optical aperture synthesis—first results from the MAPPIT project,” Proc. Astron. Soc. Aust. 9, 162–163 (1991).

C. A. Haniff, “Least-squares Fourier phase estimation from the modulo 2πbispectrum phase,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 134–140 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

J. C. Marron, P. P. Sanchez, R. C. Sullivan, “Unwrapping algorithm for least-squares phase recovery from the modulo 2πbispectrum,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 14–20 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Buscher, C. A. Haniff, J. E. Baldwin, P. J. Warner, “Detection of a bright feature on the surface of Betelgeuse,”M. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 245, 7P–11P (1990).

1989

T. Nakajima, S. R. Kulkarni, P. W. Gorham, A. M. Ghez, G. Neugebauer, J. B. Oke, T. A. Prince, A. C. S. Readhead, “Diffraction-limited imaging. II. Optical aperture synthesis imaging of two binary stars,” Astron. J. 97, 1510–1521 (1989).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Haniff, D. F. Buscher, J. C. Christou, S. T. Ridgway, “Synthetic aperture imaging at infrared wavelengths,”M. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 241, 51P–56P (1989).

E. Pehlemann, O. von der Lühe, “Technical aspects of the speckle masking phase reconstruction algorithm,” Astron. Astrophys. 216, 337–346 (1989).

P. W. Gorham, A. M. Ghez, S. R. Kulkarni, T. Nakajima, G. Neugebauer, J. B. Oke, T. A. Prince, “Diffraction-limited imaging. III. 30mas closure phase imaging of six binary stars with the Hale 5m telescope,” Astron. J. 98, 1783–1799 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

G. R. Ayers, M. J. Northcott, J. C. Dainty, “Knox–Thompson and triple correlation imaging through atmospheric turbulence,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 963–985 (1988).
[CrossRef]

T. Nakajima, “Signal-to-noise ratio of the bispectral analysis of speckle interferometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 1477–1491 (1988).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Buscher, “Optimising a ground-based optical interferometer for sensitivity at low light levels,”M. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 235, 1203–1226 (1988).

G. R. Ayers, J. C. Dainty, “Iterative blind deconvolution method and its applications,” Opt. Commun. 13, 547–549 (1988).

A. C. S. Readhead, T. Nakajima, T. J. Pearson, G. Neugebauer, J. B. Oke, W. L. W. Sargent, “Diffraction-limited imaging with ground-based optical telescopes,” Astron. J. 95, 1278–1296 (1988).
[CrossRef]

I. Gatley, D. L. DePoy, A. M. Fowler, “Astronomical imaging with infrared array detectors,” Science 242, 1264–1270 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Haniff, C. D. Mackay, D. J. Titterington, D. Sivia, J. E. Baldwin, P. J. Warner, “The first images from optical aperture synthesis,” Nature (London) 328, 694–696 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987

T. J. Cornwell, “Radio interferometric imaging of weak objects in conditions of poor phase stability—the relationship between speckle masking and phase-closure methods,” Astron. Astrophys. 180, 269–274 (1987).

F. Roddier, “Redundant versus non-redundant beam recombination in an aperture synthesis with coherent optical arrays,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 1396–1401 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986

J. E. Baldwin, C. A. Haniff, C. D. Mackay, P. J. Warner, “Closure phase in high-resolution optical imaging,” Nature (London) 320, 595–597 (1986).
[CrossRef]

F. Roddier, “Triple correlation as a phase-closure technique,” Opt. Commun. 60, 145–148 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985

J. C. Christou, A. Y. S. Cheng, E. K. Hege, “Seeing calibration of optical astronomical speckle interferometric data,” Astron. J. 90, 2644–2651 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984

T. J. Pearson, A. C. S. Readhead, “Image formation by self-calibration in radio astronomy,” Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 22, 97–130 (1984).
[CrossRef]

H. Bartelt, A. W. Lohmann, B. Wirnitzer, “Phase and amplitude recovery from the bispectrum,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3121–3129 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981

F. Roddier, “The effects of atmospheric turbulence in optical astronomy,” Prog. Opt. 19, 281–376 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1979

1973

Ayers, G. R.

G. R. Ayers, J. C. Dainty, “Iterative blind deconvolution method and its applications,” Opt. Commun. 13, 547–549 (1988).

G. R. Ayers, M. J. Northcott, J. C. Dainty, “Knox–Thompson and triple correlation imaging through atmospheric turbulence,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 963–985 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Baldwin, J. E.

D. F. Buscher, C. A. Haniff, J. E. Baldwin, P. J. Warner, “Detection of a bright feature on the surface of Betelgeuse,”M. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 245, 7P–11P (1990).

C. A. Haniff, C. D. Mackay, D. J. Titterington, D. Sivia, J. E. Baldwin, P. J. Warner, “The first images from optical aperture synthesis,” Nature (London) 328, 694–696 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Baldwin, C. A. Haniff, C. D. Mackay, P. J. Warner, “Closure phase in high-resolution optical imaging,” Nature (London) 320, 595–597 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Bartelt, H.

Beckers, J. M.

J. M. Beckers, J. C. Christou, R. G. Probst, S. T. Ridgway, O. von der Lühe, “First results with the NOAO 2-d speckle camera for infrared wavelengths,” in High Resolution Imaging by Interferometry, F. Merkle, ed., Vol. 29 of European Southern Observatory Conference Proceedings (European Southern Observatory, Garching bei München, Germany, 1988), pp. 393–400.

