Abstract

Recentering and selecting short-exposure images result in significant improvements in spatial resolution compared with that for classical long-exposure images. A maximum gain in resolution of the order of 3 is possible for a D/r0 between 3 and 6, depending on the selection rates. A pupil-segmentation experiment has been performed at the Cassegrain focus of the Canada–France–Hawaii telescope to match the optimum values of D/r0. A photon-counting camera records short-exposure images. The software processing is made after acquisition of the data. Recentering is made by cross correlation of the short-exposure images with a long-exposure image of a star or a contrasted object. We present results obtained on the gravitational lens Q2237+030. A full width at half-maximum of 0.29 arcsec has been achieved with this method. The gain in resolution is approximately 2.3 compared with that for classical imaging. However, we need to count enough photons for reliable recentering; this prevents us from achieving the theoretical gain in resolution. We expect to overcome this limitation in the case of crowded fields or with the use of new object-reconstruction methods.

© 1990 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C. A. Christian, P. Waddell, R. Racine, D. Salmon, “Very high resolution camera for the 3.6 m on Mauna Kea,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy V, A. Boksenberg, D. L. Crawford, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.445, 490–496 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. D. McClure, W. A. Grundmann, W. N. Rambold, J. M. Fletcher, E. H. Richardson, J. R. Stlburn, R. Racine, C. A. Christian, P. Waddell, “An image-stabilization, high resolution camera for the Canada–France–Hawaii telescope,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 101, 1156–1165 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. Lelièvre, J. L. Nieto, D. Salmon, A. Llebaria, E. Thouvenot, J. Boulesteix, E. Le Coarer, J. Arnaud, “Very high resolution imaging using sub-pupil apertures, recentering and selection of short exposures,” Astron. Astrophys. 200, 301–311 (1988).
  4. D. L. Fried, “Probability of getting a lucky short-exposure image through turbulence,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 1651–1658 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Hecquet, G. Coupinot, “Gain en résolution par superposition de poses courtes recentrées et sélectionnées,” J. Opt. (Paris) 16, 21–26 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. L. Fried, “Optical resolution through a randomly inhomogeneous medium for very long and very short exposures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1372–1379 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Huchra, M. Gorenstein, S. Kent, I. Shapiro, G. Smith, E. Horine, R. Perley, “2237+0305: a new and unusual gravitational lens,” Astron. J. 90, 691–696 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. Adam, R. Bacon, G. Courtes, Y. Georgelin, G. Monnet, E. Pecontal, “Observations of the Einstein Cross 2237+030 with the tiger integral field spectrograph,” Astron. Astrophys. 208, L15–L18 (1989).
  9. D. P. Schneider, E. L. Turner, J. E. Gunn, J. N. Hewill, M. Schmidt, C. R. Lawrence, “High resolution CCD imaging and derived gravitational lens model of 2237+0305,” Astron. J. 95, 1619–1628 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. Muller, S. L. Keil, “The characteristic size and brightness of facular points in the quiet photosphere,” Sol. Phys. 87, 243–250 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Blazit, “Comptage de photons bidimensional et applications astrophysiques,” Thèse d’Etat (Université de Nice, Nice, France, 1987).
  12. D. Salmon, Optics Group, Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope, P.O. Box 1597, Kamuela, Hawaii 96743 (personal communication).
  13. F. Roddier, “The effects of atmospheric turbulence in optical astronomy,” in Progress in Optics XIX, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1981), pp. 280–376.
  14. L. C. de Freitas, J. C. Dainty, “Object reconstruction from photon-limited centroided data of randomly translating images,” Opt. Lett. 13, 264–266 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (2)

R. D. McClure, W. A. Grundmann, W. N. Rambold, J. M. Fletcher, E. H. Richardson, J. R. Stlburn, R. Racine, C. A. Christian, P. Waddell, “An image-stabilization, high resolution camera for the Canada–France–Hawaii telescope,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 101, 1156–1165 (1989).
[CrossRef]

G. Adam, R. Bacon, G. Courtes, Y. Georgelin, G. Monnet, E. Pecontal, “Observations of the Einstein Cross 2237+030 with the tiger integral field spectrograph,” Astron. Astrophys. 208, L15–L18 (1989).

