Abstract

The experiments that we report aim to elucidate the linkage between cone outputs and color sensation. This is investigated by measuring wavelength discrimination between stimuli at threshold levels of detection. Stimuli are large spots (0.75 deg) presented on a white background. A 2 × 2 alternate forced choice method is used to measure simultaneously the detection of different wavelengths and discrimination between them. This method reveals at least four distinguishable colors, indicating the presence of four different sets of mechanisms at threshold. These are associated with the color sensations of orange, pale yellow, green, and blue. There is also evidence for a fifth imperfectly distinguished color (violet) in the shortest wavelength region. Results show that the boundaries between the distinguishable colors have little variation in their spectral positions. This is compatible with the presence of fixed perceptual boundaries in the spectrum dividing the different types of detection mechanism. The correspondence of the spectral locations of the distinguishable colors to the cone opponent responses revealed in the spectral sensitivity function suggests that these color sensations are postreceptoral in origin, arising from different combinations of the three cone outputs.

© 1990 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. Nachmias, A. Weber, “Discrimination of simple and complex gratings,” Vision Res. 15, 217–223 (1975).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. D. J. Tolhurst, R. S. Dealy, “The detection and identification of lines and edges,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 652–660 (1975).
  3. J. P. Thomas, J. Gillie, “Bandwidths of orientation channels in human vision,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 652–660 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. B. Watson, J. G. Robson, “Discrimination at thresholds: labelled detectors in human vision,” Vision Res. 21, 1115–1122 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. P. Thomas, “Detection and identification: how are they related?” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2, 1457–1467 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. R. F. Hess, G. T. Plant, “Temporal frequency discrimination in human vision: evidence for an additional mechanism in the low spatial and high frequency region,” Vision Res. 25, 1493–1500 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. B. Rollman, J. Nachmias, “Simultaneous detection and recognition of chromatic flashes,” Percept. Psychophys. 12, 309–314 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. A. Wandell, J. Sanchez, B. Quinn, “Detection/discrimination in the long-wavelength pathways,” Vision Res. 22, 1061–1069 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. D. B. Kirk, “Color discrimination at threshold: the approach through incremental threshold sensitivity,” Vision Res. 22, 713–720 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. C. Hood, M. A. Finklestein, “A case for the revision of text book models of colour vision: the detection and appearance of small brief lights,” in Colour Vision: Physiology and Psychophysics, J. D. Mollon, L. T. Sharpe, eds. (Academic, London, 1983), pp. 385–398.
  11. J. Krauskopf, D. R. Williams, H. B. Mandler, A. M. Brown, “Higher order color mechanisms,” Vision Res. 26, 23–32 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. S. Zeki, “The representation of colours in the cerebral cortex,” Nature (London) 284, 412–418 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. Krauskopf, R. Srebro, “Spectral sensitivity of color mechanisms: derivation from fluctuation of color appearance near threshold,” Science 150, 1477–1479 (1965).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J. Krauskopf, “On identifying detectors,” in Visual Psycho-physics and Physiology, J. C. Armington, J. Krauskopf, B. R. Wooten, eds. (Academic, New York, 1978), pp. 283–295.
