Abstract

The visibility of a 1°, 200-msec flash on a large yellow field was measured as a function of the intensity of a coincident pedestal flash (a flash that was the same in both temporal intervals of a two-alternative forced-choice trial). The various flashes were incremental (+Lum) or decremental (−Lum) yellow luminance flashes or green (+Chr) or red (−Chr) isoluminant chromatic flashes. With uncrossed conditions (Lum tests on Lum pedestals or Chr tests on Chr pedestals), we obtained the conventional dipper function, that is, the function of threshold test intensity was highly asymmetric about zero pedestal intensity, and strong pedestals induced strong masking. Crossed conditions produced neither effect: for example, with Chr tests on Lum pedestals, there was no dipper function: the function of threshold test intensity was symmetric about zero pedestal intensity, and strong pedestals produced no masking. Instead, the suprathreshold luminance pedestals facilitated chromatic detection by as much as 2–3× and also linearized the chromatic psychometric function, further enhancing sensitivity to weak chromatic stimuli. (Chromatic sensitivity on the suprathreshold luminance pedestal was ∼25× higher than luminance sensitivity on the uniform field.) A pedestal consisting of a thin luminance ring that surrounded the chromatic test produced facilitation equal to that of the uniform-luminance pedestal: the pedestal may thus act to demarcate the test spatially and promote chromatic comparison with the surround. Removing the uniform yellow surround eliminated this crossed facilitation but did not eliminate the uncrossed facilitation (the dipper function), suggesting that different mechanisms mediate the crossed and uncrossed facilitations.

© 1990 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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1988 (1)

1987 (1)

C. F. Stromeyer, G. R. Cole, R. E. Kronauer, “Chromatic suppression of cone inputs to the luminance flicker mechanism,” Vision Res. 27, 1113–1137 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (2)

1985 (3)

1984 (1)

A. M. Derrington, J. Krauskopf, P. Lennie, “Chromatic mechanisms in lateral geniculate nucleus of macaque,” J. Physiol. (London) 357, 241–265 (1984).

1983 (6)

G. E. Legge, D. Kersten, “Light and dark bars: contrast discrimination,” Vision Res. 23, 473–483 (1983).
[CrossRef]

K. K. DeValois, E. Switkes, “Simultaneous masking interactions between chromatic and luminance gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 73, 11–18 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Wolfe, “Influence of spatial frequency, luminance, and duration on binocular rivalry and abnormal fusion of briefly presented dichoptic stimuli,” Perception 12, 447–456 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. H. Foster, R. S. Snelgar, “Test and field spectral sensitivities of colour mechanisms obtained on small white backgrounds: action of unitary opponent-colour processes?” Vision Res. 23, 787–797 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Thornton, E. N. Pugh, “Red/green opponency at detection threshold,” Science 219, 191–193 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. B. Watson, D. G. Pelli, “quest: a Bayesian adaptive psychometric method,” Percept. Psychophys. 33, 113–120 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982 (1)

J. Krauskopf, D. R. Williams, D. W. Heeley, “Cardinal directions of color space,” Vision Res. 22, 1123–1131 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981 (1)

1980 (1)

1979 (2)

A. B. Watson, “Probability summation over time,” Vision Res. 19, 515–522 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Normann, I. Perlman, “The effects of background illumination on the photoresponses of red and green cones,” J. Physiol. (London) 286, 491–507 (1979).

1977 (1)

R. M. Boynton, M. M. Hayhoe, D. I. A. MacLeod, “The gap effect: chromatic and achromatic visual discrimination as affected by field separation,” Opt. Acta 24, 159–177 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

1975 (1)

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500 nm,” Vision Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1974 (3)

J. Nachmias, R. V. Sansbury, “Grating contrast: discrimination may be better than detection,” Vision Res. 14, 1039–1042 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. F. Stromeyer, S. Klein, “Spatial frequency channels in human vision as asymmetric (edge) mechanisms,” Vision Res. 14, 1409–1420 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Hilz, G. Huppmann, C. R. Cavonius, “Influence of luminance contrast on hue discrimination,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 763–766 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1973 (2)

