Abstract

Hue and saturation scaling were used to measure the appearance of spectral lights as a function of stimulus size for nine loci across the horizontal retinal meridian. At a given locus, each hue (R, Y, G, and B) grew as a function of stimulus size up to some asymptotic value. The parameter values of Michaelis–Menten growth functions fitted to the hue data were used to derive the sizes of the so-called perceptive fields of the hue mechanisms. The fields for all mechanisms increased with eccentricity, and this increase was greater on the temporal than on the nasal retina. By increasing stimulus size it was possible to achieve fovealike color vision to eccentricities of 20 deg. However, even the largest stimuli failed to produce fully saturated hues at 40 deg. The retinal size scales of the four hue mechanisms were not the same; those for R and B were similar, and these mechanisms had the smallest perceptive fields everywhere. The perceptive fields of the hue mechanisms at all loci were larger than anatomical estimates of the sizes of retinal receptive fields.

© 1991 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. C. E. Ferree, G. Rand, “Chromatic thresholds of sensation from center to periphery of the retina and their bearing on color theory,” Psychol. Rev. 26, 16–41 (1919).
  2. R. J. Jacobs, “Visual resolution and color interaction in the fovea and periphery,” Vision Res. 19, 1187–1195 (1979).
  3. M. E. Wilson, “Invariant features of spatial summation with changing locus in the visual field,”J. Physiol. (London) 207, 611–622 (1970).
  4. J. J. Koenderink, M. A. Bouman, A. E. Bueno de Mesquita, S. Slappendel, “Perimetry of contrast detection thresholds of moving spatial sine wave patterns. I. The near peripheral visual field (eccentricity 0°–8°); II. The far peripheral visual field (eccentricity 0°–50°); III. The target extent as a sensitivity controlling parameter; IV. The influence of the mean retinal illuminance,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 845–865 (1978).
  5. F. M. De Monasterio, P. Gouras, “Functional properties of ganglion cells of the rhesus monkey retina,”J. Physiol. (London) 251, 167–195 (1975).
  6. V. H. Perry, R. Oehler, A. Cowey, “Retinal ganglion cells that project to the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus in the macaque monkey,” Neuroscience 12, 1101–1123 (1984).
  7. A. Cowey, E. T. Rolls, “Human cortical magnification factor and its relation to visual acuity,” Exp. Brain Res. 21, 447–457 (1974).
  8. J. Rovamu, V. Virsu, “An estimation and application of the human cortical magnification factor,” Exp. Brain Res. 37, 495–510 (1979).
  9. R. B. H. Tootell, E. Switkes, M. S. Silverman, S. L. Hamilton, “Functional anatomy of macaque striate cortex. II. Retinotopic organization,”J. Neurosci. 8, 1531–1568 (1988).
  10. J. D. Moreland, “Peripheral color vision,” in Handbook of Sensory Physiology, 7/4, D. Jameson, L. M. Hurvich, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1972), pp. 517–536.
  11. J. Gordon, I. Abramov, “Color vision in the peripheral retina. II. Hue and saturation,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 202–207 (1977).
  12. C. Noorlander, J. J. Koenderink, R. J. DenOuden, B. W. Edens, “Sensitivity to spatiotemporal colour contrast in the peripheral visual field,” Vision Res. 23, 1–11 (1983).
  13. J. A. Van Esch, E. E. Koldenhoff, A. J. Van Doorn, J. J. Koenderink, “Spectral sensitivity and wavelength discrimination of the human peripheral visual field,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 1, 443–450 (1984).
  14. M. A. Johnson, “Color vision in the peripheral retina,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 63, 97–103 (1986).
  15. E. Zrenner, P. Gouras, “Cone opponency in tonic ganglion cells and its variation with eccentricity in rhesus monkey retina,” in Color Vision: Physiology and Psychophysics, J. D. Mollon, L. T. Sharpe, eds. (Academic, London, 1983), pp. 211–223.
  16. R. L. De Valois, K. K. De Valois, “Neural coding of color,” in Handbook of Perception 5, E. C. Carterette, M. P. Fried-man, eds. (Academic, New York, 1975), pp. 117–166.
  17. J. Kruger, “Stimulus dependent colour specificity of monkey lateral geniculate neurons,” Exp. Brain Res. 30, 297–311 (1977).
  18. C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, O. Packer, A. E. Hendrickson, R. E. Kalina, “Distribution of cones in human and monkey retina: individual variability and radial asymmetry,” Science 236, 579–582 (1987).
  19. G. Wald, “Blue-blindness in the normal fovea,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 1289–1301 (1967).
  20. R. E. Marc, H. G. Sperling, “Chromatic organization of primate cones,” Science 196, 454–456 (1977).
  21. D. R. Williams, D. I. A. MacLeod, M. M. Hayhoe, “Punctate sensitivity of the blue-sensitive mechanism,” Vision Res. 21, 1357–1375 (1981).
  22. H. Uchikawa, P. K. Kaiser, K. Uchikawa, “Color-discrimination perimetry,” Color Res. Appl. 7, 264–272 (1982).
  23. U. Stabell, B. Stabell, “Color vision in the peripheral retina under photopic conditions,” Vision Res. 22, 839–844 (1982).
  24. J. Gordon, I. Abramov, “Scaling procedures for specifying color appearance,” Color Res. Appl. 13, 146–152 (1988).
  25. I. Abramov, J. Gordon, H. Chan, “Using hue scaling to specify color appearance and to derive color differences,” in Perceiving and Measuring Color, M. Brill, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1250, 40–51 (1990).
  26. I. Abramov, J. Gordon, “Color appearance in central and peripheral retina,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4(13), P38 (1987).
  27. I. Abramov, J. Gordon, “Color appearance in peripheral retina: naso-temporal asymmetries,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 29, 300 (1988).
  28. B. J. Winer, Statistical Principles in Experimental Design (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1971).
  29. I. Abramov, J. Gordon, “Color vision in the peripheral retina. I. Spectral sensitivity,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 195–202 (1977).
  30. R. A. Weale, “Spectral sensitivity and wavelength-discrimination of the peripheral retina,”J. Physiol. (London) 119, 170–190 (1953).
  31. U. Stabell, B. Stabell, “Variation of macular pigmentation and in short wave cone sensitivity with eccentricity,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 706–711 (1980).
  32. B. R. Wooten, K. Fuld, L. Spillman, “Photopic spectral sensitivity of the peripheral retina,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 334–342 (1975).
  33. J. J. Vos, “Colorimetric and photometric properties of a 2° fundamental observer,” Color Res. Appl. 3, 125–128 (1978).
  34. G. Westheimer, “Spatial interaction in human cone vision,”J. Physiol. (London) 190, 139–154 (1967).
  35. R. L. De Valois, D. M. Snodderly, E. W. Yund, N. Hepler, “Response of macaque lateral geniculate cells to luminance and color figures,” Sensory Processes 1, 244–259 (1977).
  36. E. Kaplan, R. M. Shapley, K. Purpura, “Spatial and spectral mechanisms of primate retinal ganglion cells,” in Seeing Contour and Colour, J. J. Kulikowski, C. M. Dickinson, I. J. Murray, eds. (Pergamon, London, 1989), pp. 36–40.
  37. E. N. Willmer, W. D. Wright, “Colour sensitivity of the fovea centralis,” Nature (London) 156, 119–121 (1945).
  38. M. M. Connors, “Luminance requirements for hue perception in small targets,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 258–263 (1968).
  39. D. O. Weitzman, J. A. S. Kinney, “Effect of stimulus size, duration, and retinal location upon the appearance of color,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 640–643 (1969).
  40. C. R. Ingling, H. M. O. Scheibner, R. M. Boynton, “Color naming of small foveal fields,” Vision Res. 10, 501–511 (1970).
  41. M. Alpern, K. Kitahara, D. H. Krantz, “Perception of colour in unilateral tritanopia,”J. Physiol. (London) 335, 683–697 (1983).
  42. I. Abramov, J. Gordon, N. S. Apfel, H. Chan, “Foveal hue channels examined by hue scaling,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 30, 310 (1989).
  43. R. Shapley, V. H. Perry, “Cat and monkey retinal ganglion cells and their visual functional roles,” Trends Neurosci. 9, 229–235 (1986).
  44. R. Desimone, S. J. Schein, “Visual properties of neurons in area V4 of the macaque: sensitivity to stimulus form,”J. Neurophysiol. 57, 835–868 (1987).
  45. K. K. De Valois, E. Switkes, “Color-luminance masking interactions,” in Seeing Contour and Colour, J. J. Kulikowski, C. M. Dickinson, I. J. Murray, eds. (Pergamon, London, 1989), pp. 282–293.
  46. K. T. Mullen, “The contrast sensitivity of human colour vision to red–green and blue–yellow chromatic gratings,”J. Physiol. (London) 359, 382–400 (1985).
  47. K. K. De Valois, E. Switkes, “Simultaneous masking interactions between chromatic and luminance gratings,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 73, 11–18 (1983).
  48. R. M. Boynton, W. Schafer, M. A. Neun, “Hue-wavelength relationship measured by color-namingmethod for three retinal locations,” Science 146, 666–668 (1964).
  49. J. D. Moreland, A. Cruz, “Colour perception with the peripheral retina,” Opt. Acta 6, 117–151 (1959).
  50. U. Stabell, B. Stabell, “Color vision mechanisms of the extrafoveal retina,” Vision Res. 24, 1969–1975 (1984).
  51. M. Livingstone, D. H. Hubel, “Psychophysical evidence for separate channels of form, color, movement, and depth,”J. Neurosci. 7, 3416–3468 (1987).
  52. R. Shapley, “Visual sensitivity and parallel retinocortical channels,” Ann. Rev. Psychol. 41, 635–658 (1990).