    [CrossRef]
  15. P. E. King-Smith, D. Carden, “Luminance and opponent colour contributions to visual detection and adaptation, and to temporal and spatial integration,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 709–717 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. D. H. Foster, R. S. Snelgar, “Test and field spectral sensitivities of colour mechanisms obtained on small white backgrounds: action of unitary opponent colour processes?” Vision Res. 23, 787–797 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  17. E. M. Granger, J. C. Heurtley, “Visual chromaticity–modulation transfer function,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 1173–1174 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. K. T. Mullen, “The contrast sensitivity of human colour vision to red–green and blue–yellow chromatic gratings,” J. Physiol. 359, 381–409 (1985).
  19. H. G. Sperling, R. J. Harwerth, “Red–green cone interactions in increment threshold of spectral sensitivity of primates,” Science 172, 180–184 (1971).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. K. T. Mullen, J. J. Kulikowski, D. Carden, “The identification of spectral colour sensations,” in Seeing Contour and Colour, J. J. Kulikowski, C. M. Dickenson, eds. (Pergamon, London, 1989), pp. 261–266.
  21. M. Aguilar, W. S. Stiles, “Saturation of the rod mechanism of the retina at high intensity levels of stimulation,” Opt. Acta 1, 59–65 (1954).
    [CrossRef]
  22. R. F. Hess, K. Nordby, “Spatial and temporal limits of vision in the achromat,” J. Physiol. 371, 365–385 (1986).
    [PubMed]
  23. K. Kranda, P. E. King-Smith, “Detection of coloured stimuli by independent linear systems,” Vision Res. 19, 733–745 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. J. E. Thornton, E. N. Pugh, “Relationship of opponent-colours cancellation measures to cone-antagonistic signals deduced from incremental threshold data,” in Colour Vision: Physiology and Psychophysics, J. D. Mollon, L. T. Sharpe, eds. (Academic, London, 1983), pp. 361–373.
  25. J. D. Mollon, C. R. Cavonius, “The chromatic antagonisms of opponent process theory are not the same as those revealed in studies of detection and discrimination,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies VII, G. Verriest, ed. (Junk, The Netherlands, 1987), pp. 473–483.
  26. D. Jameson, L. M. Hurvich, “Opponent response functions related to measured cone photopigments,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 429–430 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  27. B. R. Wooten, J. S. Werner, “Short-wave cone input to the red–green opponent channel,” Vision Res. 19, 1053–1054 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  28. F. M. De Monasterio, P. Gouras, “Responses of macaque ganglion cells to far violet lights,” Vision Res. 17, 1147–1156 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. B. A. Wandell, “Color measurement and discrimination,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2, 62–71 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. J. Gille, “Detection and identification of color increments to a white background,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 1, 1241 (1984).
  31. R. M. Boynton, C. X. Olson, “Locating basic colors in the OSA space,” Color Res. Applic. 94 (1987).
  32. K. Uckikawa, R. M. Boynton, “Categorical color perception of Japanese observers: comparison with that of Americans,” Vision Res. 27, 1825–1833 (1987).
    [CrossRef]

