Abstract

Color differences required for fast parallel searches were measured for small and large display fields. The main purpose of the measurement was to test the hypothesis that serial searches obtained with small color differences in large display fields are due to poor discrimination in the peripheral visual field and to the need for foveal fixation. Results do not support this hypothesis but show that the color differences required for parallel search are just as large in a display confined to an area roughly the size of the fovea as in a large display. However, results also show that the color difference required for a fast, parallel search is dependent on the size of the stimuli in a large display field. This result is consistant with the possibility that poor discrimination in the periphery may contribute to the size of the required differences if the stimuli are small.

© 1990 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  3. P. T. Quinlan, G. W. Humphreys, “Visual search for targets defined by combinations of color, shape, and size: an analysis of task constraints on feature and conjunctive search,” Percept. Psychophys. 41, 455–472 (1987); J. Duncan, G. W. Humphreys, “Visual search and stimulus similarity,” Psychol. Rev. 96, 433–458 (1989).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. J. M. Wolfe, K. R. Cave, S. L. Fanzel, “Guided search: an alternative to the feature integration model for visual search,” J. Exp. Psychol. Hum. Percept. Perform. 15, 419–433 (1989).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. Since the tritan and deutan axes are orthogonal to each other in the MacLeod–Boynton chromaticity diagram, differences between the target colors and the distractor colors can be represented by the difference in the chromaticity coordinate along one axis. For brighter and dimmer targets, the difference is represented by the differences in the logs of the luminances.
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. R. M. Boynton, N. Kambe, “Chromatic difference steps of moderate size measured along theoretically critical axes,” Color Res. Appl. 5, 13–23 (1980). Thresholds were estimated at the chromaticity and luminance used in this study.
    [Crossref]
  18. See R. E. Bedford, G. W. Wyszecki, Color Science, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1982).
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1990 (1)

1989 (1)

J. M. Wolfe, K. R. Cave, S. L. Fanzel, “Guided search: an alternative to the feature integration model for visual search,” J. Exp. Psychol. Hum. Percept. Perform. 15, 419–433 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

A. Treisman, S. Gormican, “Feature analysis in early vision: evidence for search asymmetries,” Psychol. Rev. 95, 15–48 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

P. T. Quinlan, G. W. Humphreys, “Visual search for targets defined by combinations of color, shape, and size: an analysis of task constraints on feature and conjunctive search,” Percept. Psychophys. 41, 455–472 (1987); J. Duncan, G. W. Humphreys, “Visual search and stimulus similarity,” Psychol. Rev. 96, 433–458 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1981 (2)

B. Julesz, “Textons, the elements of texture perception, and their interactions,” Nature (London) 290, 91–97 (1981).
[Crossref]

E. C. Carter, R. C. Carter, “Color and conspicuousness,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 723–729 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1980 (2)

R. M. Boynton, N. Kambe, “Chromatic difference steps of moderate size measured along theoretically critical axes,” Color Res. Appl. 5, 13–23 (1980). Thresholds were estimated at the chromaticity and luminance used in this study.
[Crossref]

A. Treisman, G. Gelade, “A feature integration theory of attention,” Cogn. Psychol. 12, 97–136 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1979 (1)

1977 (2)

J. Gordon, I. Abramov, “Color vision in the peripheral retina. II. Hue and saturation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 202–207 (1977).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. Stabell, B. Stabell, “Wavelength discrimination of peripheral cones,” Vision Res. 17, 423–426 (1977).
[Crossref]

1973 (1)

B. R. Wooten, G. Wald, “Color-vision mechanisms in the peripheral retinas of normal and dichromatic observers,” J. Gen. Physiol. 61, 125–145 (1973).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1971 (1)

1958 (1)

1949 (1)

1942 (1)

Abramov, I.

Bedford, R. E.

Boynton, R. M.