C. R. Ingling, B. A. Drum, “Retinal receptive fields: correlations between psychophysics and electrophysiology,” Vision Res. 13, 1151–1163 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Kulikowski, P. E. King-Smith, “Spatial arrangement of line, edge and grating detectors revealed by subthreshold summation,” Vision Res. 13, 1455–1478 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1971 (1)

H. G. Sperling, R. S. Harwerth, “Red–Green cone interactions in the increment-threshold spectral sensitivity of primates,” Science 172, 180–184 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1970 (1)

1968 (1)

R. M. Boynton, P. K. Kaiser, “Vision: the additivity law made to work for heterochromatic photometry with bipartite fields,” Science 161, 366–368 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1966 (1)

T. N. Wiesel, D. H. Hubel, “Spatial and chromatic interactions in the lateral geniculate body of the rhesus monkey,” J. Neurophysiol. 29, 1115–1156 (1966).
[PubMed]

1957 (1)

L. M. Hurvich, D. Jameson, “An opponent-process theory of color vision,” Psychol. Rev. 64, 384–404 (1957).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boynton, R. M.

R. M. Boynton, M. M. Hayhoe, D. I. A. MacLeod, “The gap effect: chromatic and achromatic visual discrimination as affected by field separation,” Opt. Acta 24, 159–177 (1977).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Boynton, P. K. Kaiser, “Vision: the additivity law made to work for heterochromatic photometry with bipartite fields,” Science 161, 366–368 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bradley, A.

Burns, S. A.

Carden, D.

Cavonius, C. R.

Cole, G. R.

C. F. Stromeyer, G. R. Cole, R. E. Kronauer, “Chromatic suppression of cone inputs to the luminance flicker mechanism,” Vision Res. 27, 1113–1137 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. F. Stromeyer, G. R. Cole, R. E. Kronauer, “Second-site adaptation in the red-green chromatic pathways,” Vision Res. 25, 219–237 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Derrington, A. M.

A. M. Derrington, J. Krauskopf, P. Lennie, “Chromatic mechanisms in lateral geniculate nucleus of macaque,” J. Physiol. (London) 357, 241–265 (1984).

DeValois, K. K.

DeValois, K. X.

Drum, B. A.

C. R. Ingling, B. A. Drum, “Retinal receptive fields: correlations between psychophysics and electrophysiology,” Vision Res. 13, 1151–1163 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eisner, A.

Elsner, A. E.

Foley, J. M.

Foster, D. H.

D. H. Foster, R. S. Snelgar, “Test and field spectral sensitivities of colour mechanisms obtained on small white backgrounds: action of unitary opponent-colour processes?” Vision Res. 23, 787–797 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Green, D. M.

D. M. Green, J. A. Swets, Signal Detection Theory and Psychophysics (Krieger, Huntington, N.Y., 1974).

Harwerth, R. S.

H. G. Sperling, R. S. Harwerth, “Red–Green cone interactions in the increment-threshold spectral sensitivity of primates,” Science 172, 180–184 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hayhoe, M. M.

R. M. Boynton, M. M. Hayhoe, D. I. A. MacLeod, “The gap effect: chromatic and achromatic visual discrimination as affected by field separation,” Opt. Acta 24, 159–177 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Heeley, D. W.

J. Krauskopf, D. R. Williams, D. W. Heeley, “Cardinal directions of color space,” Vision Res. 22, 1123–1131 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hilz, R.

Hilz, R. L.

Hubel, D. H.

T. N. Wiesel, D. H. Hubel, “Spatial and chromatic interactions in the lateral geniculate body of the rhesus monkey,” J. Neurophysiol. 29, 1115–1156 (1966).
[PubMed]

Huppmann, G.

Hurvich, L. M.

L. M. Hurvich, D. Jameson, “An opponent-process theory of color vision,” Psychol. Rev. 64, 384–404 (1957).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ingling, C. R.

C. R. Ingling, B. A. Drum, “Retinal receptive fields: correlations between psychophysics and electrophysiology,” Vision Res. 13, 1151–1163 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jameson, D.

L. M. Hurvich, D. Jameson, “An opponent-process theory of color vision,” Psychol. Rev. 64, 384–404 (1957).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaiser, P. K.