1987 (2)

R. M. Boynton, C. X. Olson, “Locating basic colors in the OSA space,” Color Res. Applic. 94 (1987).

K. Uckikawa, R. M. Boynton, “Categorical color perception of Japanese observers: comparison with that of Americans,” Vision Res. 27, 1825–1833 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (2)

J. Krauskopf, D. R. Williams, H. B. Mandler, A. M. Brown, “Higher order color mechanisms,” Vision Res. 26, 23–32 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Hess, K. Nordby, “Spatial and temporal limits of vision in the achromat,” J. Physiol. 371, 365–385 (1986).
[PubMed]

1985 (4)

K. T. Mullen, “The contrast sensitivity of human colour vision to red–green and blue–yellow chromatic gratings,” J. Physiol. 359, 381–409 (1985).

J. P. Thomas, “Detection and identification: how are they related?” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2, 1457–1467 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Hess, G. T. Plant, “Temporal frequency discrimination in human vision: evidence for an additional mechanism in the low spatial and high frequency region,” Vision Res. 25, 1493–1500 (1985).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Wandell, “Color measurement and discrimination,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2, 62–71 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984 (1)

J. Gille, “Detection and identification of color increments to a white background,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 1, 1241 (1984).

1983 (1)

D. H. Foster, R. S. Snelgar, “Test and field spectral sensitivities of colour mechanisms obtained on small white backgrounds: action of unitary opponent colour processes?” Vision Res. 23, 787–797 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (2)

B. A. Wandell, J. Sanchez, B. Quinn, “Detection/discrimination in the long-wavelength pathways,” Vision Res. 22, 1061–1069 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. B. Kirk, “Color discrimination at threshold: the approach through incremental threshold sensitivity,” Vision Res. 22, 713–720 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

A. B. Watson, J. G. Robson, “Discrimination at thresholds: labelled detectors in human vision,” Vision Res. 21, 1115–1122 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

S. Zeki, “The representation of colours in the cerebral cortex,” Nature (London) 284, 412–418 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979 (3)

K. Kranda, P. E. King-Smith, “Detection of coloured stimuli by independent linear systems,” Vision Res. 19, 733–745 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Thomas, J. Gillie, “Bandwidths of orientation channels in human vision,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 652–660 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. Wooten, J. S. Werner, “Short-wave cone input to the red–green opponent channel,” Vision Res. 19, 1053–1054 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

F. M. De Monasterio, P. Gouras, “Responses of macaque ganglion cells to far violet lights,” Vision Res. 17, 1147–1156 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1976 (1)

1975 (2)

J. Nachmias, A. Weber, “Discrimination of simple and complex gratings,” Vision Res. 15, 217–223 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Tolhurst, R. S. Dealy, “The detection and identification of lines and edges,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 652–660 (1975).

1973 (1)

1972 (1)

G. B. Rollman, J. Nachmias, “Simultaneous detection and recognition of chromatic flashes,” Percept. Psychophys. 12, 309–314 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

H. G. Sperling, R. J. Harwerth, “Red–green cone interactions in increment threshold of spectral sensitivity of primates,” Science 172, 180–184 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1968 (1)

1965 (1)

J. Krauskopf, R. Srebro, “Spectral sensitivity of color mechanisms: derivation from fluctuation of color appearance near threshold,” Science 150, 1477–1479 (1965).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1954 (1)

M. Aguilar, W. S. Stiles, “Saturation of the rod mechanism of the retina at high intensity levels of stimulation,” Opt. Acta 1, 59–65 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Aguilar, M.

M. Aguilar, W. S. Stiles, “Saturation of the rod mechanism of the retina at high intensity levels of stimulation,” Opt. Acta 1, 59–65 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Boynton, R. M.

R. M. Boynton, C. X. Olson, “Locating basic colors in the OSA space,” Color Res. Applic. 94 (1987).

K. Uckikawa, R. M. Boynton, “Categorical color perception of Japanese observers: comparison with that of Americans,” Vision Res. 27, 1825–1833 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Brown, A. M.

J. Krauskopf, D. R. Williams, H. B. Mandler, A. M. Brown, “Higher order color mechanisms,” Vision Res. 26, 23–32 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carden, D.

P. E. King-Smith, D. Carden, “Luminance and opponent colour contributions to visual detection and adaptation, and to temporal and spatial integration,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 709–717 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. T. Mullen, J. J. Kulikowski, D. Carden, “The identification of spectral colour sensations,” in Seeing Contour and Colour, J. J. Kulikowski, C. M. Dickenson, eds. (Pergamon, London, 1989), pp. 261–266.

Cavonius, C. R.

J. D. Mollon, C. R. Cavonius, “The chromatic antagonisms of opponent process theory are not the same as those revealed in studies of detection and discrimination,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies VII, G. Verriest, ed. (Junk, The Netherlands, 1987), pp. 473–483.

De Monasterio, F. M.

F. M. De Monasterio, P. Gouras, “Responses of macaque ganglion cells to far violet lights,” Vision Res. 17, 1147–1156 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dealy, R. S.

Finklestein, M. A.

D. C. Hood, M. A. Finklestein, “A case for the revision of text book models of colour vision: the detection and appearance of small brief lights,” in Colour Vision: Physiology and Psychophysics, J. D. Mollon, L. T. Sharpe, eds. (Academic, London, 1983), pp. 385–398.

Foster, D. H.

D. H. Foster, R. S. Snelgar, “Test and field spectral sensitivities of colour mechanisms obtained on small white backgrounds: action of unitary opponent colour processes?” Vision Res. 23, 787–797 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Gille, J.