Bedding, T. R.

J. G. Robertson, T. R. Bedding, R. G. Marson, P. R. Gillingham, R. H. Frater, J. D. O’Sullivan, R. P. Norris, “High resolution imaging by optical aperture synthesis—first results from the MAPPIT project,” Proc. Astron. Soc. Aust. 9, 162–163 (1991).

Buscher, D. F.

D. F. Buscher, C. A. Haniff, J. E. Baldwin, P. J. Warner, “Detection of a bright feature on the surface of Betelgeuse,”M. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 245, 7P–11P (1990).

C. A. Haniff, D. F. Buscher, J. C. Christou, S. T. Ridgway, “Synthetic aperture imaging at infrared wavelengths,”M. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 241, 51P–56P (1989).

D. F. Buscher, “Optimising a ground-based optical interferometer for sensitivity at low light levels,”M. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 235, 1203–1226 (1988).

C. A. Haniff, D. F. Buscher, J. C. Christou, S. T. Ridgway, “Diffraction-limited imaging at IR wavelengths using aperture masks and fully-filled apertures,” in Amplitude and Intensity Spatial Interferometry, J. B. Breckinridge, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1237, 259–271 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Buscher, “Getting the most out of C.O.A.S.T.,” Ph.D. dissertation (Cambridge University, Cambridge, 1988).

J. C. Christou, S. T. Ridgway, D. F. Buscher, C. A. Haniff, D. W. McCarthy, “High spatial resolution imaging of circumstellar envelopes in the near infrared,” in Astrophysics with Infrared Arrays, R. Elston, ed., Vol. 14 of ASP Conference Series (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Tucson, Ariz., 1991), pp. 133–138.

Cheng, A. Y. S.

J. C. Christou, A. Y. S. Cheng, E. K. Hege, “Seeing calibration of optical astronomical speckle interferometric data,” Astron. J. 90, 2644–2651 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Christou, J. C.

C. A. Haniff, D. F. Buscher, J. C. Christou, S. T. Ridgway, “Synthetic aperture imaging at infrared wavelengths,”M. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 241, 51P–56P (1989).

J. C. Christou, A. Y. S. Cheng, E. K. Hege, “Seeing calibration of optical astronomical speckle interferometric data,” Astron. J. 90, 2644–2651 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Christou, “Application of speckle interferometry techniques: working with real data,” in High Resolution Imaging by Interferometry, F. Merkle, ed., Vol. 29 of European Southern Observatory Conference Proceedings (European Southern Observatory, Garching bei München, Germany, 1988), pp. 97–111.

J. C. Christou, S. T. Ridgway, D. F. Buscher, C. A. Haniff, D. W. McCarthy, “High spatial resolution imaging of circumstellar envelopes in the near infrared,” in Astrophysics with Infrared Arrays, R. Elston, ed., Vol. 14 of ASP Conference Series (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Tucson, Ariz., 1991), pp. 133–138.

C. A. Haniff, D. F. Buscher, J. C. Christou, S. T. Ridgway, “Diffraction-limited imaging at IR wavelengths using aperture masks and fully-filled apertures,” in Amplitude and Intensity Spatial Interferometry, J. B. Breckinridge, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1237, 259–271 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Beckers, J. C. Christou, R. G. Probst, S. T. Ridgway, O. von der Lühe, “First results with the NOAO 2-d speckle camera for infrared wavelengths,” in High Resolution Imaging by Interferometry, F. Merkle, ed., Vol. 29 of European Southern Observatory Conference Proceedings (European Southern Observatory, Garching bei München, Germany, 1988), pp. 393–400.

Cornwell, T. J.

T. J. Cornwell, “Radio interferometric imaging of weak objects in conditions of poor phase stability—the relationship between speckle masking and phase-closure methods,” Astron. Astrophys. 180, 269–274 (1987).

Dainty, J. C.

DePoy, D. L.

I. Gatley, D. L. DePoy, A. M. Fowler, “Astronomical imaging with infrared array detectors,” Science 242, 1264–1270 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fowler, A. M.

I. Gatley, D. L. DePoy, A. M. Fowler, “Astronomical imaging with infrared array detectors,” Science 242, 1264–1270 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frater, R. H.

J. G. Robertson, T. R. Bedding, R. G. Marson, P. R. Gillingham, R. H. Frater, J. D. O’Sullivan, R. P. Norris, “High resolution imaging by optical aperture synthesis—first results from the MAPPIT project,” Proc. Astron. Soc. Aust. 9, 162–163 (1991).

Gatley, I.

I. Gatley, D. L. DePoy, A. M. Fowler, “Astronomical imaging with infrared array detectors,” Science 242, 1264–1270 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghez, A. M.

T. Nakajima, S. R. Kulkarni, P. W. Gorham, A. M. Ghez, G. Neugebauer, J. B. Oke, T. A. Prince, A. C. S. Readhead, “Diffraction-limited imaging. II. Optical aperture synthesis imaging of two binary stars,” Astron. J. 97, 1510–1521 (1989).
[CrossRef]

P. W. Gorham, A. M. Ghez, S. R. Kulkarni, T. Nakajima, G. Neugebauer, J. B. Oke, T. A. Prince, “Diffraction-limited imaging. III. 30mas closure phase imaging of six binary stars with the Hale 5m telescope,” Astron. J. 98, 1783–1799 (1989).
[CrossRef]

W. N. Weir, A. M. Ghez, P. W. Gorham, C. A. Haniff, S. R. Kulkarni, K. Matthews, G. Neugebauer, “Infrared non-redundant mask imaging at Palomar,” in Amplitude and Intensity Spatial Interferometry, J. B. Breckinridge, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1237, 274–285 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Gillingham, P. R.

