Abstract

Arend and Reeves [ J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 1743 ( 1986)] described measurements of color constancy in computer simulations of arrays of colored papers of equal Munsell value under 4000-, 6500-, and 10,000-K daylight illuminants. We report an extension of those experiments to chromatic arrays spanning a wide range of Munsell values. The computer-simulated scene included a standard array of Munsell papers under 6500-K illumination and a test array, an identical array of the same papers under 4000 or 10,000 K. Observers adjusted a patch in the test array in order to match the corresponding patch in the standard array by one of two criteria. They either matched hue and saturation or they made surface-color matches, in which the test patch was made to “look as if it were cut from the same piece of paper as the standard patch.” The test and the standard patches were surrounded by a single color (annulus display) or by many colors (Mondrian display). The data agreed with those of our previous equal-value experiment. The paper matches were often approximately color constant. The hue–saturation matches were in the correct direction for constancy but were always closer to. a chromaticity match (no constancy) than to the chromaticity required for hue–saturation constancy.

© 1991 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. L. Arend, A. Reeves, “Simultaneous color constancy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 1743–1751 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. P. Sallström, “Some remarks concerning the physical aspect of colour vision,” (Institute of Physics, University of Stockholm, Stockholm, 1973).
  3. L. T. Maloney, B. A. Wandell, “Color constancy: a method for recovering surface spectral reflectance,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 29–33 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. Brill, G. West, “Contributions to the theory of invariance of color under the conditions of varying illumination,”J. Math. Biol. 11, 337–350 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. A. Worthey, “Limitations of color constancy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2, 1014–1026 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  6. E. H. Land, “The retinex,” Am. Sci. 52, 247–264 (1964); “The retinex theory of color vision,” Sci. Am. 237, 108–128 (1977); “Recent advances in retinex theory and some implications for cortical computations: color vision and the natural image,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 80, 5163–5169 (1983).
    [PubMed]
  7. M. D’Zmura, P. Lennie, “Mechanisms color constancy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 1662–1672 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H.-C. Lee, “Method for computing the scene-illuminant chromaticity from specular highlights,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 1694–1699 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. L. E. Arend, R. Goldstein, “Simultaneous constancy, lightness and brightness,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 2281–2285 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A number of terms have been previously used for similar concepts. To our knowledge, all carry unwanted additional meanings. One will not go far wrong replacing our term with “sensory color,” but only the definition here is intended. In particular, we wish to avoid unproductive arguments concerning the meanings of “sensation” and “perception.”
  11. G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science (Wiley, New York, 1967).
  12. G. Wyszecki, “Color appearance,” in Handbook of Perception and Human Performance, K. R. Boff, L. Kaufman, J. P. Thomas, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1986), pp. 9-1–9-57.
  13. V. V. Maximov, Transformation of Colors by Illuminant Change (Nauka, Moscow, 1984).
  14. R. M. Evans, The Perception of Color (Wiley, New York, 1974); A. Kozaki, “Perception of lightness and brightness of achromatic surface color and impression of illumination,” Jpn. Psychol. Res. 15, 194–203 (1973); A. Gilchrist, S. Delman, A. Jacobsen, “The classification and integration of edges as critical to the perception of reflectance and illumination,” Percept. Psychophys. 33, 425–436; K. Koffka, “Some remarks on the theory of colour constancy,” Psychol. Forsch. 16, 329–345 (1931); J. Beck, Surface Color Perception (Cornell U. Press, Ithaca, N.Y., 1972); S. S. Bergstrom, “Common and relative components of reflected light as information about the illumination, colour, and three-dimensional form of objects,” Scand. J. Psychol. 18, 180–186 (1977); I. Lie, “Perception of illumination,” Scand. J. Psychol. 18, 251–255 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. This result was stated as Kirschmann’s third law of color contrast: A. Kirschmann, “Uber die quantitativen Verhaltnisse des simultanen Heligkeits- and Farben-Contrastes,” Philos. Stud. (Wundt) 6, 417–491 (1890).
  16. J. S. Kinney, “Factors affecting induced color,” Vision Res. 2, 503–525 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. S. Bergstrom, G. Derefeldt, “Effects of surround/test field luminance ratio on induced colour,” Scand. J. Psychol. 16, 31–38 (1975). This reference includes a literature review.
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. S. Bergstrom, G. Derefeldt, S. Holmgren, “Chromatic induction as a function of luminance relations,” Scand. J. Psychol. 19, 265–276 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  19. A. Valberg, “Color induction: dependence on luminance, purity, and dominant or complementary wavelength of inducing stimuli,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 1531–1540 (1974).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. K. L. Kelly, K. S. Gibson, D. Nickerson, “Tristimulus specification of the Munsell Book of Colorfrom spectrophotometric measurements,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 355–376 (1943).
    [CrossRef]
  21. Y. Le Grand, Light, Colour and Vision (Chapman & Hall, London, 1968).
  22. Data from Kelly et al.20 refer to the original Munsell notation, and our simulated papers are described in those same terms. Both hue and chroma are somewhat different in the two systems. Our test stimuli, R, G, Y, B, and N, correspond closely to renotation hues 5R, 5G, 5Y, 5B, and N, respectively. The renotation chromas closest to the chromas of our test patches are approximately /2 chroma steps greater than our reported values, e.g., 5R 5/10 for our R 5/8.