J. Gille, “Detection and identification of color increments to a white background,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 1, 1241 (1984).

Gillie, J.

Gouras, P.

F. M. De Monasterio, P. Gouras, “Responses of macaque ganglion cells to far violet lights,” Vision Res. 17, 1147–1156 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Granger, E. M.

Harwerth, R. J.

H. G. Sperling, R. J. Harwerth, “Red–green cone interactions in increment threshold of spectral sensitivity of primates,” Science 172, 180–184 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hess, R. F.

R. F. Hess, K. Nordby, “Spatial and temporal limits of vision in the achromat,” J. Physiol. 371, 365–385 (1986).
[PubMed]

R. F. Hess, G. T. Plant, “Temporal frequency discrimination in human vision: evidence for an additional mechanism in the low spatial and high frequency region,” Vision Res. 25, 1493–1500 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Heurtley, J. C.

Hood, D. C.

D. C. Hood, M. A. Finklestein, “A case for the revision of text book models of colour vision: the detection and appearance of small brief lights,” in Colour Vision: Physiology and Psychophysics, J. D. Mollon, L. T. Sharpe, eds. (Academic, London, 1983), pp. 385–398.

Hurvich, L. M.

Jameson, D.

King-Smith, P. E.

Kirk, D. B.

D. B. Kirk, “Color discrimination at threshold: the approach through incremental threshold sensitivity,” Vision Res. 22, 713–720 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Kranda, K.

K. Kranda, P. E. King-Smith, “Detection of coloured stimuli by independent linear systems,” Vision Res. 19, 733–745 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krauskopf, J.

J. Krauskopf, D. R. Williams, H. B. Mandler, A. M. Brown, “Higher order color mechanisms,” Vision Res. 26, 23–32 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Krauskopf, R. Srebro, “Spectral sensitivity of color mechanisms: derivation from fluctuation of color appearance near threshold,” Science 150, 1477–1479 (1965).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Krauskopf, “On identifying detectors,” in Visual Psycho-physics and Physiology, J. C. Armington, J. Krauskopf, B. R. Wooten, eds. (Academic, New York, 1978), pp. 283–295.
[CrossRef]

Kulikowski, J. J.

K. T. Mullen, J. J. Kulikowski, D. Carden, “The identification of spectral colour sensations,” in Seeing Contour and Colour, J. J. Kulikowski, C. M. Dickenson, eds. (Pergamon, London, 1989), pp. 261–266.

Mandler, H. B.

J. Krauskopf, D. R. Williams, H. B. Mandler, A. M. Brown, “Higher order color mechanisms,” Vision Res. 26, 23–32 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mollon, J. D.

J. D. Mollon, C. R. Cavonius, “The chromatic antagonisms of opponent process theory are not the same as those revealed in studies of detection and discrimination,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies VII, G. Verriest, ed. (Junk, The Netherlands, 1987), pp. 473–483.

Mullen, K. T.

K. T. Mullen, “The contrast sensitivity of human colour vision to red–green and blue–yellow chromatic gratings,” J. Physiol. 359, 381–409 (1985).

K. T. Mullen, J. J. Kulikowski, D. Carden, “The identification of spectral colour sensations,” in Seeing Contour and Colour, J. J. Kulikowski, C. M. Dickenson, eds. (Pergamon, London, 1989), pp. 261–266.

Nachmias, J.

J. Nachmias, A. Weber, “Discrimination of simple and complex gratings,” Vision Res. 15, 217–223 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. B. Rollman, J. Nachmias, “Simultaneous detection and recognition of chromatic flashes,” Percept. Psychophys. 12, 309–314 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Nordby, K.

R. F. Hess, K. Nordby, “Spatial and temporal limits of vision in the achromat,” J. Physiol. 371, 365–385 (1986).
[PubMed]

Olson, C. X.