J. G. Robertson, T. R. Bedding, R. G. Marson, P. R. Gillingham, R. H. Frater, J. D. O’Sullivan, R. P. Norris, “High resolution imaging by optical aperture synthesis—first results from the MAPPIT project,” Proc. Astron. Soc. Aust. 9, 162–163 (1991).

Goodman, J. W.

Gorham, P. W.

T. Nakajima, S. R. Kulkarni, P. W. Gorham, A. M. Ghez, G. Neugebauer, J. B. Oke, T. A. Prince, A. C. S. Readhead, “Diffraction-limited imaging. II. Optical aperture synthesis imaging of two binary stars,” Astron. J. 97, 1510–1521 (1989).
[CrossRef]

P. W. Gorham, A. M. Ghez, S. R. Kulkarni, T. Nakajima, G. Neugebauer, J. B. Oke, T. A. Prince, “Diffraction-limited imaging. III. 30mas closure phase imaging of six binary stars with the Hale 5m telescope,” Astron. J. 98, 1783–1799 (1989).
[CrossRef]

W. N. Weir, A. M. Ghez, P. W. Gorham, C. A. Haniff, S. R. Kulkarni, K. Matthews, G. Neugebauer, “Infrared non-redundant mask imaging at Palomar,” in Amplitude and Intensity Spatial Interferometry, J. B. Breckinridge, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1237, 274–285 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Greenaway, A. H.

Haniff, C. A.

C. A. Haniff, “Least-squares Fourier phase estimation from the modulo 2πbispectrum phase,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 134–140 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Buscher, C. A. Haniff, J. E. Baldwin, P. J. Warner, “Detection of a bright feature on the surface of Betelgeuse,”M. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 245, 7P–11P (1990).

C. A. Haniff, D. F. Buscher, J. C. Christou, S. T. Ridgway, “Synthetic aperture imaging at infrared wavelengths,”M. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 241, 51P–56P (1989).

C. A. Haniff, C. D. Mackay, D. J. Titterington, D. Sivia, J. E. Baldwin, P. J. Warner, “The first images from optical aperture synthesis,” Nature (London) 328, 694–696 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Baldwin, C. A. Haniff, C. D. Mackay, P. J. Warner, “Closure phase in high-resolution optical imaging,” Nature (London) 320, 595–597 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Christou, S. T. Ridgway, D. F. Buscher, C. A. Haniff, D. W. McCarthy, “High spatial resolution imaging of circumstellar envelopes in the near infrared,” in Astrophysics with Infrared Arrays, R. Elston, ed., Vol. 14 of ASP Conference Series (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Tucson, Ariz., 1991), pp. 133–138.

W. N. Weir, A. M. Ghez, P. W. Gorham, C. A. Haniff, S. R. Kulkarni, K. Matthews, G. Neugebauer, “Infrared non-redundant mask imaging at Palomar,” in Amplitude and Intensity Spatial Interferometry, J. B. Breckinridge, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1237, 274–285 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Haniff, D. F. Buscher, J. C. Christou, S. T. Ridgway, “Diffraction-limited imaging at IR wavelengths using aperture masks and fully-filled apertures,” in Amplitude and Intensity Spatial Interferometry, J. B. Breckinridge, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1237, 259–271 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hege, E. K.

J. C. Christou, A. Y. S. Cheng, E. K. Hege, “Seeing calibration of optical astronomical speckle interferometric data,” Astron. J. 90, 2644–2651 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Korff, D.

Kulkarni, S. R.

T. Nakajima, S. R. Kulkarni, P. W. Gorham, A. M. Ghez, G. Neugebauer, J. B. Oke, T. A. Prince, A. C. S. Readhead, “Diffraction-limited imaging. II. Optical aperture synthesis imaging of two binary stars,” Astron. J. 97, 1510–1521 (1989).
[CrossRef]

P. W. Gorham, A. M. Ghez, S. R. Kulkarni, T. Nakajima, G. Neugebauer, J. B. Oke, T. A. Prince, “Diffraction-limited imaging. III. 30mas closure phase imaging of six binary stars with the Hale 5m telescope,” Astron. J. 98, 1783–1799 (1989).
[CrossRef]

W. N. Weir, A. M. Ghez, P. W. Gorham, C. A. Haniff, S. R. Kulkarni, K. Matthews, G. Neugebauer, “Infrared non-redundant mask imaging at Palomar,” in Amplitude and Intensity Spatial Interferometry, J. B. Breckinridge, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1237, 274–285 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Lannes, A.

A. Lannes, “On a new class of iterative algorithms for phase-closure imaging and bispectral analysis,” in High Resolution Imaging by Interferometry, F. Merkle, ed., Vol. 29 of European Southern Observatory Conference Proceedings (European Southern Observatory, Garching bei München, Germany, 1988), pp. 169–180.

Lohmann, A. W.

Mackay, C. D.