1987 (1)

1986 (4)

1985 (1)

1981 (1)

M. Brill, G. West, “Contributions to the theory of invariance of color under the conditions of varying illumination,”J. Math. Biol. 11, 337–350 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

S. S. Bergstrom, G. Derefeldt, S. Holmgren, “Chromatic induction as a function of luminance relations,” Scand. J. Psychol. 19, 265–276 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

S. S. Bergstrom, G. Derefeldt, “Effects of surround/test field luminance ratio on induced colour,” Scand. J. Psychol. 16, 31–38 (1975). This reference includes a literature review.
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

1964 (1)

E. H. Land, “The retinex,” Am. Sci. 52, 247–264 (1964); “The retinex theory of color vision,” Sci. Am. 237, 108–128 (1977); “Recent advances in retinex theory and some implications for cortical computations: color vision and the natural image,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 80, 5163–5169 (1983).
[PubMed]

1962 (1)

J. S. Kinney, “Factors affecting induced color,” Vision Res. 2, 503–525 (1962).
[CrossRef]

1943 (1)

1890 (1)

This result was stated as Kirschmann’s third law of color contrast: A. Kirschmann, “Uber die quantitativen Verhaltnisse des simultanen Heligkeits- and Farben-Contrastes,” Philos. Stud. (Wundt) 6, 417–491 (1890).

Arend, L.

Arend, L. E.

Bergstrom, S. S.

S. S. Bergstrom, G. Derefeldt, S. Holmgren, “Chromatic induction as a function of luminance relations,” Scand. J. Psychol. 19, 265–276 (1978).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Bergstrom, G. Derefeldt, “Effects of surround/test field luminance ratio on induced colour,” Scand. J. Psychol. 16, 31–38 (1975). This reference includes a literature review.
[CrossRef]

Brill, M.

M. Brill, G. West, “Contributions to the theory of invariance of color under the conditions of varying illumination,”J. Math. Biol. 11, 337–350 (1981).
[CrossRef]

D’Zmura, M.

Derefeldt, G.

S. S. Bergstrom, G. Derefeldt, S. Holmgren, “Chromatic induction as a function of luminance relations,” Scand. J. Psychol. 19, 265–276 (1978).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Bergstrom, G. Derefeldt, “Effects of surround/test field luminance ratio on induced colour,” Scand. J. Psychol. 16, 31–38 (1975). This reference includes a literature review.
[CrossRef]

Evans, R. M.

R. M. Evans, The Perception of Color (Wiley, New York, 1974); A. Kozaki, “Perception of lightness and brightness of achromatic surface color and impression of illumination,” Jpn. Psychol. Res. 15, 194–203 (1973); A. Gilchrist, S. Delman, A. Jacobsen, “The classification and integration of edges as critical to the perception of reflectance and illumination,” Percept. Psychophys. 33, 425–436; K. Koffka, “Some remarks on the theory of colour constancy,” Psychol. Forsch. 16, 329–345 (1931); J. Beck, Surface Color Perception (Cornell U. Press, Ithaca, N.Y., 1972); S. S. Bergstrom, “Common and relative components of reflected light as information about the illumination, colour, and three-dimensional form of objects,” Scand. J. Psychol. 18, 180–186 (1977); I. Lie, “Perception of illumination,” Scand. J. Psychol. 18, 251–255 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gibson, K. S.

