Abstract

Refractometric parameters of several atmospheric gases have been precisely determined at 633 nm with an uncertainty approaching ±2 parts per 104, and these parameters, together with an examination of the validity of the Lorentz–Lorenz formula when applied to air, are discussed.

© 1991 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. J. Downs, K. P. Birch, “Bi-directional fringe counting interference refractometer,” Prec. Eng. 5, 105–110 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. P. Birch, “The precise determination of refractometric parameters for atmospheric gases,” Ph.D. dissertation (Southampton University, Highfield, Southhampton, UK, 1988).
  3. H. A. Stuart, Molekülstruktur (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1967).
  4. L. D. Landau, E. M. Lifschitz, Lehrbuch der Theoretischen Physik (Akademie, Berlin, 1980), Vol. 8.
  5. M. Davies, ed., Dielectric and Related Molecular Processes (Chemical Society, London, 1972).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Kihara, Intermolecular Forces (Wiley, Chichester, UK, 1978).
  7. I. A. Robinson, “An automated high precision technique for the measurement of multiple resistance-thermometers,” Ph.D. dissertation (London University, London, 1988).
  8. P. L. M. Heydemann, “Determination and correction of quadrature fringe measurement errors in interferometers,” Appl. Opt. 20, 3382–3384 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. B. Edlén, “The refractive index of air,” Metrologia 2, 71–80 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. Giacomo, “Equation for the determination of the density of moist air,” Metrologia 18, 33–40 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. H. Dymond, E. B. Smith, The Virial Coefficients of Pure Gas Mixtures (Oxford U. Press, London, 1980).
  12. C. J. F. Böttcher, P. Bordewijk, Theory of Electric Polarisation (Elsevier, New York, 1978), Vol. 2, p. 332.
  13. M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 2nd ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1964), p. 90.
  14. C. Cuthbertson, M. Cuthbertson, “The refraction and dispersion of argon, and redeterminations of the dispersion of helium, neon, krypton and xenon,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 84, 13–15 (1911).
  15. C. Cuthbertson, M. Cuthbertson, “The refraction and dispersion of neon and helium,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 135, 40–47 (1932).
    [CrossRef]
  16. E. R. Peck, B. N. Khanna, “Dispersion of nitrogen,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1059–1063 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  17. E. R. Peck, D. J. Fisher, “Dispersion of argon,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 1362–1364 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  18. C. R. Mansfield, E. R. Peck, “Dispersion of helium,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 199–204 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. D. Hey, H. S. T. Driver, D. B. Fish, “The refractivity of helium and its measurement by laser interferometry,” Am. J. Phys. 56, 646–652 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  20. A. C. Simmons, “The refractive index and Lorentz–Lorenz functions of propane, nitrogen and carbon dioxide in the spectral range 15803–22002 cm−1and at 944 cm−1,” Opt. Commun. 25, 211–214 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  21. K. Kerl, “Determination of mean molecular polarisabilities and second virial coefficients of gases by scanning-wavelength interferometry,”Z. Phy. Chem. Neue Folge, Bd. 129, S129–S148 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  22. K. P. Birch, M. J. Downs, “Error sources in the determination of the refractive index of air,” Appl. Opt. 28, 825 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

1988 (1)

J. D. Hey, H. S. T. Driver, D. B. Fish, “The refractivity of helium and its measurement by laser interferometry,” Am. J. Phys. 56, 646–652 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

M. J. Downs, K. P. Birch, “Bi-directional fringe counting interference refractometer,” Prec. Eng. 5, 105–110 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (2)

K. Kerl, “Determination of mean molecular polarisabilities and second virial coefficients of gases by scanning-wavelength interferometry,”Z. Phy. Chem. Neue Folge, Bd. 129, S129–S148 (1982).
[CrossRef]

P. Giacomo, “Equation for the determination of the density of moist air,” Metrologia 18, 33–40 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

1978 (1)

A. C. Simmons, “The refractive index and Lorentz–Lorenz functions of propane, nitrogen and carbon dioxide in the spectral range 15803–22002 cm−1and at 944 cm−1,” Opt. Commun. 25, 211–214 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

1966 (2)

E. R. Peck, B. N. Khanna, “Dispersion of nitrogen,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1059–1063 (1966).
[CrossRef]

B. Edlén, “The refractive index of air,” Metrologia 2, 71–80 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

1932 (1)

C. Cuthbertson, M. Cuthbertson, “The refraction and dispersion of neon and helium,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 135, 40–47 (1932).
[CrossRef]

1911 (1)

C. Cuthbertson, M. Cuthbertson, “The refraction and dispersion of argon, and redeterminations of the dispersion of helium, neon, krypton and xenon,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 84, 13–15 (1911).