C. A. Haniff, C. D. Mackay, D. J. Titterington, D. Sivia, J. E. Baldwin, P. J. Warner, “The first images from optical aperture synthesis,” Nature (London) 328, 694–696 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Baldwin, C. A. Haniff, C. D. Mackay, P. J. Warner, “Closure phase in high-resolution optical imaging,” Nature (London) 320, 595–597 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Marron, J. C.

Marson, R. G.

J. G. Robertson, T. R. Bedding, R. G. Marson, P. R. Gillingham, R. H. Frater, J. D. O’Sullivan, R. P. Norris, “High resolution imaging by optical aperture synthesis—first results from the MAPPIT project,” Proc. Astron. Soc. Aust. 9, 162–163 (1991).

Matthews, K.

W. N. Weir, A. M. Ghez, P. W. Gorham, C. A. Haniff, S. R. Kulkarni, K. Matthews, G. Neugebauer, “Infrared non-redundant mask imaging at Palomar,” in Amplitude and Intensity Spatial Interferometry, J. B. Breckinridge, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1237, 274–285 (1990).
[CrossRef]

McCarthy, D. W.

J. C. Christou, S. T. Ridgway, D. F. Buscher, C. A. Haniff, D. W. McCarthy, “High spatial resolution imaging of circumstellar envelopes in the near infrared,” in Astrophysics with Infrared Arrays, R. Elston, ed., Vol. 14 of ASP Conference Series (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Tucson, Ariz., 1991), pp. 133–138.

Nakajima, T.

T. Nakajima, S. R. Kulkarni, P. W. Gorham, A. M. Ghez, G. Neugebauer, J. B. Oke, T. A. Prince, A. C. S. Readhead, “Diffraction-limited imaging. II. Optical aperture synthesis imaging of two binary stars,” Astron. J. 97, 1510–1521 (1989).
[CrossRef]

P. W. Gorham, A. M. Ghez, S. R. Kulkarni, T. Nakajima, G. Neugebauer, J. B. Oke, T. A. Prince, “Diffraction-limited imaging. III. 30mas closure phase imaging of six binary stars with the Hale 5m telescope,” Astron. J. 98, 1783–1799 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. C. S. Readhead, T. Nakajima, T. J. Pearson, G. Neugebauer, J. B. Oke, W. L. W. Sargent, “Diffraction-limited imaging with ground-based optical telescopes,” Astron. J. 95, 1278–1296 (1988).
[CrossRef]

T. Nakajima, “Signal-to-noise ratio of the bispectral analysis of speckle interferometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 1477–1491 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Neugebauer, G.

P. W. Gorham, A. M. Ghez, S. R. Kulkarni, T. Nakajima, G. Neugebauer, J. B. Oke, T. A. Prince, “Diffraction-limited imaging. III. 30mas closure phase imaging of six binary stars with the Hale 5m telescope,” Astron. J. 98, 1783–1799 (1989).
[CrossRef]

T. Nakajima, S. R. Kulkarni, P. W. Gorham, A. M. Ghez, G. Neugebauer, J. B. Oke, T. A. Prince, A. C. S. Readhead, “Diffraction-limited imaging. II. Optical aperture synthesis imaging of two binary stars,” Astron. J. 97, 1510–1521 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. C. S. Readhead, T. Nakajima, T. J. Pearson, G. Neugebauer, J. B. Oke, W. L. W. Sargent, “Diffraction-limited imaging with ground-based optical telescopes,” Astron. J. 95, 1278–1296 (1988).
[CrossRef]

W. N. Weir, A. M. Ghez, P. W. Gorham, C. A. Haniff, S. R. Kulkarni, K. Matthews, G. Neugebauer, “Infrared non-redundant mask imaging at Palomar,” in Amplitude and Intensity Spatial Interferometry, J. B. Breckinridge, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1237, 274–285 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Norris, R. P.

J. G. Robertson, T. R. Bedding, R. G. Marson, P. R. Gillingham, R. H. Frater, J. D. O’Sullivan, R. P. Norris, “High resolution imaging by optical aperture synthesis—first results from the MAPPIT project,” Proc. Astron. Soc. Aust. 9, 162–163 (1991).

Northcott, M. J.

O’Sullivan, J. D.

J. G. Robertson, T. R. Bedding, R. G. Marson, P. R. Gillingham, R. H. Frater, J. D. O’Sullivan, R. P. Norris, “High resolution imaging by optical aperture synthesis—first results from the MAPPIT project,” Proc. Astron. Soc. Aust. 9, 162–163 (1991).

Oke, J. B.

T. Nakajima, S. R. Kulkarni, P. W. Gorham, A. M. Ghez, G. Neugebauer, J. B. Oke, T. A. Prince, A. C. S. Readhead, “Diffraction-limited imaging. II. Optical aperture synthesis imaging of two binary stars,” Astron. J. 97, 1510–1521 (1989).
[CrossRef]

P. W. Gorham, A. M. Ghez, S. R. Kulkarni, T. Nakajima, G. Neugebauer, J. B. Oke, T. A. Prince, “Diffraction-limited imaging. III. 30mas closure phase imaging of six binary stars with the Hale 5m telescope,” Astron. J. 98, 1783–1799 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. C. S. Readhead, T. Nakajima, T. J. Pearson, G. Neugebauer, J. B. Oke, W. L. W. Sargent, “Diffraction-limited imaging with ground-based optical telescopes,” Astron. J. 95, 1278–1296 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Pearson, T. J.