Goldstein, R.

Holmgren, S.

S. S. Bergstrom, G. Derefeldt, S. Holmgren, “Chromatic induction as a function of luminance relations,” Scand. J. Psychol. 19, 265–276 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, K. L.

Kinney, J. S.

J. S. Kinney, “Factors affecting induced color,” Vision Res. 2, 503–525 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Kirschmann, A.

This result was stated as Kirschmann’s third law of color contrast: A. Kirschmann, “Uber die quantitativen Verhaltnisse des simultanen Heligkeits- and Farben-Contrastes,” Philos. Stud. (Wundt) 6, 417–491 (1890).

Land, E. H.

E. H. Land, “The retinex,” Am. Sci. 52, 247–264 (1964); “The retinex theory of color vision,” Sci. Am. 237, 108–128 (1977); “Recent advances in retinex theory and some implications for cortical computations: color vision and the natural image,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 80, 5163–5169 (1983).
[PubMed]

Le Grand, Y.

Y. Le Grand, Light, Colour and Vision (Chapman & Hall, London, 1968).

Lee, H.-C.

Lennie, P.

Maloney, L. T.

Maximov, V. V.

V. V. Maximov, Transformation of Colors by Illuminant Change (Nauka, Moscow, 1984).

Nickerson, D.

Reeves, A.

Sallström, P.

P. Sallström, “Some remarks concerning the physical aspect of colour vision,” (Institute of Physics, University of Stockholm, Stockholm, 1973).

Stiles, W. S.

G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science (Wiley, New York, 1967).

Valberg, A.

Wandell, B. A.

West, G.

M. Brill, G. West, “Contributions to the theory of invariance of color under the conditions of varying illumination,”J. Math. Biol. 11, 337–350 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Worthey, J. A.

Wyszecki, G.

G. Wyszecki, “Color appearance,” in Handbook of Perception and Human Performance, K. R. Boff, L. Kaufman, J. P. Thomas, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1986), pp. 9-1–9-57.

G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science (Wiley, New York, 1967).

Am. Sci. (1)

E. H. Land, “The retinex,” Am. Sci. 52, 247–264 (1964); “The retinex theory of color vision,” Sci. Am. 237, 108–128 (1977); “Recent advances in retinex theory and some implications for cortical computations: color vision and the natural image,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 80, 5163–5169 (1983).
[PubMed]

J. Math. Biol. (1)

M. Brill, G. West, “Contributions to the theory of invariance of color under the conditions of varying illumination,”J. Math. Biol. 11, 337–350 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (6)

Philos. Stud. (Wundt) (1)

This result was stated as Kirschmann’s third law of color contrast: A. Kirschmann, “Uber die quantitativen Verhaltnisse des simultanen Heligkeits- and Farben-Contrastes,” Philos. Stud. (Wundt) 6, 417–491 (1890).

Scand. J. Psychol. (2)

S. S. Bergstrom, G. Derefeldt, “Effects of surround/test field luminance ratio on induced colour,” Scand. J. Psychol. 16, 31–38 (1975). This reference includes a literature review.
[CrossRef]

S. S. Bergstrom, G. Derefeldt, S. Holmgren, “Chromatic induction as a function of luminance relations,” Scand. J. Psychol. 19, 265–276 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Vision Res. (1)

J. S. Kinney, “Factors affecting induced color,” Vision Res. 2, 503–525 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Other (8)

P. Sallström, “Some remarks concerning the physical aspect of colour vision,” (Institute of Physics, University of Stockholm, Stockholm, 1973).

A number of terms have been previously used for similar concepts. To our knowledge, all carry unwanted additional meanings. One will not go far wrong replacing our term with “sensory color,” but only the definition here is intended. In particular, we wish to avoid unproductive arguments concerning the meanings of “sensation” and “perception.”

G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science (Wiley, New York, 1967).

G. Wyszecki, “Color appearance,” in Handbook of Perception and Human Performance, K. R. Boff, L. Kaufman, J. P. Thomas, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1986), pp. 9-1–9-57.