1990 (1)

R. Shapley, “Visual sensitivity and parallel retinocortical channels,” Ann. Rev. Psychol. 41, 635–658 (1990).

1989 (1)

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, N. S. Apfel, H. Chan, “Foveal hue channels examined by hue scaling,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 30, 310 (1989).

1988 (3)

R. B. H. Tootell, E. Switkes, M. S. Silverman, S. L. Hamilton, “Functional anatomy of macaque striate cortex. II. Retinotopic organization,”J. Neurosci. 8, 1531–1568 (1988).

J. Gordon, I. Abramov, “Scaling procedures for specifying color appearance,” Color Res. Appl. 13, 146–152 (1988).

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, “Color appearance in peripheral retina: naso-temporal asymmetries,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 29, 300 (1988).

1987 (4)

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, “Color appearance in central and peripheral retina,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4(13), P38 (1987).

M. Livingstone, D. H. Hubel, “Psychophysical evidence for separate channels of form, color, movement, and depth,”J. Neurosci. 7, 3416–3468 (1987).

R. Desimone, S. J. Schein, “Visual properties of neurons in area V4 of the macaque: sensitivity to stimulus form,”J. Neurophysiol. 57, 835–868 (1987).

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, O. Packer, A. E. Hendrickson, R. E. Kalina, “Distribution of cones in human and monkey retina: individual variability and radial asymmetry,” Science 236, 579–582 (1987).

1986 (2)

R. Shapley, V. H. Perry, “Cat and monkey retinal ganglion cells and their visual functional roles,” Trends Neurosci. 9, 229–235 (1986).

M. A. Johnson, “Color vision in the peripheral retina,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 63, 97–103 (1986).

1985 (1)

K. T. Mullen, “The contrast sensitivity of human colour vision to red–green and blue–yellow chromatic gratings,”J. Physiol. (London) 359, 382–400 (1985).