A. C. S. Readhead, T. Nakajima, T. J. Pearson, G. Neugebauer, J. B. Oke, W. L. W. Sargent, “Diffraction-limited imaging with ground-based optical telescopes,” Astron. J. 95, 1278–1296 (1988).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Pearson, A. C. S. Readhead, “Image formation by self-calibration in radio astronomy,” Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 22, 97–130 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Pehlemann, E.

E. Pehlemann, O. von der Lühe, “Technical aspects of the speckle masking phase reconstruction algorithm,” Astron. Astrophys. 216, 337–346 (1989).

Prince, T. A.

P. W. Gorham, A. M. Ghez, S. R. Kulkarni, T. Nakajima, G. Neugebauer, J. B. Oke, T. A. Prince, “Diffraction-limited imaging. III. 30mas closure phase imaging of six binary stars with the Hale 5m telescope,” Astron. J. 98, 1783–1799 (1989).
[CrossRef]

T. Nakajima, S. R. Kulkarni, P. W. Gorham, A. M. Ghez, G. Neugebauer, J. B. Oke, T. A. Prince, A. C. S. Readhead, “Diffraction-limited imaging. II. Optical aperture synthesis imaging of two binary stars,” Astron. J. 97, 1510–1521 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Probst, R. G.

J. M. Beckers, J. C. Christou, R. G. Probst, S. T. Ridgway, O. von der Lühe, “First results with the NOAO 2-d speckle camera for infrared wavelengths,” in High Resolution Imaging by Interferometry, F. Merkle, ed., Vol. 29 of European Southern Observatory Conference Proceedings (European Southern Observatory, Garching bei München, Germany, 1988), pp. 393–400.

Readhead, A. C. S.

T. Nakajima, S. R. Kulkarni, P. W. Gorham, A. M. Ghez, G. Neugebauer, J. B. Oke, T. A. Prince, A. C. S. Readhead, “Diffraction-limited imaging. II. Optical aperture synthesis imaging of two binary stars,” Astron. J. 97, 1510–1521 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. C. S. Readhead, T. Nakajima, T. J. Pearson, G. Neugebauer, J. B. Oke, W. L. W. Sargent, “Diffraction-limited imaging with ground-based optical telescopes,” Astron. J. 95, 1278–1296 (1988).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Pearson, A. C. S. Readhead, “Image formation by self-calibration in radio astronomy,” Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 22, 97–130 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Rhodes, W. T.

Ridgway, S. T.

C. A. Haniff, D. F. Buscher, J. C. Christou, S. T. Ridgway, “Synthetic aperture imaging at infrared wavelengths,”M. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 241, 51P–56P (1989).

J. C. Christou, S. T. Ridgway, D. F. Buscher, C. A. Haniff, D. W. McCarthy, “High spatial resolution imaging of circumstellar envelopes in the near infrared,” in Astrophysics with Infrared Arrays, R. Elston, ed., Vol. 14 of ASP Conference Series (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Tucson, Ariz., 1991), pp. 133–138.

J. M. Beckers, J. C. Christou, R. G. Probst, S. T. Ridgway, O. von der Lühe, “First results with the NOAO 2-d speckle camera for infrared wavelengths,” in High Resolution Imaging by Interferometry, F. Merkle, ed., Vol. 29 of European Southern Observatory Conference Proceedings (European Southern Observatory, Garching bei München, Germany, 1988), pp. 393–400.

C. A. Haniff, D. F. Buscher, J. C. Christou, S. T. Ridgway, “Diffraction-limited imaging at IR wavelengths using aperture masks and fully-filled apertures,” in Amplitude and Intensity Spatial Interferometry, J. B. Breckinridge, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1237, 259–271 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Robertson, J. G.

J. G. Robertson, T. R. Bedding, R. G. Marson, P. R. Gillingham, R. H. Frater, J. D. O’Sullivan, R. P. Norris, “High resolution imaging by optical aperture synthesis—first results from the MAPPIT project,” Proc. Astron. Soc. Aust. 9, 162–163 (1991).

Roddier, F.

F. Roddier, “Redundant versus non-redundant beam recombination in an aperture synthesis with coherent optical arrays,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 1396–1401 (1987).
[CrossRef]

F. Roddier, “Triple correlation as a phase-closure technique,” Opt. Commun. 60, 145–148 (1986).
[CrossRef]

F. Roddier, “The effects of atmospheric turbulence in optical astronomy,” Prog. Opt. 19, 281–376 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Sanchez, P. P.

Sargent, W. L. W.

A. C. S. Readhead, T. Nakajima, T. J. Pearson, G. Neugebauer, J. B. Oke, W. L. W. Sargent, “Diffraction-limited imaging with ground-based optical telescopes,” Astron. J. 95, 1278–1296 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Sivia, D.

C. A. Haniff, C. D. Mackay, D. J. Titterington, D. Sivia, J. E. Baldwin, P. J. Warner, “The first images from optical aperture synthesis,” Nature (London) 328, 694–696 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Sullivan, R. C.

Titterington, D. J.

C. A. Haniff, C. D. Mackay, D. J. Titterington, D. Sivia, J. E. Baldwin, P. J. Warner, “The first images from optical aperture synthesis,” Nature (London) 328, 694–696 (1988).
[CrossRef]

von der Lühe, O.

E. Pehlemann, O. von der Lühe, “Technical aspects of the speckle masking phase reconstruction algorithm,” Astron. Astrophys. 216, 337–346 (1989).

