Abstract

The differential chromaticity thresholds of three color stimuli have been determined from metameric matches carried out during the cone-plateau period after photopigment bleaching. The results are compared with some recently published ones [ E. Hita, L. Jiménez del Barco, and J. Romero, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 1203 ( 1986)] obtained under similar experimental conditions but without prior photopigment bleaching. The possible effects of rod intrusion on color-prediction discrepancies are discussed in the light of both sets of results. Under our experimental conditions, with foveal fields of 3 deg, luminance within the low photopic level, and sets of primary colors produced by filters of differing spectral bandwidth, the rod intrusion effect can be ruled out as a possible cause of color-prediction discrepancies, although it does appear to produce variations in the sizes of the discrimination ellipses and in their orientation.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. R. Robertson, “Critical review of definitions of metamerism,” Color Res. Appl. 8, 189–190 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  2. F. W. Billmeyer, “Proposed new terminology for metamerism,” Color Res. Appl. 8, 192 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. S. Fairman, “New terminology for metamerism revisited,” Color Res. Appl. 11, 80 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science (Wiley, New York, 1967).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  7. J. D. Moreland, A. Cruz, “Colour perception with the peripheral retina,” Opt. Acta 6, 117 (1959).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Aguilar, W. S. Stiles, “Saturation of the rod mechanism of the retina at high levels of stimulation,” Opt. Acta 1, 59–65 (1954).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. L. MacAdam, “Visual sensitivities to color differences in daylight,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32, 247–274 (1942).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. U. Stabell, B. Stabell, “Effects of rod activity on color threshold,” Vision Res. 16, 1105–1110 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  15. U. Stabell, B. Stabell, “Change in hue with rod intrusion during dark adaptation,” Vision Res. 19, 1127–1131 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. L. Brown, J. W. Metz, J. R. Yohman, “Test of scotopic suppression of the photopic process,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 1677–1678 (1969).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. G. Wyszecki, “Propagation of errors in colorimetric transformations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 379–383 (1959).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. K. Bowmaker, H. J. A. Dartnall, “Visual pigments of rods and cones in a human retina,” J. Physiol. 298, 501–511 (1980).
    [PubMed]
  20. P. W. Trezona, “The effect of rod activity on large field colour matching,” Color Res. Appl. 1 (2), 95–101 (1976).
  21. E. N. Willmer, “Human colour vision and the perception of blue,” J. Theor. Biol. 2, 141–179 (1961).
    [CrossRef]

1986

1983

A. R. Robertson, “Critical review of definitions of metamerism,” Color Res. Appl. 8, 189–190 (1983).
[CrossRef]

F. W. Billmeyer, “Proposed new terminology for metamerism,” Color Res. Appl. 8, 192 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982

1980

E. Hita, E. Jiménez, “Differential thresholds of color from isomeric matching,” Atti Fond. Giorgio Ronchi 35, 511–526 (1980).

J. K. Bowmaker, H. J. A. Dartnall, “Visual pigments of rods and cones in a human retina,” J. Physiol. 298, 501–511 (1980).
[PubMed]

1979

U. Stabell, B. Stabell, “Change in hue with rod intrusion during dark adaptation,” Vision Res. 19, 1127–1131 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1976

P. W. Trezona, “The effect of rod activity on large field colour matching,” Color Res. Appl. 1 (2), 95–101 (1976).

U. Stabell, B. Stabell, “Effects of rod activity on color threshold,” Vision Res. 16, 1105–1110 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1971

1969

1964

1963

F. J. J. Clarke, “Further studies of extrafoveal colour metrics,” Opt. Acta 10, 257 (1963).
[CrossRef]

1961

E. N. Willmer, “Human colour vision and the perception of blue,” J. Theor. Biol. 2, 141–179 (1961).
[CrossRef]

1959

G. Wyszecki, “Propagation of errors in colorimetric transformations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 379–383 (1959).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Moreland, A. Cruz, “Colour perception with the peripheral retina,” Opt. Acta 6, 117 (1959).
[CrossRef]

1954

M. Aguilar, W. S. Stiles, “Saturation of the rod mechanism of the retina at high levels of stimulation,” Opt. Acta 1, 59–65 (1954).
[CrossRef]

1949

1942

Aguilar, M.