1984 (3)

U. Stabell, B. Stabell, “Color vision mechanisms of the extrafoveal retina,” Vision Res. 24, 1969–1975 (1984).

V. H. Perry, R. Oehler, A. Cowey, “Retinal ganglion cells that project to the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus in the macaque monkey,” Neuroscience 12, 1101–1123 (1984).

J. A. Van Esch, E. E. Koldenhoff, A. J. Van Doorn, J. J. Koenderink, “Spectral sensitivity and wavelength discrimination of the human peripheral visual field,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 1, 443–450 (1984).

1983 (3)

K. K. De Valois, E. Switkes, “Simultaneous masking interactions between chromatic and luminance gratings,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 73, 11–18 (1983).

C. Noorlander, J. J. Koenderink, R. J. DenOuden, B. W. Edens, “Sensitivity to spatiotemporal colour contrast in the peripheral visual field,” Vision Res. 23, 1–11 (1983).

M. Alpern, K. Kitahara, D. H. Krantz, “Perception of colour in unilateral tritanopia,”J. Physiol. (London) 335, 683–697 (1983).

1982 (2)

H. Uchikawa, P. K. Kaiser, K. Uchikawa, “Color-discrimination perimetry,” Color Res. Appl. 7, 264–272 (1982).

U. Stabell, B. Stabell, “Color vision in the peripheral retina under photopic conditions,” Vision Res. 22, 839–844 (1982).

1981 (1)

D. R. Williams, D. I. A. MacLeod, M. M. Hayhoe, “Punctate sensitivity of the blue-sensitive mechanism,” Vision Res. 21, 1357–1375 (1981).

1980 (1)

1979 (2)

J. Rovamu, V. Virsu, “An estimation and application of the human cortical magnification factor,” Exp. Brain Res. 37, 495–510 (1979).

R. J. Jacobs, “Visual resolution and color interaction in the fovea and periphery,” Vision Res. 19, 1187–1195 (1979).

1978 (2)

1977 (5)

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, “Color vision in the peripheral retina. I. Spectral sensitivity,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 195–202 (1977).

J. Gordon, I. Abramov, “Color vision in the peripheral retina. II. Hue and saturation,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 202–207 (1977).

R. L. De Valois, D. M. Snodderly, E. W. Yund, N. Hepler, “Response of macaque lateral geniculate cells to luminance and color figures,” Sensory Processes 1, 244–259 (1977).

R. E. Marc, H. G. Sperling, “Chromatic organization of primate cones,” Science 196, 454–456 (1977).

J. Kruger, “Stimulus dependent colour specificity of monkey lateral geniculate neurons,” Exp. Brain Res. 30, 297–311 (1977).

1975 (2)

F. M. De Monasterio, P. Gouras, “Functional properties of ganglion cells of the rhesus monkey retina,”J. Physiol. (London) 251, 167–195 (1975).

B. R. Wooten, K. Fuld, L. Spillman, “Photopic spectral sensitivity of the peripheral retina,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 334–342 (1975).

1974 (1)

A. Cowey, E. T. Rolls, “Human cortical magnification factor and its relation to visual acuity,” Exp. Brain Res. 21, 447–457 (1974).

1970 (2)

M. E. Wilson, “Invariant features of spatial summation with changing locus in the visual field,”J. Physiol. (London) 207, 611–622 (1970).

C. R. Ingling, H. M. O. Scheibner, R. M. Boynton, “Color naming of small foveal fields,” Vision Res. 10, 501–511 (1970).

1969 (1)

1968 (1)

1967 (2)

G. Wald, “Blue-blindness in the normal fovea,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 1289–1301 (1967).

G. Westheimer, “Spatial interaction in human cone vision,”J. Physiol. (London) 190, 139–154 (1967).

1964 (1)

R. M. Boynton, W. Schafer, M. A. Neun, “Hue-wavelength relationship measured by color-namingmethod for three retinal locations,” Science 146, 666–668 (1964).

1959 (1)

J. D. Moreland, A. Cruz, “Colour perception with the peripheral retina,” Opt. Acta 6, 117–151 (1959).

1953 (1)

R. A. Weale, “Spectral sensitivity and wavelength-discrimination of the peripheral retina,”J. Physiol. (London) 119, 170–190 (1953).

1945 (1)

E. N. Willmer, W. D. Wright, “Colour sensitivity of the fovea centralis,” Nature (London) 156, 119–121 (1945).

1919 (1)

C. E. Ferree, G. Rand, “Chromatic thresholds of sensation from center to periphery of the retina and their bearing on color theory,” Psychol. Rev. 26, 16–41 (1919).

Abramov, I.

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, N. S. Apfel, H. Chan, “Foveal hue channels examined by hue scaling,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 30, 310 (1989).

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, “Color appearance in peripheral retina: naso-temporal asymmetries,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 29, 300 (1988).

J. Gordon, I. Abramov, “Scaling procedures for specifying color appearance,” Color Res. Appl. 13, 146–152 (1988).

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, “Color appearance in central and peripheral retina,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4(13), P38 (1987).

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, “Color vision in the peripheral retina. I. Spectral sensitivity,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 195–202 (1977).

J. Gordon, I. Abramov, “Color vision in the peripheral retina. II. Hue and saturation,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 202–207 (1977).

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, H. Chan, “Using hue scaling to specify color appearance and to derive color differences,” in Perceiving and Measuring Color, M. Brill, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1250, 40–51 (1990).

Alpern, M.

M. Alpern, K. Kitahara, D. H. Krantz, “Perception of colour in unilateral tritanopia,”J. Physiol. (London) 335, 683–697 (1983).

Apfel, N. S.

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, N. S. Apfel, H. Chan, “Foveal hue channels examined by hue scaling,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 30, 310 (1989).

Bouman, M. A.

Boynton, R. M.