1988 (3)

D. P. Schneider, E. L. Turner, J. E. Gunn, J. N. Hewill, M. Schmidt, C. R. Lawrence, “High resolution CCD imaging and derived gravitational lens model of 2237+0305,” Astron. J. 95, 1619–1628 (1988).
[CrossRef]

L. C. de Freitas, J. C. Dainty, “Object reconstruction from photon-limited centroided data of randomly translating images,” Opt. Lett. 13, 264–266 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Lelièvre, J. L. Nieto, D. Salmon, A. Llebaria, E. Thouvenot, J. Boulesteix, E. Le Coarer, J. Arnaud, “Very high resolution imaging using sub-pupil apertures, recentering and selection of short exposures,” Astron. Astrophys. 200, 301–311 (1988).

1985 (2)

J. Hecquet, G. Coupinot, “Gain en résolution par superposition de poses courtes recentrées et sélectionnées,” J. Opt. (Paris) 16, 21–26 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Huchra, M. Gorenstein, S. Kent, I. Shapiro, G. Smith, E. Horine, R. Perley, “2237+0305: a new and unusual gravitational lens,” Astron. J. 90, 691–696 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

R. Muller, S. L. Keil, “The characteristic size and brightness of facular points in the quiet photosphere,” Sol. Phys. 87, 243–250 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

1966 (1)

Adam, G.

G. Adam, R. Bacon, G. Courtes, Y. Georgelin, G. Monnet, E. Pecontal, “Observations of the Einstein Cross 2237+030 with the tiger integral field spectrograph,” Astron. Astrophys. 208, L15–L18 (1989).

Arnaud, J.

G. Lelièvre, J. L. Nieto, D. Salmon, A. Llebaria, E. Thouvenot, J. Boulesteix, E. Le Coarer, J. Arnaud, “Very high resolution imaging using sub-pupil apertures, recentering and selection of short exposures,” Astron. Astrophys. 200, 301–311 (1988).

Bacon, R.

G. Adam, R. Bacon, G. Courtes, Y. Georgelin, G. Monnet, E. Pecontal, “Observations of the Einstein Cross 2237+030 with the tiger integral field spectrograph,” Astron. Astrophys. 208, L15–L18 (1989).

Blazit, A.

A. Blazit, “Comptage de photons bidimensional et applications astrophysiques,” Thèse d’Etat (Université de Nice, Nice, France, 1987).

Boulesteix, J.

G. Lelièvre, J. L. Nieto, D. Salmon, A. Llebaria, E. Thouvenot, J. Boulesteix, E. Le Coarer, J. Arnaud, “Very high resolution imaging using sub-pupil apertures, recentering and selection of short exposures,” Astron. Astrophys. 200, 301–311 (1988).

Christian, C. A.

R. D. McClure, W. A. Grundmann, W. N. Rambold, J. M. Fletcher, E. H. Richardson, J. R. Stlburn, R. Racine, C. A. Christian, P. Waddell, “An image-stabilization, high resolution camera for the Canada–France–Hawaii telescope,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 101, 1156–1165 (1989).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Christian, P. Waddell, R. Racine, D. Salmon, “Very high resolution camera for the 3.6 m on Mauna Kea,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy V, A. Boksenberg, D. L. Crawford, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.445, 490–496 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Coupinot, G.

J. Hecquet, G. Coupinot, “Gain en résolution par superposition de poses courtes recentrées et sélectionnées,” J. Opt. (Paris) 16, 21–26 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Courtes, G.

G. Adam, R. Bacon, G. Courtes, Y. Georgelin, G. Monnet, E. Pecontal, “Observations of the Einstein Cross 2237+030 with the tiger integral field spectrograph,” Astron. Astrophys. 208, L15–L18 (1989).

Dainty, J. C.

de Freitas, L. C.

Fletcher, J. M.

R. D. McClure, W. A. Grundmann, W. N. Rambold, J. M. Fletcher, E. H. Richardson, J. R. Stlburn, R. Racine, C. A. Christian, P. Waddell, “An image-stabilization, high resolution camera for the Canada–France–Hawaii telescope,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 101, 1156–1165 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Fried, D. L.

Georgelin, Y.

G. Adam, R. Bacon, G. Courtes, Y. Georgelin, G. Monnet, E. Pecontal, “Observations of the Einstein Cross 2237+030 with the tiger integral field spectrograph,” Astron. Astrophys. 208, L15–L18 (1989).