Birch, K. P.

K. P. Birch, M. J. Downs, “Error sources in the determination of the refractive index of air,” Appl. Opt. 28, 825 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Downs, K. P. Birch, “Bi-directional fringe counting interference refractometer,” Prec. Eng. 5, 105–110 (1983).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Birch, “The precise determination of refractometric parameters for atmospheric gases,” Ph.D. dissertation (Southampton University, Highfield, Southhampton, UK, 1988).

Bordewijk, P.

C. J. F. Böttcher, P. Bordewijk, Theory of Electric Polarisation (Elsevier, New York, 1978), Vol. 2, p. 332.

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 2nd ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1964), p. 90.

Böttcher, C. J. F.

C. J. F. Böttcher, P. Bordewijk, Theory of Electric Polarisation (Elsevier, New York, 1978), Vol. 2, p. 332.

Cuthbertson, C.

C. Cuthbertson, M. Cuthbertson, “The refraction and dispersion of neon and helium,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 135, 40–47 (1932).
[CrossRef]

C. Cuthbertson, M. Cuthbertson, “The refraction and dispersion of argon, and redeterminations of the dispersion of helium, neon, krypton and xenon,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 84, 13–15 (1911).

Cuthbertson, M.

C. Cuthbertson, M. Cuthbertson, “The refraction and dispersion of neon and helium,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 135, 40–47 (1932).
[CrossRef]

C. Cuthbertson, M. Cuthbertson, “The refraction and dispersion of argon, and redeterminations of the dispersion of helium, neon, krypton and xenon,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 84, 13–15 (1911).

Downs, M. J.

K. P. Birch, M. J. Downs, “Error sources in the determination of the refractive index of air,” Appl. Opt. 28, 825 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Downs, K. P. Birch, “Bi-directional fringe counting interference refractometer,” Prec. Eng. 5, 105–110 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Driver, H. S. T.

J. D. Hey, H. S. T. Driver, D. B. Fish, “The refractivity of helium and its measurement by laser interferometry,” Am. J. Phys. 56, 646–652 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Dymond, J. H.

J. H. Dymond, E. B. Smith, The Virial Coefficients of Pure Gas Mixtures (Oxford U. Press, London, 1980).

Edlén, B.

B. Edlén, “The refractive index of air,” Metrologia 2, 71–80 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Fish, D. B.

J. D. Hey, H. S. T. Driver, D. B. Fish, “The refractivity of helium and its measurement by laser interferometry,” Am. J. Phys. 56, 646–652 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Fisher, D. J.

Giacomo, P.

P. Giacomo, “Equation for the determination of the density of moist air,” Metrologia 18, 33–40 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Hey, J. D.

J. D. Hey, H. S. T. Driver, D. B. Fish, “The refractivity of helium and its measurement by laser interferometry,” Am. J. Phys. 56, 646–652 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Heydemann, P. L. M.

Kerl, K.

K. Kerl, “Determination of mean molecular polarisabilities and second virial coefficients of gases by scanning-wavelength interferometry,”Z. Phy. Chem. Neue Folge, Bd. 129, S129–S148 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Khanna, B. N.

Kihara, T.

T. Kihara, Intermolecular Forces (Wiley, Chichester, UK, 1978).

Landau, L. D.

L. D. Landau, E. M. Lifschitz, Lehrbuch der Theoretischen Physik (Akademie, Berlin, 1980), Vol. 8.

Lifschitz, E. M.

L. D. Landau, E. M. Lifschitz, Lehrbuch der Theoretischen Physik (Akademie, Berlin, 1980), Vol. 8.

Mansfield, C. R.