R. M. Boynton, P. K. Kaiser, “Vision: the additivity law made to work for heterochromatic photometry with bipartite fields,” Science 161, 366–368 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kersten, D.

G. E. Legge, D. Kersten, “Light and dark bars: contrast discrimination,” Vision Res. 23, 473–483 (1983).
[CrossRef]

King-Smith, P. E.

P. E. King-Smith, D. Carden, “Luminance and opponent-color contributions to visual detection and adaptation and to temporal and spatial integration,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 709–717 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Kulikowski, P. E. King-Smith, “Spatial arrangement of line, edge and grating detectors revealed by subthreshold summation,” Vision Res. 13, 1455–1478 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klein, S.

C. F. Stromeyer, S. Klein, “Spatial frequency channels in human vision as asymmetric (edge) mechanisms,” Vision Res. 14, 1409–1420 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krauskopf, J.

A. M. Derrington, J. Krauskopf, P. Lennie, “Chromatic mechanisms in lateral geniculate nucleus of macaque,” J. Physiol. (London) 357, 241–265 (1984).

J. Krauskopf, D. R. Williams, D. W. Heeley, “Cardinal directions of color space,” Vision Res. 22, 1123–1131 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kronauer, R. E.

C. F. Stromeyer, G. R. Cole, R. E. Kronauer, “Chromatic suppression of cone inputs to the luminance flicker mechanism,” Vision Res. 27, 1113–1137 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. F. Stromeyer, G. R. Cole, R. E. Kronauer, “Second-site adaptation in the red-green chromatic pathways,” Vision Res. 25, 219–237 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kulikowski, J. J.

J. J. Kulikowski, P. E. King-Smith, “Spatial arrangement of line, edge and grating detectors revealed by subthreshold summation,” Vision Res. 13, 1455–1478 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Larimer, J.

J. Nick, J. Larimer, “Yellow/blue cancellation on yellow fields: its relevance to the two-process theory,” in Colour Vision: Physiology and Psychophysics, J. D. Mollon, L. T. Sharpe, eds. (Academic, London, 1983).

Legge, G. E.

G. E. Legge, D. Kersten, “Light and dark bars: contrast discrimination,” Vision Res. 23, 473–483 (1983).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Legge, J. M. Foley, “Contrast masking in human vision,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 1458–1471 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lennie, P.

A. M. Derrington, J. Krauskopf, P. Lennie, “Chromatic mechanisms in lateral geniculate nucleus of macaque,” J. Physiol. (London) 357, 241–265 (1984).

MacLeod, D. I. A.

A. Eisner, D. I. A. MacLeod, “Flicker photometric study of chromatic adaptation: selective suppression of cone inputs by colored backgrounds,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 705–718 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Boynton, M. M. Hayhoe, D. I. A. MacLeod, “The gap effect: chromatic and achromatic visual discrimination as affected by field separation,” Opt. Acta 24, 159–177 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Nachmias, J.

J. Nachmias, R. V. Sansbury, “Grating contrast: discrimination may be better than detection,” Vision Res. 14, 1039–1042 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nick, J.

J. Nick, J. Larimer, “Yellow/blue cancellation on yellow fields: its relevance to the two-process theory,” in Colour Vision: Physiology and Psychophysics, J. D. Mollon, L. T. Sharpe, eds. (Academic, London, 1983).

Normann, R. A.

R. A. Normann, I. Perlman, “The effects of background illumination on the photoresponses of red and green cones,” J. Physiol. (London) 286, 491–507 (1979).

Pelli, D. G

Pelli, D. G.

A. B. Watson, D. G. Pelli, “quest: a Bayesian adaptive psychometric method,” Percept. Psychophys. 33, 113–120 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perlman, I.

R. A. Normann, I. Perlman, “The effects of background illumination on the photoresponses of red and green cones,” J. Physiol. (London) 286, 491–507 (1979).

Pokorny, J.

A. E. Elsner, J. Pokorny, S. A. Burns, “Chromaticity discrimination: effects of luminance contrast and spatial frequency,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 916–920 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500 nm,” Vision Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pugh, E. N.