Gorenstein, M.

J. Huchra, M. Gorenstein, S. Kent, I. Shapiro, G. Smith, E. Horine, R. Perley, “2237+0305: a new and unusual gravitational lens,” Astron. J. 90, 691–696 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Grundmann, W. A.

R. D. McClure, W. A. Grundmann, W. N. Rambold, J. M. Fletcher, E. H. Richardson, J. R. Stlburn, R. Racine, C. A. Christian, P. Waddell, “An image-stabilization, high resolution camera for the Canada–France–Hawaii telescope,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 101, 1156–1165 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Gunn, J. E.

D. P. Schneider, E. L. Turner, J. E. Gunn, J. N. Hewill, M. Schmidt, C. R. Lawrence, “High resolution CCD imaging and derived gravitational lens model of 2237+0305,” Astron. J. 95, 1619–1628 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Hecquet, J.

J. Hecquet, G. Coupinot, “Gain en résolution par superposition de poses courtes recentrées et sélectionnées,” J. Opt. (Paris) 16, 21–26 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Hewill, J. N.

D. P. Schneider, E. L. Turner, J. E. Gunn, J. N. Hewill, M. Schmidt, C. R. Lawrence, “High resolution CCD imaging and derived gravitational lens model of 2237+0305,” Astron. J. 95, 1619–1628 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Horine, E.

J. Huchra, M. Gorenstein, S. Kent, I. Shapiro, G. Smith, E. Horine, R. Perley, “2237+0305: a new and unusual gravitational lens,” Astron. J. 90, 691–696 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Huchra, J.

J. Huchra, M. Gorenstein, S. Kent, I. Shapiro, G. Smith, E. Horine, R. Perley, “2237+0305: a new and unusual gravitational lens,” Astron. J. 90, 691–696 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Keil, S. L.

R. Muller, S. L. Keil, “The characteristic size and brightness of facular points in the quiet photosphere,” Sol. Phys. 87, 243–250 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Kent, S.

J. Huchra, M. Gorenstein, S. Kent, I. Shapiro, G. Smith, E. Horine, R. Perley, “2237+0305: a new and unusual gravitational lens,” Astron. J. 90, 691–696 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Lawrence, C. R.

D. P. Schneider, E. L. Turner, J. E. Gunn, J. N. Hewill, M. Schmidt, C. R. Lawrence, “High resolution CCD imaging and derived gravitational lens model of 2237+0305,” Astron. J. 95, 1619–1628 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Le Coarer, E.

G. Lelièvre, J. L. Nieto, D. Salmon, A. Llebaria, E. Thouvenot, J. Boulesteix, E. Le Coarer, J. Arnaud, “Very high resolution imaging using sub-pupil apertures, recentering and selection of short exposures,” Astron. Astrophys. 200, 301–311 (1988).

Lelièvre, G.

G. Lelièvre, J. L. Nieto, D. Salmon, A. Llebaria, E. Thouvenot, J. Boulesteix, E. Le Coarer, J. Arnaud, “Very high resolution imaging using sub-pupil apertures, recentering and selection of short exposures,” Astron. Astrophys. 200, 301–311 (1988).

Llebaria, A.

G. Lelièvre, J. L. Nieto, D. Salmon, A. Llebaria, E. Thouvenot, J. Boulesteix, E. Le Coarer, J. Arnaud, “Very high resolution imaging using sub-pupil apertures, recentering and selection of short exposures,” Astron. Astrophys. 200, 301–311 (1988).

McClure, R. D.

R. D. McClure, W. A. Grundmann, W. N. Rambold, J. M. Fletcher, E. H. Richardson, J. R. Stlburn, R. Racine, C. A. Christian, P. Waddell, “An image-stabilization, high resolution camera for the Canada–France–Hawaii telescope,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 101, 1156–1165 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Monnet, G.

G. Adam, R. Bacon, G. Courtes, Y. Georgelin, G. Monnet, E. Pecontal, “Observations of the Einstein Cross 2237+030 with the tiger integral field spectrograph,” Astron. Astrophys. 208, L15–L18 (1989).

Muller, R.

R. Muller, S. L. Keil, “The characteristic size and brightness of facular points in the quiet photosphere,” Sol. Phys. 87, 243–250 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Nieto, J. L.