C. R. Ingling, H. M. O. Scheibner, R. M. Boynton, “Color naming of small foveal fields,” Vision Res. 10, 501–511 (1970).

R. M. Boynton, W. Schafer, M. A. Neun, “Hue-wavelength relationship measured by color-namingmethod for three retinal locations,” Science 146, 666–668 (1964).

Bueno de Mesquita, A. E.

Chan, H.

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, N. S. Apfel, H. Chan, “Foveal hue channels examined by hue scaling,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 30, 310 (1989).

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, H. Chan, “Using hue scaling to specify color appearance and to derive color differences,” in Perceiving and Measuring Color, M. Brill, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1250, 40–51 (1990).

Connors, M. M.

Cowey, A.

V. H. Perry, R. Oehler, A. Cowey, “Retinal ganglion cells that project to the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus in the macaque monkey,” Neuroscience 12, 1101–1123 (1984).

A. Cowey, E. T. Rolls, “Human cortical magnification factor and its relation to visual acuity,” Exp. Brain Res. 21, 447–457 (1974).

Cruz, A.

J. D. Moreland, A. Cruz, “Colour perception with the peripheral retina,” Opt. Acta 6, 117–151 (1959).

Curcio, C. A.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, O. Packer, A. E. Hendrickson, R. E. Kalina, “Distribution of cones in human and monkey retina: individual variability and radial asymmetry,” Science 236, 579–582 (1987).

De Monasterio, F. M.

F. M. De Monasterio, P. Gouras, “Functional properties of ganglion cells of the rhesus monkey retina,”J. Physiol. (London) 251, 167–195 (1975).

De Valois, K. K.

K. K. De Valois, E. Switkes, “Simultaneous masking interactions between chromatic and luminance gratings,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 73, 11–18 (1983).

K. K. De Valois, E. Switkes, “Color-luminance masking interactions,” in Seeing Contour and Colour, J. J. Kulikowski, C. M. Dickinson, I. J. Murray, eds. (Pergamon, London, 1989), pp. 282–293.

R. L. De Valois, K. K. De Valois, “Neural coding of color,” in Handbook of Perception 5, E. C. Carterette, M. P. Fried-man, eds. (Academic, New York, 1975), pp. 117–166.

De Valois, R. L.

R. L. De Valois, D. M. Snodderly, E. W. Yund, N. Hepler, “Response of macaque lateral geniculate cells to luminance and color figures,” Sensory Processes 1, 244–259 (1977).

R. L. De Valois, K. K. De Valois, “Neural coding of color,” in Handbook of Perception 5, E. C. Carterette, M. P. Fried-man, eds. (Academic, New York, 1975), pp. 117–166.

DenOuden, R. J.

C. Noorlander, J. J. Koenderink, R. J. DenOuden, B. W. Edens, “Sensitivity to spatiotemporal colour contrast in the peripheral visual field,” Vision Res. 23, 1–11 (1983).

Desimone, R.

R. Desimone, S. J. Schein, “Visual properties of neurons in area V4 of the macaque: sensitivity to stimulus form,”J. Neurophysiol. 57, 835–868 (1987).

Edens, B. W.

C. Noorlander, J. J. Koenderink, R. J. DenOuden, B. W. Edens, “Sensitivity to spatiotemporal colour contrast in the peripheral visual field,” Vision Res. 23, 1–11 (1983).

Ferree, C. E.

C. E. Ferree, G. Rand, “Chromatic thresholds of sensation from center to periphery of the retina and their bearing on color theory,” Psychol. Rev. 26, 16–41 (1919).

Fuld, K.

Gordon, J.

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, N. S. Apfel, H. Chan, “Foveal hue channels examined by hue scaling,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 30, 310 (1989).

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, “Color appearance in peripheral retina: naso-temporal asymmetries,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 29, 300 (1988).

J. Gordon, I. Abramov, “Scaling procedures for specifying color appearance,” Color Res. Appl. 13, 146–152 (1988).

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, “Color appearance in central and peripheral retina,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4(13), P38 (1987).

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, “Color vision in the peripheral retina. I. Spectral sensitivity,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 195–202 (1977).

J. Gordon, I. Abramov, “Color vision in the peripheral retina. II. Hue and saturation,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 202–207 (1977).

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, H. Chan, “Using hue scaling to specify color appearance and to derive color differences,” in Perceiving and Measuring Color, M. Brill, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1250, 40–51 (1990).

Gouras, P.

F. M. De Monasterio, P. Gouras, “Functional properties of ganglion cells of the rhesus monkey retina,”J. Physiol. (London) 251, 167–195 (1975).

E. Zrenner, P. Gouras, “Cone opponency in tonic ganglion cells and its variation with eccentricity in rhesus monkey retina,” in Color Vision: Physiology and Psychophysics, J. D. Mollon, L. T. Sharpe, eds. (Academic, London, 1983), pp. 211–223.

Hamilton, S. L.

R. B. H. Tootell, E. Switkes, M. S. Silverman, S. L. Hamilton, “Functional anatomy of macaque striate cortex. II. Retinotopic organization,”J. Neurosci. 8, 1531–1568 (1988).

Hayhoe, M. M.

D. R. Williams, D. I. A. MacLeod, M. M. Hayhoe, “Punctate sensitivity of the blue-sensitive mechanism,” Vision Res. 21, 1357–1375 (1981).

Hendrickson, A. E.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, O. Packer, A. E. Hendrickson, R. E. Kalina, “Distribution of cones in human and monkey retina: individual variability and radial asymmetry,” Science 236, 579–582 (1987).

Hepler, N.

R. L. De Valois, D. M. Snodderly, E. W. Yund, N. Hepler, “Response of macaque lateral geniculate cells to luminance and color figures,” Sensory Processes 1, 244–259 (1977).

Hubel, D. H.

M. Livingstone, D. H. Hubel, “Psychophysical evidence for separate channels of form, color, movement, and depth,”J. Neurosci. 7, 3416–3468 (1987).

Ingling, C. R.