V. V. Maximov, Transformation of Colors by Illuminant Change (Nauka, Moscow, 1984).

R. M. Evans, The Perception of Color (Wiley, New York, 1974); A. Kozaki, “Perception of lightness and brightness of achromatic surface color and impression of illumination,” Jpn. Psychol. Res. 15, 194–203 (1973); A. Gilchrist, S. Delman, A. Jacobsen, “The classification and integration of edges as critical to the perception of reflectance and illumination,” Percept. Psychophys. 33, 425–436; K. Koffka, “Some remarks on the theory of colour constancy,” Psychol. Forsch. 16, 329–345 (1931); J. Beck, Surface Color Perception (Cornell U. Press, Ithaca, N.Y., 1972); S. S. Bergstrom, “Common and relative components of reflected light as information about the illumination, colour, and three-dimensional form of objects,” Scand. J. Psychol. 18, 180–186 (1977); I. Lie, “Perception of illumination,” Scand. J. Psychol. 18, 251–255 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Le Grand, Light, Colour and Vision (Chapman & Hall, London, 1968).

Data from Kelly et al.20 refer to the original Munsell notation, and our simulated papers are described in those same terms. Both hue and chroma are somewhat different in the two systems. Our test stimuli, R, G, Y, B, and N, correspond closely to renotation hues 5R, 5G, 5Y, 5B, and N, respectively. The renotation chromas closest to the chromas of our test patches are approximately /2 chroma steps greater than our reported values, e.g., 5R 5/10 for our R 5/8.

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Disk–annulus stimulus diagram; (b) Mondrian stimulus diagram.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Mondrian Munsell designations, (b) Mondrian luminances.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Diagram of logic of data graphs: (a) appearance of data in case of almost no color constancy, (b) appearance of data in case of nearly perfect color constancy, (c) distances used in calculation of constancy index (= 1 − b/a).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Mean-chromaticity settings for Mondrian patterns, first luminance arrangement: open symbols, theoretical chromaticities; closed symbols, mean-chromaticity data. The left-hand column shows unasserted-color matches; the right-hand column shows surface-color matches. The rows present data by observer. Error bars represent ±1 standard error.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Mean-constancy index for first-luminance-arrangement Mondrians (1st Arr Mond) versus equal-value Mondrians (Equal V Mond): unasserted, unasserted-color matches; surface color, apparent-surface-color matches. Error bars represent ±1 standard error. Equal-value data were previously published.1

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Mean-chromaticity settings for Mondrian patterns, second luminance arrangement. Symbols, rows, and columns are as in Fig. 4. Error bars represent ±1 standard error.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Mean-constancy index for first-luminance-arrangement Mondrians (1st Arr Mond) versus equal-value Mondrians (2nd Arr Mond): unasserted, unasserted-color matches; surface color, apparent-surface-color matches. Error bars represent ±1 standard error.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Mean-chromaticity settings for disk–annulus patterns: filled symbols, disk luminance greater than annulus luminance; open symbols with error bars, disk luminance less than annulus luminance. Rows and columns are as in Fig. 4. Error bars represent ±1 standard error.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Mean-constancy index for disk luminance greater than annulus luminance (Disk L > Ann L) versus disk luminance less than annulus luminance (Disk L < Ann L): unasserted, unasserted-color matches; surface color, apparent-surface-color matches. Error bars represent ±1 standard error.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Mean-chromaticity settings for 4000-,6500-, and 10,000-K illuminants, unasserted color matches, Mondrian patterns, first luminance arrangement. Symbols as in Fig. 4. Error bars represent ±1 standard error.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Timing sequence in flashed-exposure experiment.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Mean-chromaticity settings of flashed Mondrian test patches, unasserted color criterion. Symbols and rows as in Fig. 4. Error bars represent ±1 standard error.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Mean-constancy index for unasserted-color matches, continuously presented, equal-value Mondrians (Continuous) versus flashed equal-value Mondrians (Flashed). Continuously presented equal-value data were previously published.1 Error bars represent ±1 standard error.

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b = [ ( u 0 - u 2 ) 2 + ( v 0 - v 2 ) 2 ] 1 / 2 .
a = [ ( u 1 - u 2 ) 2 + ( v 1 - v 2 ) 2 ] 1 / 2 .
I = 1 - b / a ,

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