G. Lelièvre, J. L. Nieto, D. Salmon, A. Llebaria, E. Thouvenot, J. Boulesteix, E. Le Coarer, J. Arnaud, “Very high resolution imaging using sub-pupil apertures, recentering and selection of short exposures,” Astron. Astrophys. 200, 301–311 (1988).

Pecontal, E.

G. Adam, R. Bacon, G. Courtes, Y. Georgelin, G. Monnet, E. Pecontal, “Observations of the Einstein Cross 2237+030 with the tiger integral field spectrograph,” Astron. Astrophys. 208, L15–L18 (1989).

Perley, R.

J. Huchra, M. Gorenstein, S. Kent, I. Shapiro, G. Smith, E. Horine, R. Perley, “2237+0305: a new and unusual gravitational lens,” Astron. J. 90, 691–696 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Racine, R.

R. D. McClure, W. A. Grundmann, W. N. Rambold, J. M. Fletcher, E. H. Richardson, J. R. Stlburn, R. Racine, C. A. Christian, P. Waddell, “An image-stabilization, high resolution camera for the Canada–France–Hawaii telescope,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 101, 1156–1165 (1989).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Christian, P. Waddell, R. Racine, D. Salmon, “Very high resolution camera for the 3.6 m on Mauna Kea,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy V, A. Boksenberg, D. L. Crawford, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.445, 490–496 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Rambold, W. N.

R. D. McClure, W. A. Grundmann, W. N. Rambold, J. M. Fletcher, E. H. Richardson, J. R. Stlburn, R. Racine, C. A. Christian, P. Waddell, “An image-stabilization, high resolution camera for the Canada–France–Hawaii telescope,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 101, 1156–1165 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, E. H.

R. D. McClure, W. A. Grundmann, W. N. Rambold, J. M. Fletcher, E. H. Richardson, J. R. Stlburn, R. Racine, C. A. Christian, P. Waddell, “An image-stabilization, high resolution camera for the Canada–France–Hawaii telescope,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 101, 1156–1165 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Roddier, F.

F. Roddier, “The effects of atmospheric turbulence in optical astronomy,” in Progress in Optics XIX, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1981), pp. 280–376.

Salmon, D.

G. Lelièvre, J. L. Nieto, D. Salmon, A. Llebaria, E. Thouvenot, J. Boulesteix, E. Le Coarer, J. Arnaud, “Very high resolution imaging using sub-pupil apertures, recentering and selection of short exposures,” Astron. Astrophys. 200, 301–311 (1988).

C. A. Christian, P. Waddell, R. Racine, D. Salmon, “Very high resolution camera for the 3.6 m on Mauna Kea,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy V, A. Boksenberg, D. L. Crawford, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.445, 490–496 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D. Salmon, Optics Group, Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope, P.O. Box 1597, Kamuela, Hawaii 96743 (personal communication).

Schmidt, M.

D. P. Schneider, E. L. Turner, J. E. Gunn, J. N. Hewill, M. Schmidt, C. R. Lawrence, “High resolution CCD imaging and derived gravitational lens model of 2237+0305,” Astron. J. 95, 1619–1628 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, D. P.

D. P. Schneider, E. L. Turner, J. E. Gunn, J. N. Hewill, M. Schmidt, C. R. Lawrence, “High resolution CCD imaging and derived gravitational lens model of 2237+0305,” Astron. J. 95, 1619–1628 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Shapiro, I.

J. Huchra, M. Gorenstein, S. Kent, I. Shapiro, G. Smith, E. Horine, R. Perley, “2237+0305: a new and unusual gravitational lens,” Astron. J. 90, 691–696 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Smith, G.

J. Huchra, M. Gorenstein, S. Kent, I. Shapiro, G. Smith, E. Horine, R. Perley, “2237+0305: a new and unusual gravitational lens,” Astron. J. 90, 691–696 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Stlburn, J. R.

R. D. McClure, W. A. Grundmann, W. N. Rambold, J. M. Fletcher, E. H. Richardson, J. R. Stlburn, R. Racine, C. A. Christian, P. Waddell, “An image-stabilization, high resolution camera for the Canada–France–Hawaii telescope,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 101, 1156–1165 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Thouvenot, E.

G. Lelièvre, J. L. Nieto, D. Salmon, A. Llebaria, E. Thouvenot, J. Boulesteix, E. Le Coarer, J. Arnaud, “Very high resolution imaging using sub-pupil apertures, recentering and selection of short exposures,” Astron. Astrophys. 200, 301–311 (1988).