R. M. Boynton, N. Kambe, “Chromatic difference steps of moderate size measured along theoretically critical axes,” Color Res. Appl. 5, 13–23 (1980). Thresholds were estimated at the chromaticity and luminance used in this study.
[Crossref]

D. I. A. MacLeod, R. M. Boynton, “Cone excitation diagram showing cone excitation by stimuli of equal luminance,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 1183–1186 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brown, W. R. J.

Carter, E. C.

Carter, R. C.

Cave, K. R.

J. M. Wolfe, K. R. Cave, S. L. Fanzel, “Guided search: an alternative to the feature integration model for visual search,” J. Exp. Psychol. Hum. Percept. Perform. 15, 419–433 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fanzel, S. L.

J. M. Wolfe, K. R. Cave, S. L. Fanzel, “Guided search: an alternative to the feature integration model for visual search,” J. Exp. Psychol. Hum. Percept. Perform. 15, 419–433 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fielder, G. H.

Gelade, G.

A. Treisman, G. Gelade, “A feature integration theory of attention,” Cogn. Psychol. 12, 97–136 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gordon, J.

Gormican, S.

A. Treisman, S. Gormican, “Feature analysis in early vision: evidence for search asymmetries,” Psychol. Rev. 95, 15–48 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Humphreys, G. W.

P. T. Quinlan, G. W. Humphreys, “Visual search for targets defined by combinations of color, shape, and size: an analysis of task constraints on feature and conjunctive search,” Percept. Psychophys. 41, 455–472 (1987); J. Duncan, G. W. Humphreys, “Visual search and stimulus similarity,” Psychol. Rev. 96, 433–458 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Julesz, B.

B. Julesz, “Textons, the elements of texture perception, and their interactions,” Nature (London) 290, 91–97 (1981).
[Crossref]

Kambe, N.

R. M. Boynton, N. Kambe, “Chromatic difference steps of moderate size measured along theoretically critical axes,” Color Res. Appl. 5, 13–23 (1980). Thresholds were estimated at the chromaticity and luminance used in this study.
[Crossref]

MacAdam, D. L.

MacLeod, D. I. A.

Moreland, J. D.

J. D. Moreland, “Peripheral colour vision,” in Handbook of Sensory Physiology, VII/4. Visual Psychophysics, D. Jameson, L. M. Hurvich, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1972), pp. 517–536; R. A. Weale, “Spectral sensitivity and wavelength discrimination of the peripheral retina,” J. Physiol. 119, 170–190 (1953).
[Crossref]

Nagy, A. L.

Quinlan, P. T.

P. T. Quinlan, G. W. Humphreys, “Visual search for targets defined by combinations of color, shape, and size: an analysis of task constraints on feature and conjunctive search,” Percept. Psychophys. 41, 455–472 (1987); J. Duncan, G. W. Humphreys, “Visual search and stimulus similarity,” Psychol. Rev. 96, 433–458 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sanchez, R. R.

Stabell, B.

U. Stabell, B. Stabell, “Wavelength discrimination of peripheral cones,” Vision Res. 17, 423–426 (1977).
[Crossref]

Stabell, U.

U. Stabell, B. Stabell, “Wavelength discrimination of peripheral cones,” Vision Res. 17, 423–426 (1977).
[Crossref]

Treisman, A.

A. Treisman, S. Gormican, “Feature analysis in early vision: evidence for search asymmetries,” Psychol. Rev. 95, 15–48 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Treisman, G. Gelade, “A feature integration theory of attention,” Cogn. Psychol. 12, 97–136 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wald, G.

B. R. Wooten, G. Wald, “Color-vision mechanisms in the peripheral retinas of normal and dichromatic observers,” J. Gen. Physiol. 61, 125–145 (1973).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wolfe, J. M.

J. M. Wolfe, K. R. Cave, S. L. Fanzel, “Guided search: an alternative to the feature integration model for visual search,” J. Exp. Psychol. Hum. Percept. Perform. 15, 419–433 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wooten, B. R.

B. R. Wooten, G. Wald, “Color-vision mechanisms in the peripheral retinas of normal and dichromatic observers,” J. Gen. Physiol. 61, 125–145 (1973).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wyszecki, G.