C. R. Ingling, H. M. O. Scheibner, R. M. Boynton, “Color naming of small foveal fields,” Vision Res. 10, 501–511 (1970).

Jacobs, R. J.

R. J. Jacobs, “Visual resolution and color interaction in the fovea and periphery,” Vision Res. 19, 1187–1195 (1979).

Johnson, M. A.

M. A. Johnson, “Color vision in the peripheral retina,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 63, 97–103 (1986).

Kaiser, P. K.

H. Uchikawa, P. K. Kaiser, K. Uchikawa, “Color-discrimination perimetry,” Color Res. Appl. 7, 264–272 (1982).

Kalina, R. E.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, O. Packer, A. E. Hendrickson, R. E. Kalina, “Distribution of cones in human and monkey retina: individual variability and radial asymmetry,” Science 236, 579–582 (1987).

Kaplan, E.

E. Kaplan, R. M. Shapley, K. Purpura, “Spatial and spectral mechanisms of primate retinal ganglion cells,” in Seeing Contour and Colour, J. J. Kulikowski, C. M. Dickinson, I. J. Murray, eds. (Pergamon, London, 1989), pp. 36–40.

Kinney, J. A. S.

Kitahara, K.

M. Alpern, K. Kitahara, D. H. Krantz, “Perception of colour in unilateral tritanopia,”J. Physiol. (London) 335, 683–697 (1983).

Koenderink, J. J.

Koldenhoff, E. E.

Krantz, D. H.

M. Alpern, K. Kitahara, D. H. Krantz, “Perception of colour in unilateral tritanopia,”J. Physiol. (London) 335, 683–697 (1983).

Kruger, J.

J. Kruger, “Stimulus dependent colour specificity of monkey lateral geniculate neurons,” Exp. Brain Res. 30, 297–311 (1977).

Livingstone, M.

M. Livingstone, D. H. Hubel, “Psychophysical evidence for separate channels of form, color, movement, and depth,”J. Neurosci. 7, 3416–3468 (1987).

MacLeod, D. I. A.

D. R. Williams, D. I. A. MacLeod, M. M. Hayhoe, “Punctate sensitivity of the blue-sensitive mechanism,” Vision Res. 21, 1357–1375 (1981).

Marc, R. E.

R. E. Marc, H. G. Sperling, “Chromatic organization of primate cones,” Science 196, 454–456 (1977).

Moreland, J. D.

J. D. Moreland, A. Cruz, “Colour perception with the peripheral retina,” Opt. Acta 6, 117–151 (1959).

J. D. Moreland, “Peripheral color vision,” in Handbook of Sensory Physiology, 7/4, D. Jameson, L. M. Hurvich, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1972), pp. 517–536.

Mullen, K. T.

K. T. Mullen, “The contrast sensitivity of human colour vision to red–green and blue–yellow chromatic gratings,”J. Physiol. (London) 359, 382–400 (1985).

Neun, M. A.

R. M. Boynton, W. Schafer, M. A. Neun, “Hue-wavelength relationship measured by color-namingmethod for three retinal locations,” Science 146, 666–668 (1964).

Noorlander, C.

C. Noorlander, J. J. Koenderink, R. J. DenOuden, B. W. Edens, “Sensitivity to spatiotemporal colour contrast in the peripheral visual field,” Vision Res. 23, 1–11 (1983).

Oehler, R.

V. H. Perry, R. Oehler, A. Cowey, “Retinal ganglion cells that project to the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus in the macaque monkey,” Neuroscience 12, 1101–1123 (1984).

Packer, O.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, O. Packer, A. E. Hendrickson, R. E. Kalina, “Distribution of cones in human and monkey retina: individual variability and radial asymmetry,” Science 236, 579–582 (1987).

Perry, V. H.

R. Shapley, V. H. Perry, “Cat and monkey retinal ganglion cells and their visual functional roles,” Trends Neurosci. 9, 229–235 (1986).

V. H. Perry, R. Oehler, A. Cowey, “Retinal ganglion cells that project to the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus in the macaque monkey,” Neuroscience 12, 1101–1123 (1984).

Purpura, K.

E. Kaplan, R. M. Shapley, K. Purpura, “Spatial and spectral mechanisms of primate retinal ganglion cells,” in Seeing Contour and Colour, J. J. Kulikowski, C. M. Dickinson, I. J. Murray, eds. (Pergamon, London, 1989), pp. 36–40.

Rand, G.

C. E. Ferree, G. Rand, “Chromatic thresholds of sensation from center to periphery of the retina and their bearing on color theory,” Psychol. Rev. 26, 16–41 (1919).

Rolls, E. T.

A. Cowey, E. T. Rolls, “Human cortical magnification factor and its relation to visual acuity,” Exp. Brain Res. 21, 447–457 (1974).

Rovamu, J.

J. Rovamu, V. Virsu, “An estimation and application of the human cortical magnification factor,” Exp. Brain Res. 37, 495–510 (1979).

Schafer, W.

R. M. Boynton, W. Schafer, M. A. Neun, “Hue-wavelength relationship measured by color-namingmethod for three retinal locations,” Science 146, 666–668 (1964).

Scheibner, H. M. O.

C. R. Ingling, H. M. O. Scheibner, R. M. Boynton, “Color naming of small foveal fields,” Vision Res. 10, 501–511 (1970).

Schein, S. J.

R. Desimone, S. J. Schein, “Visual properties of neurons in area V4 of the macaque: sensitivity to stimulus form,”J. Neurophysiol. 57, 835–868 (1987).

Shapley, R.

R. Shapley, “Visual sensitivity and parallel retinocortical channels,” Ann. Rev. Psychol. 41, 635–658 (1990).

R. Shapley, V. H. Perry, “Cat and monkey retinal ganglion cells and their visual functional roles,” Trends Neurosci. 9, 229–235 (1986).

Shapley, R. M.