R. M. Boynton, C. X. Olson, “Locating basic colors in the OSA space,” Color Res. Applic. 94 (1987).

Plant, G. T.

R. F. Hess, G. T. Plant, “Temporal frequency discrimination in human vision: evidence for an additional mechanism in the low spatial and high frequency region,” Vision Res. 25, 1493–1500 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Pugh, E. N.

J. E. Thornton, E. N. Pugh, “Relationship of opponent-colours cancellation measures to cone-antagonistic signals deduced from incremental threshold data,” in Colour Vision: Physiology and Psychophysics, J. D. Mollon, L. T. Sharpe, eds. (Academic, London, 1983), pp. 361–373.

Quinn, B.

B. A. Wandell, J. Sanchez, B. Quinn, “Detection/discrimination in the long-wavelength pathways,” Vision Res. 22, 1061–1069 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robson, J. G.

A. B. Watson, J. G. Robson, “Discrimination at thresholds: labelled detectors in human vision,” Vision Res. 21, 1115–1122 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Rollman, G. B.

G. B. Rollman, J. Nachmias, “Simultaneous detection and recognition of chromatic flashes,” Percept. Psychophys. 12, 309–314 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Sanchez, J.

B. A. Wandell, J. Sanchez, B. Quinn, “Detection/discrimination in the long-wavelength pathways,” Vision Res. 22, 1061–1069 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Snelgar, R. S.

D. H. Foster, R. S. Snelgar, “Test and field spectral sensitivities of colour mechanisms obtained on small white backgrounds: action of unitary opponent colour processes?” Vision Res. 23, 787–797 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Sperling, H. G.

H. G. Sperling, R. J. Harwerth, “Red–green cone interactions in increment threshold of spectral sensitivity of primates,” Science 172, 180–184 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srebro, R.

J. Krauskopf, R. Srebro, “Spectral sensitivity of color mechanisms: derivation from fluctuation of color appearance near threshold,” Science 150, 1477–1479 (1965).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stiles, W. S.

M. Aguilar, W. S. Stiles, “Saturation of the rod mechanism of the retina at high intensity levels of stimulation,” Opt. Acta 1, 59–65 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, J. P.

Thornton, J. E.

J. E. Thornton, E. N. Pugh, “Relationship of opponent-colours cancellation measures to cone-antagonistic signals deduced from incremental threshold data,” in Colour Vision: Physiology and Psychophysics, J. D. Mollon, L. T. Sharpe, eds. (Academic, London, 1983), pp. 361–373.

Tolhurst, D. J.

Uckikawa, K.

K. Uckikawa, R. M. Boynton, “Categorical color perception of Japanese observers: comparison with that of Americans,” Vision Res. 27, 1825–1833 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Wandell, B. A.

B. A. Wandell, “Color measurement and discrimination,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2, 62–71 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. A. Wandell, J. Sanchez, B. Quinn, “Detection/discrimination in the long-wavelength pathways,” Vision Res. 22, 1061–1069 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watson, A. B.

A. B. Watson, J. G. Robson, “Discrimination at thresholds: labelled detectors in human vision,” Vision Res. 21, 1115–1122 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Weber, A.

J. Nachmias, A. Weber, “Discrimination of simple and complex gratings,” Vision Res. 15, 217–223 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Werner, J. S.

B. R. Wooten, J. S. Werner, “Short-wave cone input to the red–green opponent channel,” Vision Res. 19, 1053–1054 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Williams, D. R.

J. Krauskopf, D. R. Williams, H. B. Mandler, A. M. Brown, “Higher order color mechanisms,” Vision Res. 26, 23–32 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wooten, B. R.

B. R. Wooten, J. S. Werner, “Short-wave cone input to the red–green opponent channel,” Vision Res. 19, 1053–1054 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Zeki, S.