J. M. Beckers, J. C. Christou, R. G. Probst, S. T. Ridgway, O. von der Lühe, “First results with the NOAO 2-d speckle camera for infrared wavelengths,” in High Resolution Imaging by Interferometry, F. Merkle, ed., Vol. 29 of European Southern Observatory Conference Proceedings (European Southern Observatory, Garching bei München, Germany, 1988), pp. 393–400.

Warner, P. J.

D. F. Buscher, C. A. Haniff, J. E. Baldwin, P. J. Warner, “Detection of a bright feature on the surface of Betelgeuse,”M. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 245, 7P–11P (1990).

C. A. Haniff, C. D. Mackay, D. J. Titterington, D. Sivia, J. E. Baldwin, P. J. Warner, “The first images from optical aperture synthesis,” Nature (London) 328, 694–696 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Baldwin, C. A. Haniff, C. D. Mackay, P. J. Warner, “Closure phase in high-resolution optical imaging,” Nature (London) 320, 595–597 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Weir, W. N.

W. N. Weir, A. M. Ghez, P. W. Gorham, C. A. Haniff, S. R. Kulkarni, K. Matthews, G. Neugebauer, “Infrared non-redundant mask imaging at Palomar,” in Amplitude and Intensity Spatial Interferometry, J. B. Breckinridge, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1237, 274–285 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wirnitzer, B.

Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys.

T. J. Pearson, A. C. S. Readhead, “Image formation by self-calibration in radio astronomy,” Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 22, 97–130 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Astron. Astrophys.

T. J. Cornwell, “Radio interferometric imaging of weak objects in conditions of poor phase stability—the relationship between speckle masking and phase-closure methods,” Astron. Astrophys. 180, 269–274 (1987).

E. Pehlemann, O. von der Lühe, “Technical aspects of the speckle masking phase reconstruction algorithm,” Astron. Astrophys. 216, 337–346 (1989).

Astron. J.

P. W. Gorham, A. M. Ghez, S. R. Kulkarni, T. Nakajima, G. Neugebauer, J. B. Oke, T. A. Prince, “Diffraction-limited imaging. III. 30mas closure phase imaging of six binary stars with the Hale 5m telescope,” Astron. J. 98, 1783–1799 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. C. S. Readhead, T. Nakajima, T. J. Pearson, G. Neugebauer, J. B. Oke, W. L. W. Sargent, “Diffraction-limited imaging with ground-based optical telescopes,” Astron. J. 95, 1278–1296 (1988).
[CrossRef]

T. Nakajima, S. R. Kulkarni, P. W. Gorham, A. M. Ghez, G. Neugebauer, J. B. Oke, T. A. Prince, A. C. S. Readhead, “Diffraction-limited imaging. II. Optical aperture synthesis imaging of two binary stars,” Astron. J. 97, 1510–1521 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Christou, A. Y. S. Cheng, E. K. Hege, “Seeing calibration of optical astronomical speckle interferometric data,” Astron. J. 90, 2644–2651 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

M. Not. R. Astron. Soc.

C. A. Haniff, D. F. Buscher, J. C. Christou, S. T. Ridgway, “Synthetic aperture imaging at infrared wavelengths,”M. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 241, 51P–56P (1989).

D. F. Buscher, C. A. Haniff, J. E. Baldwin, P. J. Warner, “Detection of a bright feature on the surface of Betelgeuse,”M. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 245, 7P–11P (1990).

D. F. Buscher, “Optimising a ground-based optical interferometer for sensitivity at low light levels,”M. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 235, 1203–1226 (1988).

Nature (London)

J. E. Baldwin, C. A. Haniff, C. D. Mackay, P. J. Warner, “Closure phase in high-resolution optical imaging,” Nature (London) 320, 595–597 (1986).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Haniff, C. D. Mackay, D. J. Titterington, D. Sivia, J. E. Baldwin, P. J. Warner, “The first images from optical aperture synthesis,” Nature (London) 328, 694–696 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

G. R. Ayers, J. C. Dainty, “Iterative blind deconvolution method and its applications,” Opt. Commun. 13, 547–549 (1988).

F. Roddier, “Triple correlation as a phase-closure technique,” Opt. Commun. 60, 145–148 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Astron. Soc. Aust.

J. G. Robertson, T. R. Bedding, R. G. Marson, P. R. Gillingham, R. H. Frater, J. D. O’Sullivan, R. P. Norris, “High resolution imaging by optical aperture synthesis—first results from the MAPPIT project,” Proc. Astron. Soc. Aust. 9, 162–163 (1991).

Prog. Opt.

F. Roddier, “The effects of atmospheric turbulence in optical astronomy,” Prog. Opt. 19, 281–376 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Science

I. Gatley, D. L. DePoy, A. M. Fowler, “Astronomical imaging with infrared array detectors,” Science 242, 1264–1270 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

See, e.g., Infrared Astronomy with Arrays, C. G. Wynn-Williams, E. E. Becklin, L. H. Good, eds. (Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii, 1988).

J. M. Beckers, J. C. Christou, R. G. Probst, S. T. Ridgway, O. von der Lühe, “First results with the NOAO 2-d speckle camera for infrared wavelengths,” in High Resolution Imaging by Interferometry, F. Merkle, ed., Vol. 29 of European Southern Observatory Conference Proceedings (European Southern Observatory, Garching bei München, Germany, 1988), pp. 393–400.