E. Kaplan, R. M. Shapley, K. Purpura, “Spatial and spectral mechanisms of primate retinal ganglion cells,” in Seeing Contour and Colour, J. J. Kulikowski, C. M. Dickinson, I. J. Murray, eds. (Pergamon, London, 1989), pp. 36–40.

Silverman, M. S.

R. B. H. Tootell, E. Switkes, M. S. Silverman, S. L. Hamilton, “Functional anatomy of macaque striate cortex. II. Retinotopic organization,”J. Neurosci. 8, 1531–1568 (1988).

Slappendel, S.

Sloan, K. R.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, O. Packer, A. E. Hendrickson, R. E. Kalina, “Distribution of cones in human and monkey retina: individual variability and radial asymmetry,” Science 236, 579–582 (1987).

Snodderly, D. M.

R. L. De Valois, D. M. Snodderly, E. W. Yund, N. Hepler, “Response of macaque lateral geniculate cells to luminance and color figures,” Sensory Processes 1, 244–259 (1977).

Sperling, H. G.

R. E. Marc, H. G. Sperling, “Chromatic organization of primate cones,” Science 196, 454–456 (1977).

Spillman, L.

Stabell, B.

U. Stabell, B. Stabell, “Color vision mechanisms of the extrafoveal retina,” Vision Res. 24, 1969–1975 (1984).

U. Stabell, B. Stabell, “Color vision in the peripheral retina under photopic conditions,” Vision Res. 22, 839–844 (1982).

U. Stabell, B. Stabell, “Variation of macular pigmentation and in short wave cone sensitivity with eccentricity,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 706–711 (1980).

Stabell, U.

U. Stabell, B. Stabell, “Color vision mechanisms of the extrafoveal retina,” Vision Res. 24, 1969–1975 (1984).

U. Stabell, B. Stabell, “Color vision in the peripheral retina under photopic conditions,” Vision Res. 22, 839–844 (1982).

U. Stabell, B. Stabell, “Variation of macular pigmentation and in short wave cone sensitivity with eccentricity,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 706–711 (1980).

Switkes, E.

R. B. H. Tootell, E. Switkes, M. S. Silverman, S. L. Hamilton, “Functional anatomy of macaque striate cortex. II. Retinotopic organization,”J. Neurosci. 8, 1531–1568 (1988).

K. K. De Valois, E. Switkes, “Simultaneous masking interactions between chromatic and luminance gratings,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 73, 11–18 (1983).

K. K. De Valois, E. Switkes, “Color-luminance masking interactions,” in Seeing Contour and Colour, J. J. Kulikowski, C. M. Dickinson, I. J. Murray, eds. (Pergamon, London, 1989), pp. 282–293.

Tootell, R. B. H.

R. B. H. Tootell, E. Switkes, M. S. Silverman, S. L. Hamilton, “Functional anatomy of macaque striate cortex. II. Retinotopic organization,”J. Neurosci. 8, 1531–1568 (1988).

Uchikawa, H.

H. Uchikawa, P. K. Kaiser, K. Uchikawa, “Color-discrimination perimetry,” Color Res. Appl. 7, 264–272 (1982).

Uchikawa, K.

H. Uchikawa, P. K. Kaiser, K. Uchikawa, “Color-discrimination perimetry,” Color Res. Appl. 7, 264–272 (1982).

Van Doorn, A. J.

Van Esch, J. A.

Virsu, V.

J. Rovamu, V. Virsu, “An estimation and application of the human cortical magnification factor,” Exp. Brain Res. 37, 495–510 (1979).

Vos, J. J.

J. J. Vos, “Colorimetric and photometric properties of a 2° fundamental observer,” Color Res. Appl. 3, 125–128 (1978).

Wald, G.

Weale, R. A.

R. A. Weale, “Spectral sensitivity and wavelength-discrimination of the peripheral retina,”J. Physiol. (London) 119, 170–190 (1953).

Weitzman, D. O.

Westheimer, G.

G. Westheimer, “Spatial interaction in human cone vision,”J. Physiol. (London) 190, 139–154 (1967).

Williams, D. R.

D. R. Williams, D. I. A. MacLeod, M. M. Hayhoe, “Punctate sensitivity of the blue-sensitive mechanism,” Vision Res. 21, 1357–1375 (1981).

Willmer, E. N.

E. N. Willmer, W. D. Wright, “Colour sensitivity of the fovea centralis,” Nature (London) 156, 119–121 (1945).

Wilson, M. E.

M. E. Wilson, “Invariant features of spatial summation with changing locus in the visual field,”J. Physiol. (London) 207, 611–622 (1970).

Winer, B. J.

B. J. Winer, Statistical Principles in Experimental Design (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1971).

Wooten, B. R.

Wright, W. D.

E. N. Willmer, W. D. Wright, “Colour sensitivity of the fovea centralis,” Nature (London) 156, 119–121 (1945).

Yund, E. W.

R. L. De Valois, D. M. Snodderly, E. W. Yund, N. Hepler, “Response of macaque lateral geniculate cells to luminance and color figures,” Sensory Processes 1, 244–259 (1977).

Zrenner, E.

E. Zrenner, P. Gouras, “Cone opponency in tonic ganglion cells and its variation with eccentricity in rhesus monkey retina,” in Color Vision: Physiology and Psychophysics, J. D. Mollon, L. T. Sharpe, eds. (Academic, London, 1983), pp. 211–223.

Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. (1)

M. A. Johnson, “Color vision in the peripheral retina,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 63, 97–103 (1986).