S. Zeki, “The representation of colours in the cerebral cortex,” Nature (London) 284, 412–418 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Color Res. Applic. (1)

R. M. Boynton, C. X. Olson, “Locating basic colors in the OSA space,” Color Res. Applic. 94 (1987).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (5)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (3)

J. Physiol. (2)

R. F. Hess, K. Nordby, “Spatial and temporal limits of vision in the achromat,” J. Physiol. 371, 365–385 (1986).
[PubMed]

K. T. Mullen, “The contrast sensitivity of human colour vision to red–green and blue–yellow chromatic gratings,” J. Physiol. 359, 381–409 (1985).

Nature (London) (1)

S. Zeki, “The representation of colours in the cerebral cortex,” Nature (London) 284, 412–418 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Acta (1)

M. Aguilar, W. S. Stiles, “Saturation of the rod mechanism of the retina at high intensity levels of stimulation,” Opt. Acta 1, 59–65 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Percept. Psychophys. (1)

G. B. Rollman, J. Nachmias, “Simultaneous detection and recognition of chromatic flashes,” Percept. Psychophys. 12, 309–314 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

J. Krauskopf, R. Srebro, “Spectral sensitivity of color mechanisms: derivation from fluctuation of color appearance near threshold,” Science 150, 1477–1479 (1965).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. G. Sperling, R. J. Harwerth, “Red–green cone interactions in increment threshold of spectral sensitivity of primates,” Science 172, 180–184 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vision Res. (11)

J. Nachmias, A. Weber, “Discrimination of simple and complex gratings,” Vision Res. 15, 217–223 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Krauskopf, D. R. Williams, H. B. Mandler, A. M. Brown, “Higher order color mechanisms,” Vision Res. 26, 23–32 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. A. Wandell, J. Sanchez, B. Quinn, “Detection/discrimination in the long-wavelength pathways,” Vision Res. 22, 1061–1069 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. B. Kirk, “Color discrimination at threshold: the approach through incremental threshold sensitivity,” Vision Res. 22, 713–720 (1982).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Hess, G. T. Plant, “Temporal frequency discrimination in human vision: evidence for an additional mechanism in the low spatial and high frequency region,” Vision Res. 25, 1493–1500 (1985).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Watson, J. G. Robson, “Discrimination at thresholds: labelled detectors in human vision,” Vision Res. 21, 1115–1122 (1981).
[CrossRef]

K. Uckikawa, R. M. Boynton, “Categorical color perception of Japanese observers: comparison with that of Americans,” Vision Res. 27, 1825–1833 (1987).
[CrossRef]

K. Kranda, P. E. King-Smith, “Detection of coloured stimuli by independent linear systems,” Vision Res. 19, 733–745 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. Wooten, J. S. Werner, “Short-wave cone input to the red–green opponent channel,” Vision Res. 19, 1053–1054 (1979).
[CrossRef]

F. M. De Monasterio, P. Gouras, “Responses of macaque ganglion cells to far violet lights,” Vision Res. 17, 1147–1156 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. H. Foster, R. S. Snelgar, “Test and field spectral sensitivities of colour mechanisms obtained on small white backgrounds: action of unitary opponent colour processes?” Vision Res. 23, 787–797 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

J. E. Thornton, E. N. Pugh, “Relationship of opponent-colours cancellation measures to cone-antagonistic signals deduced from incremental threshold data,” in Colour Vision: Physiology and Psychophysics, J. D. Mollon, L. T. Sharpe, eds. (Academic, London, 1983), pp. 361–373.

J. D. Mollon, C. R. Cavonius, “The chromatic antagonisms of opponent process theory are not the same as those revealed in studies of detection and discrimination,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies VII, G. Verriest, ed. (Junk, The Netherlands, 1987), pp. 473–483.

D. C. Hood, M. A. Finklestein, “A case for the revision of text book models of colour vision: the detection and appearance of small brief lights,” in Colour Vision: Physiology and Psychophysics, J. D. Mollon, L. T. Sharpe, eds. (Academic, London, 1983), pp. 385–398.