Turner, E. L.

D. P. Schneider, E. L. Turner, J. E. Gunn, J. N. Hewill, M. Schmidt, C. R. Lawrence, “High resolution CCD imaging and derived gravitational lens model of 2237+0305,” Astron. J. 95, 1619–1628 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Waddell, P.

R. D. McClure, W. A. Grundmann, W. N. Rambold, J. M. Fletcher, E. H. Richardson, J. R. Stlburn, R. Racine, C. A. Christian, P. Waddell, “An image-stabilization, high resolution camera for the Canada–France–Hawaii telescope,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 101, 1156–1165 (1989).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Christian, P. Waddell, R. Racine, D. Salmon, “Very high resolution camera for the 3.6 m on Mauna Kea,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy V, A. Boksenberg, D. L. Crawford, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.445, 490–496 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Astron. Astrophys. (2)

G. Lelièvre, J. L. Nieto, D. Salmon, A. Llebaria, E. Thouvenot, J. Boulesteix, E. Le Coarer, J. Arnaud, “Very high resolution imaging using sub-pupil apertures, recentering and selection of short exposures,” Astron. Astrophys. 200, 301–311 (1988).

G. Adam, R. Bacon, G. Courtes, Y. Georgelin, G. Monnet, E. Pecontal, “Observations of the Einstein Cross 2237+030 with the tiger integral field spectrograph,” Astron. Astrophys. 208, L15–L18 (1989).

Astron. J. (2)

D. P. Schneider, E. L. Turner, J. E. Gunn, J. N. Hewill, M. Schmidt, C. R. Lawrence, “High resolution CCD imaging and derived gravitational lens model of 2237+0305,” Astron. J. 95, 1619–1628 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Huchra, M. Gorenstein, S. Kent, I. Shapiro, G. Smith, E. Horine, R. Perley, “2237+0305: a new and unusual gravitational lens,” Astron. J. 90, 691–696 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. (Paris) (1)

J. Hecquet, G. Coupinot, “Gain en résolution par superposition de poses courtes recentrées et sélectionnées,” J. Opt. (Paris) 16, 21–26 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. (1)

R. D. McClure, W. A. Grundmann, W. N. Rambold, J. M. Fletcher, E. H. Richardson, J. R. Stlburn, R. Racine, C. A. Christian, P. Waddell, “An image-stabilization, high resolution camera for the Canada–France–Hawaii telescope,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 101, 1156–1165 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Phys. (1)

R. Muller, S. L. Keil, “The characteristic size and brightness of facular points in the quiet photosphere,” Sol. Phys. 87, 243–250 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

A. Blazit, “Comptage de photons bidimensional et applications astrophysiques,” Thèse d’Etat (Université de Nice, Nice, France, 1987).

D. Salmon, Optics Group, Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope, P.O. Box 1597, Kamuela, Hawaii 96743 (personal communication).

F. Roddier, “The effects of atmospheric turbulence in optical astronomy,” in Progress in Optics XIX, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1981), pp. 280–376.

C. A. Christian, P. Waddell, R. Racine, D. Salmon, “Very high resolution camera for the 3.6 m on Mauna Kea,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy V, A. Boksenberg, D. L. Crawford, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.445, 490–496 (1984).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Eight subaperture-segmented mirror. Each segment can be tilted to fit the eight images on the detector.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical configuration of the SPI experiment.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Motions of the image with 1-sec short-exposure images: (a) high-frequency movements from the atmospheric turbulence, (b) low-frequency image motions due to telescope guiding and instrument flexures. (b) Was obtained by averaging the eight subpupil image motions; (a) was obtained by subtracting (b) from the image motion of the subpupil number 3.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Isocontours of two long-exposure images of the gravitational lens Q2237+030: (a) no-recentered-integrated image, (b) the recentered image. The field for both images is 3.2 arcsec.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Dependence of the Theoretical Gain in Angular Resolution as Defined by Fried6 with the Ratio D/r0a

Tables Icon

Table 2 Dependence of the Theoretical Gain in Angular Resolution with the Ratio D/r0 for Recentered and Selected Short-Exposure Imagea

Tables Icon

Table 3 Budget of the Image Quality for Q2237+030a

Metrics