Peck, E. R.

Robinson, I. A.

I. A. Robinson, “An automated high precision technique for the measurement of multiple resistance-thermometers,” Ph.D. dissertation (London University, London, 1988).

Simmons, A. C.

A. C. Simmons, “The refractive index and Lorentz–Lorenz functions of propane, nitrogen and carbon dioxide in the spectral range 15803–22002 cm−1and at 944 cm−1,” Opt. Commun. 25, 211–214 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Smith, E. B.

J. H. Dymond, E. B. Smith, The Virial Coefficients of Pure Gas Mixtures (Oxford U. Press, London, 1980).

Stuart, H. A.

H. A. Stuart, Molekülstruktur (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1967).

Wolf, E.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 2nd ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1964), p. 90.

Am. J. Phys. (1)

J. D. Hey, H. S. T. Driver, D. B. Fish, “The refractivity of helium and its measurement by laser interferometry,” Am. J. Phys. 56, 646–652 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (3)

Metrologia (2)

B. Edlén, “The refractive index of air,” Metrologia 2, 71–80 (1966).
[CrossRef]

P. Giacomo, “Equation for the determination of the density of moist air,” Metrologia 18, 33–40 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. C. Simmons, “The refractive index and Lorentz–Lorenz functions of propane, nitrogen and carbon dioxide in the spectral range 15803–22002 cm−1and at 944 cm−1,” Opt. Commun. 25, 211–214 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Prec. Eng. (1)

M. J. Downs, K. P. Birch, “Bi-directional fringe counting interference refractometer,” Prec. Eng. 5, 105–110 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A (2)

C. Cuthbertson, M. Cuthbertson, “The refraction and dispersion of argon, and redeterminations of the dispersion of helium, neon, krypton and xenon,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 84, 13–15 (1911).

C. Cuthbertson, M. Cuthbertson, “The refraction and dispersion of neon and helium,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 135, 40–47 (1932).
[CrossRef]

Z. Phy. Chem. Neue Folge, Bd. (1)

K. Kerl, “Determination of mean molecular polarisabilities and second virial coefficients of gases by scanning-wavelength interferometry,”Z. Phy. Chem. Neue Folge, Bd. 129, S129–S148 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Other (9)

K. P. Birch, “The precise determination of refractometric parameters for atmospheric gases,” Ph.D. dissertation (Southampton University, Highfield, Southhampton, UK, 1988).

H. A. Stuart, Molekülstruktur (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1967).

L. D. Landau, E. M. Lifschitz, Lehrbuch der Theoretischen Physik (Akademie, Berlin, 1980), Vol. 8.

M. Davies, ed., Dielectric and Related Molecular Processes (Chemical Society, London, 1972).
[CrossRef]

T. Kihara, Intermolecular Forces (Wiley, Chichester, UK, 1978).

I. A. Robinson, “An automated high precision technique for the measurement of multiple resistance-thermometers,” Ph.D. dissertation (London University, London, 1988).

J. H. Dymond, E. B. Smith, The Virial Coefficients of Pure Gas Mixtures (Oxford U. Press, London, 1980).

C. J. F. Böttcher, P. Bordewijk, Theory of Electric Polarisation (Elsevier, New York, 1978), Vol. 2, p. 332.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 2nd ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1964), p. 90.

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Figures (1)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Automation of refractometer: A, B, output signals; R1–R4, resistance thermometers; V1–V7, solonoid values; P1–P3, Pirani gauges.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Molar Refraction Data

Tables Icon

Table 2 Derived Refractivity Values for λ = 632.99 nm, 101 325-Pa Pressure, and 15°C

Tables Icon

Table 3 Derived Values for the Density and Specific Refraction of Dry Air

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

d = p m ( Z R T ) - 1 ,
n 2 - 1 n 2 + 2 1 d = R ,
[ R ] = R M ,
α = 3 [ R ] 4 π .
n = ( 2 A + 1 1 - A ) 1 / 2 ,
[ R ] = n 2 - 1 n 2 + 2 M d = K x K [ R ] K ,

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