J. Krauskopf, “On identifying detectors,” in Visual Psycho-physics and Physiology, J. C. Armington, J. Krauskopf, B. R. Wooten, eds. (Academic, New York, 1978), pp. 283–295.
[CrossRef]

K. T. Mullen, J. J. Kulikowski, D. Carden, “The identification of spectral colour sensations,” in Seeing Contour and Colour, J. J. Kulikowski, C. M. Dickenson, eds. (Pergamon, London, 1989), pp. 261–266.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Two-channel Maxwellian-view system. A, achromatizing lens; B, beam splitter; F, fixation mark; FS’s, field stops; H’s, heat filters; L’s, lenses; MC, monochromator; S’s, sources; SH, shutter; W’s, neutral-density wedges.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Two sets of results obtained from an AFC procedure, one using wavelength pairs of 530 with 610 nm (upper panels) and the other 610 with 655 nm (lower panels). Percentage correct is plotted as a function of the relative intensity of the stimulus in log units. The solid curves with filled circles indicate the psychometric function for detection of the stimulus, and the dashed curves with crosses show the function for the discrimination of one stimulus from the other. All curves are fitted by using a probit analysis. Detection threshold is taken as the stimulus intensity that is 90% correctly detected, and at this intensity the percentage correctly discriminated is calculated. Percent correctly discriminated may range from chance (50%) to perfect (90%) and is expressed as a relative value from 0 to 1, respectively (see text). (Subject KTM.)

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Correct discrimination at detection threshold (90% correct detection) is plotted in relative units for each pair of wavelengths. In each series of pairs, one wavelength remains fixed (filled circles), and the other member of the pair is indicated by open circles. Dashed lines indicate perfect discrimination (unity). Vertical arrows and numbers show the wavelength at which relative discrimination from the fixed wavelength is 0.5 and marks the division between perfectly distinguishable spectral regions. (Subject KTM.)

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Relative discrimination at detection threshold (90% correct detection) is plotted for each pair of wavelengths as Fig. 3. (Subject JJK.)

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Relative discrimination at detection threshold is plotted as for Figs. 34 for KTM (left-hand panel) and JJK (right-hand panel). Results are for discrimination of longer wavelengths from three fixed wavelengths (520, 530, and 550 nm). Vertical arrows and numbers indicate the position of the boundaries dividing distinguishable spectral regions. The two spectral regions are green and pale yellow in appearance.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Relative discrimination at detection threshold is plotted as for Figs. 35. Results for KTM (left-hand panel) show discrimination from three fixed wavelengths (575,610, and 630 nm), and results for JJK (right-hand panel) are for two fixed wavelengths (575 and 610 nm). The positions of the vertical arrows indicate the division between distinguishable spectral regions. The two spectral regions are pale yelow and orange in appearance.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Relative discrimination at detection threshold is plotted as for Figs. 36. Results are for the discrimination of shorter wavelengths from three fixed wavelengths: 530,520, and 510 nm for both KTM (left-hand panel) and JJK (right-hand panel). The position of the vertical arrows indicates the division between the two spectral sensations, which are green and blue in appearance.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Relative discrimination at detection threshold is plotted as for Figs. 37. Open circles show the results for discrimination of the three short-wavelength spectral sensations, green, blue, and violet, taken from Fig. 3. Triangles show results for discriminations from the same fixed wavelengths with a white background a log unit brighter (10,000 Td), and squares show results for a white background a log unit dimmer (100 Td). (Subject KTM.)

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Relative sensitivity to the test stimulus in log units as a function of the wavelength of the stimulus. Sensitivity is the reciprocal of the threshold intensity of the stimulus. Data points show the mean of four threshold settings with error bars of ±1 standard error. Arrows indicate the wavelength at the division between distinguishable spectral regions and show the averaged position taken from the previous figures. The dashed arrow indicates that discrimination between these two spectral regions is poor compared with that for the other three. The color of the spectral regions is indicated. Results are for KTM (top panel) and JJK (bottom panel).

Metrics