Ann. Rev. Psychol. (1)

R. Shapley, “Visual sensitivity and parallel retinocortical channels,” Ann. Rev. Psychol. 41, 635–658 (1990).

Color Res. Appl. (3)

H. Uchikawa, P. K. Kaiser, K. Uchikawa, “Color-discrimination perimetry,” Color Res. Appl. 7, 264–272 (1982).

J. Gordon, I. Abramov, “Scaling procedures for specifying color appearance,” Color Res. Appl. 13, 146–152 (1988).

J. J. Vos, “Colorimetric and photometric properties of a 2° fundamental observer,” Color Res. Appl. 3, 125–128 (1978).

Exp. Brain Res. (3)

J. Kruger, “Stimulus dependent colour specificity of monkey lateral geniculate neurons,” Exp. Brain Res. 30, 297–311 (1977).

A. Cowey, E. T. Rolls, “Human cortical magnification factor and its relation to visual acuity,” Exp. Brain Res. 21, 447–457 (1974).

J. Rovamu, V. Virsu, “An estimation and application of the human cortical magnification factor,” Exp. Brain Res. 37, 495–510 (1979).

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. (2)

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, “Color appearance in peripheral retina: naso-temporal asymmetries,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 29, 300 (1988).

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, N. S. Apfel, H. Chan, “Foveal hue channels examined by hue scaling,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 30, 310 (1989).

J. Neurophysiol. (1)

R. Desimone, S. J. Schein, “Visual properties of neurons in area V4 of the macaque: sensitivity to stimulus form,”J. Neurophysiol. 57, 835–868 (1987).

J. Neurosci. (2)

M. Livingstone, D. H. Hubel, “Psychophysical evidence for separate channels of form, color, movement, and depth,”J. Neurosci. 7, 3416–3468 (1987).

R. B. H. Tootell, E. Switkes, M. S. Silverman, S. L. Hamilton, “Functional anatomy of macaque striate cortex. II. Retinotopic organization,”J. Neurosci. 8, 1531–1568 (1988).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (9)

J. J. Koenderink, M. A. Bouman, A. E. Bueno de Mesquita, S. Slappendel, “Perimetry of contrast detection thresholds of moving spatial sine wave patterns. I. The near peripheral visual field (eccentricity 0°–8°); II. The far peripheral visual field (eccentricity 0°–50°); III. The target extent as a sensitivity controlling parameter; IV. The influence of the mean retinal illuminance,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 845–865 (1978).

J. Gordon, I. Abramov, “Color vision in the peripheral retina. II. Hue and saturation,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 202–207 (1977).

G. Wald, “Blue-blindness in the normal fovea,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 1289–1301 (1967).

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, “Color vision in the peripheral retina. I. Spectral sensitivity,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 195–202 (1977).

U. Stabell, B. Stabell, “Variation of macular pigmentation and in short wave cone sensitivity with eccentricity,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 706–711 (1980).

B. R. Wooten, K. Fuld, L. Spillman, “Photopic spectral sensitivity of the peripheral retina,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 334–342 (1975).

K. K. De Valois, E. Switkes, “Simultaneous masking interactions between chromatic and luminance gratings,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 73, 11–18 (1983).

M. M. Connors, “Luminance requirements for hue perception in small targets,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 258–263 (1968).

D. O. Weitzman, J. A. S. Kinney, “Effect of stimulus size, duration, and retinal location upon the appearance of color,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 640–643 (1969).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

J. Physiol. (London) (6)

M. E. Wilson, “Invariant features of spatial summation with changing locus in the visual field,”J. Physiol. (London) 207, 611–622 (1970).

F. M. De Monasterio, P. Gouras, “Functional properties of ganglion cells of the rhesus monkey retina,”J. Physiol. (London) 251, 167–195 (1975).

R. A. Weale, “Spectral sensitivity and wavelength-discrimination of the peripheral retina,”J. Physiol. (London) 119, 170–190 (1953).

G. Westheimer, “Spatial interaction in human cone vision,”J. Physiol. (London) 190, 139–154 (1967).

M. Alpern, K. Kitahara, D. H. Krantz, “Perception of colour in unilateral tritanopia,”J. Physiol. (London) 335, 683–697 (1983).

K. T. Mullen, “The contrast sensitivity of human colour vision to red–green and blue–yellow chromatic gratings,”J. Physiol. (London) 359, 382–400 (1985).

Nature (London) (1)

E. N. Willmer, W. D. Wright, “Colour sensitivity of the fovea centralis,” Nature (London) 156, 119–121 (1945).

Neuroscience (1)

V. H. Perry, R. Oehler, A. Cowey, “Retinal ganglion cells that project to the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus in the macaque monkey,” Neuroscience 12, 1101–1123 (1984).

Opt. Acta (1)

J. D. Moreland, A. Cruz, “Colour perception with the peripheral retina,” Opt. Acta 6, 117–151 (1959).

Psychol. Rev. (1)

C. E. Ferree, G. Rand, “Chromatic thresholds of sensation from center to periphery of the retina and their bearing on color theory,” Psychol. Rev. 26, 16–41 (1919).

Science (3)

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, O. Packer, A. E. Hendrickson, R. E. Kalina, “Distribution of cones in human and monkey retina: individual variability and radial asymmetry,” Science 236, 579–582 (1987).

R. E. Marc, H. G. Sperling, “Chromatic organization of primate cones,” Science 196, 454–456 (1977).

R. M. Boynton, W. Schafer, M. A. Neun, “Hue-wavelength relationship measured by color-namingmethod for three retinal locations,” Science 146, 666–668 (1964).

Sensory Processes (1)

R. L. De Valois, D. M. Snodderly, E. W. Yund, N. Hepler, “Response of macaque lateral geniculate cells to luminance and color figures,” Sensory Processes 1, 244–259 (1977).

Trends Neurosci. (1)

R. Shapley, V. H. Perry, “Cat and monkey retinal ganglion cells and their visual functional roles,” Trends Neurosci. 9, 229–235 (1986).