J. C. Christou, S. T. Ridgway, D. F. Buscher, C. A. Haniff, D. W. McCarthy, “High spatial resolution imaging of circumstellar envelopes in the near infrared,” in Astrophysics with Infrared Arrays, R. Elston, ed., Vol. 14 of ASP Conference Series (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Tucson, Ariz., 1991), pp. 133–138.

C. A. Haniff, D. F. Buscher, J. C. Christou, S. T. Ridgway, “Diffraction-limited imaging at IR wavelengths using aperture masks and fully-filled apertures,” in Amplitude and Intensity Spatial Interferometry, J. B. Breckinridge, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1237, 259–271 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics (Wiley, New York, 1985).

W. N. Weir, A. M. Ghez, P. W. Gorham, C. A. Haniff, S. R. Kulkarni, K. Matthews, G. Neugebauer, “Infrared non-redundant mask imaging at Palomar,” in Amplitude and Intensity Spatial Interferometry, J. B. Breckinridge, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1237, 274–285 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Christou, “Application of speckle interferometry techniques: working with real data,” in High Resolution Imaging by Interferometry, F. Merkle, ed., Vol. 29 of European Southern Observatory Conference Proceedings (European Southern Observatory, Garching bei München, Germany, 1988), pp. 97–111.

See, e.g., D. M. Alloin, J.-M. Mariotti, eds., Diffraction-Limited Imaging with Very Large Telescopes, NATO ASI Series C (Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1990), Vol. 274.

A. Lannes, “On a new class of iterative algorithms for phase-closure imaging and bispectral analysis,” in High Resolution Imaging by Interferometry, F. Merkle, ed., Vol. 29 of European Southern Observatory Conference Proceedings (European Southern Observatory, Garching bei München, Germany, 1988), pp. 169–180.

D. F. Buscher, “Getting the most out of C.O.A.S.T.,” Ph.D. dissertation (Cambridge University, Cambridge, 1988).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Histogram of 485 sequential measurements of the power spectrum magnitude at a fixed spatial frequency corresponding to one pair of subpupils in a nonredundantly masked pupil. (b) Corresponding Argand diagram for measurements of a single point in the bispectrum. See the text for details of these point-source observations.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Power spectrum magnitude and (b) bispectrum data for an observation of an unresolved source obtained through an unapodized pupil. The differences between these data and those displayed in Fig. 1 are primarily a result of the increased redundancy noise owing to the unapodized pupil geometry.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Noise resulting from atmospherically induced fluctuations in the high-light-level-image power spectrum for the three different pupil geometries discussed in the text. The solid curve shows the SNR of the power spectrum for the unapodized pupil, the dashed curve shows that for the r0-thick annulus and the dotted–dashed curve shows that for the 0.5-r0-thick annulus.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Histograms of the high-light-level phase errors for a sample set of 220 bispectrum points (a) for the unapodized aperture, (b) for the r0-thick annulus, and (c) for the 0.5-r0-thick annulus.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Fractional miscalibration of the mean power spectrum when the Fried parameter r0 increases by (a) 20% and (b) 50% between the observations of the source and the calibrator. The solid curves show the miscalibration for the unapodized pupil, the dashed curves show that for the r0-thick annulus, and the dotted–dashed curves show that for the 0.5-r0-thick annulus.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Mean amplitude of the power spectrum of the specklegrams for the three different pupil geometries discussed in the test when the same unresolved source is observed. The power spectra are shown on the same (arbitrary) scale: The solid curve denotes the unapodized pupil, the dashed curve denotes the r0-thick annulus, and the dotted–dashed curve denotes the 0.5-r0-thick annulus.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Median bispectrum-phase error for the observation of a point source as a function of light level. The parameterization of the source flux (SNR0) is described in the text. The solid curve denotes the unapodized pupil, the dashed curve denotes the r0-thick annulus, and the dotted–dashed curve denotes the 0.5-r0-thick annulus.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Contour plot of the test source used in the imaging simulations. The contour levels are at 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, and 99% of the peak flux. The object has been convolved with a Gaussian beam with a FWHM of 0.083 arcsec to facilitate comparison with the image reconstructions.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Images reconstructed from simulated specklegrams at infinite light level. A self-calibration-based method was used to recover the images from a total of 136 Fourier amplitudes and 680 bispectrum points. The maps are arranged from left to right in order of decreasing pupil area, i.e., the unapodized aperture, the r0-thick annulus, and the 0.5-r0-thick annulus, respectively, and from top to bottom in order of increasing seeing variation between source and calibrator data sets, namely 0, 20, and 50% variation, respectively. The contour levels plotted are at −4, −2, −1, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, and 99% of the peak flux, except in the lower three maps, for which the −1 and 1% contours have been removed. Negative contour levels are shown dashed. The clean beam used (FWHM = 0.083 arcsec) is shown in the bottom left-hand corner of each image.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Images reconstructed from simulated specklegrams at a low light level, corresponding to a SNR0 of 3.7. The same method and subsets of visibility amplitude and bispectral data as in Fig. 9 were used, and the maps are arranged in the same order with regard to pupil redundancy and seeing miscalibration. The contour levels plotted are at −4, −2, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, and 99% of the peak flux, with negative contours shown dashed.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Images recovered from the same sequences of specklegrams as those used to prepare Figs. 10(g)–10(i) but by use of a least-squares bispectrum algorithm. The reconstructions utilized 1060 Fourier amplitudes and 21,685 bispectrum points. As before, the maps are presented in order of decreasing pupil area from left to right. The contour levels are identical to those in Fig. 10.