J. E. Thornton, E. N. Pugh, “Red/green opponency at detection threshold,” Science 219, 191–193 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sansbury, R. V.

J. Nachmias, R. V. Sansbury, “Grating contrast: discrimination may be better than detection,” Vision Res. 14, 1039–1042 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, V. C.

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500 nm,” Vision Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Snelgar, R. S.

D. H. Foster, R. S. Snelgar, “Test and field spectral sensitivities of colour mechanisms obtained on small white backgrounds: action of unitary opponent-colour processes?” Vision Res. 23, 787–797 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sperling, H. G.

H. G. Sperling, R. S. Harwerth, “Red–Green cone interactions in the increment-threshold spectral sensitivity of primates,” Science 172, 180–184 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stiles, W. S.

W. S. Stiles, Mechanisms of Colour Vision (Academic, New York, 1978).

Stromeyer, C. F.

C. F. Stromeyer, G. R. Cole, R. E. Kronauer, “Chromatic suppression of cone inputs to the luminance flicker mechanism,” Vision Res. 27, 1113–1137 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. F. Stromeyer, G. R. Cole, R. E. Kronauer, “Second-site adaptation in the red-green chromatic pathways,” Vision Res. 25, 219–237 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. F. Stromeyer, S. Klein, “Spatial frequency channels in human vision as asymmetric (edge) mechanisms,” Vision Res. 14, 1409–1420 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. F. Stromeyer, “Form-color aftereffects in human vision,” in Perception, R. Held, H. W. Leibowitz, H.-L. Teuber, eds., Vol. 8 of Handbook of Sensory Physiology (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1978).

Swets, J. A.

D. M. Green, J. A. Swets, Signal Detection Theory and Psychophysics (Krieger, Huntington, N.Y., 1974).

Switkes, E.

Thornton, J. E.

J. E. Thornton, E. N. Pugh, “Red/green opponency at detection threshold,” Science 219, 191–193 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wandell, B. A.

Watson, A. B.

A. B. Watson, D. G. Pelli, “quest: a Bayesian adaptive psychometric method,” Percept. Psychophys. 33, 113–120 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. B. Watson, “Probability summation over time,” Vision Res. 19, 515–522 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Whittle, P.

P. Whittle, “Increments and decrements: luminance discrimination,” Vision Res. 26, 1677–1691 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wiesel, T. N.

T. N. Wiesel, D. H. Hubel, “Spatial and chromatic interactions in the lateral geniculate body of the rhesus monkey,” J. Neurophysiol. 29, 1115–1156 (1966).
[PubMed]

Williams, D. R.

J. Krauskopf, D. R. Williams, D. W. Heeley, “Cardinal directions of color space,” Vision Res. 22, 1123–1131 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolfe, J. M.

J. M. Wolfe, “Influence of spatial frequency, luminance, and duration on binocular rivalry and abnormal fusion of briefly presented dichoptic stimuli,” Perception 12, 447–456 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Neurophysiol. (1)

T. N. Wiesel, D. H. Hubel, “Spatial and chromatic interactions in the lateral geniculate body of the rhesus monkey,” J. Neurophysiol. 29, 1115–1156 (1966).
[PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (6)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (4)

J. Physiol. (London) (2)

R. A. Normann, I. Perlman, “The effects of background illumination on the photoresponses of red and green cones,” J. Physiol. (London) 286, 491–507 (1979).

A. M. Derrington, J. Krauskopf, P. Lennie, “Chromatic mechanisms in lateral geniculate nucleus of macaque,” J. Physiol. (London) 357, 241–265 (1984).