Wyszecki, G. W.

Cogn. Psychol. (1)

A. Treisman, G. Gelade, “A feature integration theory of attention,” Cogn. Psychol. 12, 97–136 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Color Res. Appl. (1)

R. M. Boynton, N. Kambe, “Chromatic difference steps of moderate size measured along theoretically critical axes,” Color Res. Appl. 5, 13–23 (1980). Thresholds were estimated at the chromaticity and luminance used in this study.
[Crossref]

J. Exp. Psychol. Hum. Percept. Perform. (1)

J. M. Wolfe, K. R. Cave, S. L. Fanzel, “Guided search: an alternative to the feature integration model for visual search,” J. Exp. Psychol. Hum. Percept. Perform. 15, 419–433 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Gen. Physiol. (1)

B. R. Wooten, G. Wald, “Color-vision mechanisms in the peripheral retinas of normal and dichromatic observers,” J. Gen. Physiol. 61, 125–145 (1973).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (7)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Nature (London) (1)

B. Julesz, “Textons, the elements of texture perception, and their interactions,” Nature (London) 290, 91–97 (1981).
[Crossref]

Percept. Psychophys. (1)

P. T. Quinlan, G. W. Humphreys, “Visual search for targets defined by combinations of color, shape, and size: an analysis of task constraints on feature and conjunctive search,” Percept. Psychophys. 41, 455–472 (1987); J. Duncan, G. W. Humphreys, “Visual search and stimulus similarity,” Psychol. Rev. 96, 433–458 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Psychol. Rev. (1)

A. Treisman, S. Gormican, “Feature analysis in early vision: evidence for search asymmetries,” Psychol. Rev. 95, 15–48 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vision Res. (1)

U. Stabell, B. Stabell, “Wavelength discrimination of peripheral cones,” Vision Res. 17, 423–426 (1977).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

J. D. Moreland, “Peripheral colour vision,” in Handbook of Sensory Physiology, VII/4. Visual Psychophysics, D. Jameson, L. M. Hurvich, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1972), pp. 517–536; R. A. Weale, “Spectral sensitivity and wavelength discrimination of the peripheral retina,” J. Physiol. 119, 170–190 (1953).
[Crossref]

See R. E. Bedford, G. W. Wyszecki, Color Science, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1982).

Since the tritan and deutan axes are orthogonal to each other in the MacLeod–Boynton chromaticity diagram, differences between the target colors and the distractor colors can be represented by the difference in the chromaticity coordinate along one axis. For brighter and dimmer targets, the difference is represented by the differences in the logs of the luminances.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Chromaticities of the distractor color (filled square) and the target colors (open diamonds) shown plotted in the CIE diagram. The triangle indicates the gamut of colors that could be produced on the monitor. Letters indicate color names used to identify target hues along different lines: B, bluer; Y, yellower; R, redder; and G, greener.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Mean search time plotted as a function of luminance difference for targets that are increments (top) or decrements (bottom) relative to the distractors. Both of the axes are logarithmic. Filled diamonds indicate the large display field, open squares indicate the small display field, and open circles indicate the small stimulus disks in the large display field.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Mean search time (log axis) plotted as a function of chromaticity difference for targets that are redder (top) or greener (bottom) than the distractors. Symbols as in Fig. 2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Mean search time (log axis) plotted as a function of chromaticity difference for targets that are bluer (top) or yellower (bottom) than the distractors. Symbols as in Fig. 2.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Ratio of the Weber fractions for critical color difference and threshold for each target hue. Open symbols indicate that thresholds from Wyszecki and Fielder16 were used to calculate the ratio. Filled symbols indicate that thresholds from Boynton and Kambe13 were used to calculate the ratio. Squares indicate the large-field condition, and circles indicate the small-field condition.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Distances to critical color differences in the CIELUV uniform color space. Squares again indicate the large-field condition and circles the small-field condition.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Critical Color Differences Estimated from Figs. 2 and 4 along with Differences Expressed as Percent

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