Vision Res. (6)

C. R. Ingling, H. M. O. Scheibner, R. M. Boynton, “Color naming of small foveal fields,” Vision Res. 10, 501–511 (1970).

U. Stabell, B. Stabell, “Color vision mechanisms of the extrafoveal retina,” Vision Res. 24, 1969–1975 (1984).

D. R. Williams, D. I. A. MacLeod, M. M. Hayhoe, “Punctate sensitivity of the blue-sensitive mechanism,” Vision Res. 21, 1357–1375 (1981).

U. Stabell, B. Stabell, “Color vision in the peripheral retina under photopic conditions,” Vision Res. 22, 839–844 (1982).

C. Noorlander, J. J. Koenderink, R. J. DenOuden, B. W. Edens, “Sensitivity to spatiotemporal colour contrast in the peripheral visual field,” Vision Res. 23, 1–11 (1983).

R. J. Jacobs, “Visual resolution and color interaction in the fovea and periphery,” Vision Res. 19, 1187–1195 (1979).

Other (7)

J. D. Moreland, “Peripheral color vision,” in Handbook of Sensory Physiology, 7/4, D. Jameson, L. M. Hurvich, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1972), pp. 517–536.

E. Zrenner, P. Gouras, “Cone opponency in tonic ganglion cells and its variation with eccentricity in rhesus monkey retina,” in Color Vision: Physiology and Psychophysics, J. D. Mollon, L. T. Sharpe, eds. (Academic, London, 1983), pp. 211–223.

R. L. De Valois, K. K. De Valois, “Neural coding of color,” in Handbook of Perception 5, E. C. Carterette, M. P. Fried-man, eds. (Academic, New York, 1975), pp. 117–166.

B. J. Winer, Statistical Principles in Experimental Design (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1971).

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, H. Chan, “Using hue scaling to specify color appearance and to derive color differences,” in Perceiving and Measuring Color, M. Brill, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1250, 40–51 (1990).

E. Kaplan, R. M. Shapley, K. Purpura, “Spatial and spectral mechanisms of primate retinal ganglion cells,” in Seeing Contour and Colour, J. J. Kulikowski, C. M. Dickinson, I. J. Murray, eds. (Pergamon, London, 1989), pp. 36–40.

K. K. De Valois, E. Switkes, “Color-luminance masking interactions,” in Seeing Contour and Colour, J. J. Kulikowski, C. M. Dickinson, I. J. Murray, eds. (Pergamon, London, 1989), pp. 282–293.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic representation of the optical system. The subject views the field stops illuminated by the rear-projection screen of the movable probe unit.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Color appearance of 1-deg, 20-Td, monochromatic light flashes presented at various loci on the horizontal retinal meridian. The hue and saturation values are the means for a group of six subjects; error bars are ± standard errors of the group means (SEM): (a) foveal viewing; (b), (c) stimuli presented at eccentricities of 40 deg on nasal and temporal retinas, respectively; (d), (e) saturation scaling of 1-deg stimuli at all eccentricities on nasal and temporal retinas.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Growth of hue scaling values with increasing stimulus size. (a) Scaled values of stimuli at an eccentricity of 5 deg nasal (other details are as in Fig. 2). The stimulus wavelengths are approximately the maxima of their respective hue categories. (b) Properties of the Michaelis–Menten function used to describe the growth of scaled responses with stimulus size. The size 3k that corresponds to 75% of the asymptotic hue value g is termed the critical size for the given hue mechanism. The curves in (a) are Michaelis–Menten functions fitted to those specific data values.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Wavelength-dependent variations in size scales of perceptive fields of hue and saturation mechanisms at 5 deg nasal; the parameter k is defined in Fig. 3; other details are as in Fig. 1. See text for rules regarding which wavelengths were included for each mechanism.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Sizes of perceptive fields of hue and saturation mechanisms at loci along the horizontal retinal meridian. Critical size is derived from Michaelis–Menten functions (see Fig. 3) fitted to the group mean data (see Fig. 1); it is the size (3k) at which the function reaches 75% of its asymptote. The dashed lines represent the sizes of neuronal receptive fields: P and M show the widths of dendritic trees of ganglion cells projecting to parvocellular and magnocellular layers of the lateral geniculate nucleus,43 V1 represents cortical magnification for primary visual cortex,9 V4 shows the widths of receptive fields of neurons in area V4 (Ref. 44): (a) sizes of perceptive fields of R Y G and B hue mechanisms, (b) perceptive fields of B and tritan-B mechanisms, as well as apparent saturation.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Size scales. Properties of perceptive fields of hue mechanisms at various horizontal eccentricities, derived from Michaelis–Menten functions (see Fig. 3) fitted to group mean data. (a) Asymptotic responses g of the hue mechanisms. (b) Scale factors by which to multiply sizes of peripheral stimuli to obtain equal coverage of the hue mechanisms’ perceptive fields. Each point is the size of the perceptive field at that locus (measured by k; see Fig. 3), normalized with respect to that mechanism’s field size in the fovea. (c) Sizes of peripheral stimuli needed to elicit hue responses as large as those elicited by foveal stimuli of critical size (i.e., 3k).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Foveal equivalents. Color appearance of stimuli whose sizes were chosen to elicit, when possible, sensations as large as those for foveal stimuli of critical size. (Details are as for Fig. 2.) (a) Fovea, from Fig. 2(a). For the given viewing conditions, responses are all maximal because the 1-deg size exceeds the sizes of the perceptive fields of all mechanisms. (b) Fovea of 1/4-deg stimulus size, which is just greater than critical size of mechanism with the largest perceptive field. (c), (d) At 10-deg eccentricity, 2-deg stimuli that yield fovealike color appearance. (e), (f) At 20-deg eccentricity, 4-deg (on nasal side) and 6-deg (on temporal side) stimuli that yield similar and nearly fovealike functions. (g), (h) Responses to 6-deg stimuli at 40-deg eccentricities. Responses are maximal for these loci but are not like those from the fovea.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Size Characteristics of Perceptive Fields of Hue Mechanisms in Fovea and at Various Nasal and Table Temporal Eccentricitiesa

Metrics