Equations (21)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

σ ϕ σ / S ,
var ϕ [ I ( 3 ) ( u 1 , u 2 ) ] = var ϕ [ I ( 3 ) ( u 1 , u 2 ) ] + 1 2 I ( 3 ) ( u 1 , u 2 ) 2 × { 45 N pix 3 σ 6 + 3 N pix 2 σ 4 [ I ( u 1 ) 2 + I ( u 2 ) 2 + I ( - u 1 - u 2 ) 2 ] + N pix σ 2 [ I ( u 1 ) I ( u 2 ) 2 + I ( u 2 ) I ( - u 1 - u 2 ) 2 + I ( - u 1 - u 2 ) I ( u 1 ) 2 ] } ,
SNR 0 = I 0 / σ N pix ,
i ( x p ) = i ( x p ) + n ( x p ) ,
i ( x p ) n ( x q ) = 0             p , q ,
n ( x p ) n ( x q ) = δ p q σ 2 ,
n ( x p ) 2 k + 1 = 0             k = 0 , 1 , 2 , ,
I ( 3 ) ( u 1 , u 2 ) I ( u 1 ) I ( u 2 ) I ( - u 1 - u 2 ) ,
I ( 3 ) ( u 1 , u 2 ) = p , q , r exp { 2 π i [ u 1 · x p + u 2 · x q - ( u 1 + u 2 ) · x r ] } [ i ( x p ) + n ( x p ) ] × [ i ( x q ) + n ( x q ) ] [ i ( x r ) + n ( x r ) ] = p , q , r exp { 2 π i [ u 1 · x p + u 2 · x q - ( u 1 + u 2 ) · x r ] } [ i ( x p ) i ( x q ) i ( x r ) + i ( x p ) i ( x q ) n ( x r ) + i ( x q ) i ( x r ) n ( x p ) + i ( x r ) i ( x p ) n ( x q ) + i ( x p ) n ( x q ) n ( x r ) + i ( x q ) n ( x r ) n ( x p ) + i ( x r ) n ( x p ) n ( x q ) + n ( x p ) n ( x q ) n ( x r ) ] .
I ( 3 ) ( u 1 , u 2 ) = I ( u 1 ) I ( u 2 ) I ( - u 1 - u 2 ) + I ( u 1 ) × r σ 2 exp ( - 2 π i u 1 · x r ) + I ( u 2 ) × p σ 2 exp ( - 2 π i u 2 · x p ) + I ( - u 1 - u 2 ) × q σ 2 exp [ 2 π i ( u 1 + u 2 ) · x q ] ,
I ( 3 ) ( u 1 , u 2 ) I ( 3 ) ( u 1 , u 2 ) .
var 1 ( Q ) Q 2 - Q 2 ,
var 2 ( Q ) ( Q ) 2 - ( Q ) 2 ,
var ( Q , θ ) = ½ { var 1 ( Q ) + R [ exp ( - i 2 θ ) var 2 ( Q ) ] } ,
I ( 3 ) ( u 1 , u 2 ) 2 = k , l , m , p , q , r exp { 2 π i [ u 1 · x k + u 2 · x l - ( u 1 + u 2 ) · x m - u 1 · x p - u 2 · x q + ( u 1 + u 2 ) · x r ] } [ i ( x k ) + n ( x k ) ] × [ i ( x l ) + n ( x l ) ] [ i ( x m ) + n ( x m ) ] × [ i ( x p ) + n ( x p ) ] [ i ( x q ) + n ( x q ) ] × [ i ( x r ) + n ( x r ) ] .
p exp ( 2 π i u · x p ) = 0             u : ± u { u 1 , u 2 , u 1 + u 2 , u 1 - u 2 , 2 u 1 + u 2 , u 1 + 2 u 2 }
I ( u a ) I ( u b ) I ( u c ) = 0             u a , u b , , u c : u a + u b + + u c 0.
I ( 3 ) ( u 1 , u 2 ) 2 45 N pix 3 σ 6 + 3 N pix 2 σ 4 [ I ( u 1 ) 2 + I ( u 2 ) 2 + I ( - u 1 - u 2 ) 2 ] + N pix σ 2 [ I ( u 1 ) I ( u 2 ) 2 + I ( u 2 ) I ( - u 1 - u 2 ) 2 + I ( - u 1 - u 2 ) I ( u 1 ) 2 ] + I ( 3 ) ( u 1 , u 2 ) 2 .
[ I ( 3 ) ( u 1 , u 2 ) ] 2 [ I ( 3 ) ( u 1 , u 2 ) ] 2 ,
var [ I ( 3 ) ( u 1 , u 2 ) , θ ] = ½ { 45 N pix 3 σ 6 + 3 N pix 2 σ 4 [ I ( u 1 ) 2 + I ( u 2 ) 2 + I ( - u 1 - u 2 ) 2 ] + N pix σ 2 [ I ( u 1 ) I ( u 2 ) 2 + I ( u 2 ) I ( - u 1 - u 2 ) 2 + I ( - u 1 - u 2 ) I ( u 1 ) 2 ] } + var [ I ( 3 ) ( u 1 , u 2 ) , θ ] .
var ϕ ( Q ) = var [ Q , θ = arg ( Q ) + π / 2 ] Q 2 ,

Metrics