Opt. Acta (1)

R. M. Boynton, M. M. Hayhoe, D. I. A. MacLeod, “The gap effect: chromatic and achromatic visual discrimination as affected by field separation,” Opt. Acta 24, 159–177 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Percept. Psychophys. (1)

A. B. Watson, D. G. Pelli, “quest: a Bayesian adaptive psychometric method,” Percept. Psychophys. 33, 113–120 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perception (1)

J. M. Wolfe, “Influence of spatial frequency, luminance, and duration on binocular rivalry and abnormal fusion of briefly presented dichoptic stimuli,” Perception 12, 447–456 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Psychol. Rev. (1)

L. M. Hurvich, D. Jameson, “An opponent-process theory of color vision,” Psychol. Rev. 64, 384–404 (1957).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (3)

J. E. Thornton, E. N. Pugh, “Red/green opponency at detection threshold,” Science 219, 191–193 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Boynton, P. K. Kaiser, “Vision: the additivity law made to work for heterochromatic photometry with bipartite fields,” Science 161, 366–368 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. G. Sperling, R. S. Harwerth, “Red–Green cone interactions in the increment-threshold spectral sensitivity of primates,” Science 172, 180–184 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vision Res. (12)

C. F. Stromeyer, G. R. Cole, R. E. Kronauer, “Chromatic suppression of cone inputs to the luminance flicker mechanism,” Vision Res. 27, 1113–1137 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. F. Stromeyer, G. R. Cole, R. E. Kronauer, “Second-site adaptation in the red-green chromatic pathways,” Vision Res. 25, 219–237 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Krauskopf, D. R. Williams, D. W. Heeley, “Cardinal directions of color space,” Vision Res. 22, 1123–1131 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Nachmias, R. V. Sansbury, “Grating contrast: discrimination may be better than detection,” Vision Res. 14, 1039–1042 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (15)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Spatial radiance profile of the stimulus. C and S indicate the center and the surround, respectively. Flashes were produced by modulating the red, green, and yellow lights in the center area.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical system. A xenon arc (S) provided light for the main adapting field channel and for an auxiliary channel. The other six channels contained LED’s, with interference filters (IF’s), that provided light for the red, green, and yellow center lights and their surrounds. The LED channels were combined with a mirror cuvette beam splitter (MC). Additional abbreviations: GM, grating monochromator; FS, field stop; HR’s, heat-reflecting filter; WB, water bath; AP, artificial pupil; AL, achromatizing lens; W’s, neutral-density wedges.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Thresholds of +Lum and −Lum (luminance) test flashes (vertical axis) as a function of intensity of +Lum and −Lum pedestals (horizontal axis) on a yellow adapting field of ∼3000 Td. Pedestal thresholds are indicated by crosses on the horizontal midline. Dashed lines represent predictions that discrimination of the presence of the test is controlled by only the intensity of the test plus the pedestal (viz., the pedestal interval can be ignored because the psychometric function is predicted to be infinitely steep; see the text).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Similar to Fig. 3, thresholds of +Chr, green and −Chr, red (isoluminant chromatic) test flashes as a function of the intensity of +Chr and −Chr pedestals, for observers G.R.C. (left-hand panel) and C.F.S. (right-hand panel). Pedestal thresholds are indicated by crosses on the horizontal midline. Notice the greater range of intense −Chr, red pedestals used for observer C.F.S. (right-hand panel).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Thresholds of chromatic test flashes as a function of the intensity of luminance pedestals, for observers G.R.C. (left-hand panel) and C.F.S (right-hand panel). Pedestal thresholds are indicated by crosses on the horizontal midline. Test thresholds on intense pedestals are shown renormalized (triangles), on the assumption that the adapting field consists of the large adapting field plus the pedestal. The curve through the data is drawn as if it projected out to the actual position of the filled triangles.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Thresholds of chromatic test flashes on a +0.033 luminance pedestal of 2.1× threshold, to which is added an additional chromatic pedestal component, depicted on the horizontal axis (results for observer G.R.C.). The latter pedestal component produces a small chromatic tilt of the nominal luminance pedestal. The flatness of the curves indicates that chromatic facilitation by the luminance pedestal is not caused by a chromatic artifact in the pedestal and that the chromatic dipper function disappears when a facilitatory luminance pedestal is also present (compare Fig. 4).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Detection contours representing thresholds of a wide variety of test flashes measured on a uniform field (outer contour) and on a suprathreshold +0.033 luminance pedestal that had been shown to produce good luminance and chromatic facilitation. Results are for observer G.R.C.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Psychometric functions for the detection of chromatic flashes on a uniform field and on a luminance pedestal, plotted in linear coordinates of d′ versus test intensity, for observers R.T.E. (left-hand panel) and C.F.S. (right-hand panel). Curves represent power functions d′ = (I/I0)n. The estimated slopes n and the standard error are designated beside the curves. The function for chromatic detection on the uniform field is accelerated (right-hand curve in each panel), whereas the function measured with the pedestal (left-hand curve in each panel) is more nearly linear (a single curve was fitted to results for observer C.F.S.). For observer R.T.E. the pedestal was +0.049 Lum (filled circles). For observer C.F.S. chromatic detection was measured on a weakly suprathreshold pedestal of +0.049 Lum (filled circles, n = 1.31 ± 0.16) and on a strong +0.22 pedestal (triangles, n = 1.15 ± 0.18); chromatic identification (see the text) was measured twice on the weaker pedestal (upright crosses, n = 0.98 ± 0.07; tilted crosses, n = 1.20 ± 0.18).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Thresholds of luminance test flashes on chromatic pedestals, for observers G.R.C. (left-hand panel) and C.F.S. (right-hand panel). The pedestal thresholds are indicated by crosses on the horizontal midline.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Thresholds of luminance test flashes measured on a −0.013 Chr pedestal (left-hand panel) and a +0.013 Chr pedestal (right-hand panel) to which have been added luminance pedestal components, depicted on the horizontal axis. The latter component tilts the nominally chromatic pedestal. Horizontal lines are fitted to means of thresholds. The flatness of the data indicates that luminance facilitation by chromatic pedestal is not caused by a luminance artifact in the pedestals. Results are for observer G.R.C.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Thresholds of a 1°-diameter red chromatic test flash on flashed +0.06 luminance pedestals of various sizes, for observer C.F.S. Facilitation decreases by half for pedestals of approximately 0.5° and 1.5°. The dashed curve, for pedestals larger than the test, indicates that the threshold is determined by the integrated chromatic flux within the pedestal area.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Thresholds of chromatic test flashes as a function of the intensity of a simultaneously flashed yellow ring (3′ thick) whose inner edge was 5′ outside the chromatic test. The threshold of the ring is indicated by the cross on the horizontal midline. Facilitation is similar to that produced by the solid 1° Lum pedestal (see Fig. 5). Results are for observer C.F.S.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Pedestal experiment without reference surround: the coincident test and pedestal were 1.5° in diameter with a Gaussian temporal envelope (σ = 100 msec). (The 1.5° field was metameric with 580 nm and 370 Td with a dark surround.) As shown here, without the reference surround, facilitation occurs only for the uncrossed conditions of luminance test and pedestal or chromatic test and pedestal. The vertical line in each panel designates pedestals of zero intensity: thus pedestals have opposite polarities to the left and to the right of this line. The thresholds of the pedestal per se are indicated by arrows. Top panel, thresholds of a +Lum test as a function of the intensity of luminance pedestals (uncrossed condition, bottom abscissa) and as function of intensity of chromatic pedestals (crossed condition, top abscissa). Bottom panel, threshold of a −Chr test as a function of the intensity of chromatic pedestals (uncrossed, bottom abscissa) and as a function of the intensity of luminance pedestals (crossed, top abscissa). Results are for observer C.F.S.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Test for dichoptic facilitation, for observers C.F.S. (left-hand panel) and R.T.E. (right-hand panel). Facilitation was obtained (open circles) when the red chromatic test and the luminance pedestal were presented to the same eye, and no facilitation was obtained (filled circles) when the test and the pedestal were presented to opposite eyes. The yellow adapting field was seen by both eyes. Similar results were obtained with 30-msec stimuli, which were used to prevent binocular rivalry (squares, right-hand panel). See the text for an explanation of the points in the dotted box in the left-hand panel.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Thresholds of 1° red chromatic test flashes measured on either a uniform adapting field (no pedestal) or a +0.11 luminance pedestal that was steady or flashed for 200 msec. The test was flashed for 200 msec (top panel) or presented with a slow temporal Gaussian waveform (bottom panel). The experiment was repeated as many as three times for observers C.F.S: and R.T.E. (error bars represent the range of thresholds) and once for observer J.L.

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P ( a ) = 1 ( 1 1 / 2 ) exp [ I / α ) β ] ,

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