M. Aguilar, W. S. Stiles, “Saturation of the rod mechanism of the retina at high levels of stimulation,” Opt. Acta 1, 59–65 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Billmeyer, F. W.

F. W. Billmeyer, “Proposed new terminology for metamerism,” Color Res. Appl. 8, 192 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Bowmaker, J. K.

J. K. Bowmaker, H. J. A. Dartnall, “Visual pigments of rods and cones in a human retina,” J. Physiol. 298, 501–511 (1980).
[PubMed]

Brown, J. L.

Brown, W. R. J.

Clarke, F. J. J.

F. J. J. Clarke, “Further studies of extrafoveal colour metrics,” Opt. Acta 10, 257 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Cruz, A.

J. D. Moreland, A. Cruz, “Colour perception with the peripheral retina,” Opt. Acta 6, 117 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Dartnall, H. J. A.

J. K. Bowmaker, H. J. A. Dartnall, “Visual pigments of rods and cones in a human retina,” J. Physiol. 298, 501–511 (1980).
[PubMed]

Fairman, H. S.

H. S. Fairman, “New terminology for metamerism revisited,” Color Res. Appl. 11, 80 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Fielder, G. M.

Hita, E.

Jiménez, E.

E. Hita, E. Jiménez, “Differential thresholds of color from isomeric matching,” Atti Fond. Giorgio Ronchi 35, 511–526 (1980).

Jiménez del Barco, L.

MacAdam, D. L.

Martínez, R.

Metz, J. W.

Moreland, J. D.

J. D. Moreland, A. Cruz, “Colour perception with the peripheral retina,” Opt. Acta 6, 117 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Nimeroff, I.

Robertson, A. R.

A. R. Robertson, “Critical review of definitions of metamerism,” Color Res. Appl. 8, 189–190 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Romero, J.

Stabell, B.

U. Stabell, B. Stabell, “Change in hue with rod intrusion during dark adaptation,” Vision Res. 19, 1127–1131 (1979).
[CrossRef]

U. Stabell, B. Stabell, “Effects of rod activity on color threshold,” Vision Res. 16, 1105–1110 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Stabell, U.

U. Stabell, B. Stabell, “Change in hue with rod intrusion during dark adaptation,” Vision Res. 19, 1127–1131 (1979).
[CrossRef]

U. Stabell, B. Stabell, “Effects of rod activity on color threshold,” Vision Res. 16, 1105–1110 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Stiles, W. S.

M. Aguilar, W. S. Stiles, “Saturation of the rod mechanism of the retina at high levels of stimulation,” Opt. Acta 1, 59–65 (1954).
[CrossRef]

G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science (Wiley, New York, 1967).

Trezona, P. W.

P. W. Trezona, “The effect of rod activity on large field colour matching,” Color Res. Appl. 1 (2), 95–101 (1976).

Willmer, E. N.

E. N. Willmer, “Human colour vision and the perception of blue,” J. Theor. Biol. 2, 141–179 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Wyszecki, G.

Yohman, J. R.

Atti Fond. Giorgio Ronchi

E. Hita, E. Jiménez, “Differential thresholds of color from isomeric matching,” Atti Fond. Giorgio Ronchi 35, 511–526 (1980).

Color Res. Appl.

A. R. Robertson, “Critical review of definitions of metamerism,” Color Res. Appl. 8, 189–190 (1983).
[CrossRef]

F. W. Billmeyer, “Proposed new terminology for metamerism,” Color Res. Appl. 8, 192 (1983).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Fairman, “New terminology for metamerism revisited,” Color Res. Appl. 11, 80 (1986).
[CrossRef]

P. W. Trezona, “The effect of rod activity on large field colour matching,” Color Res. Appl. 1 (2), 95–101 (1976).

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Physiol.

J. K. Bowmaker, H. J. A. Dartnall, “Visual pigments of rods and cones in a human retina,” J. Physiol. 298, 501–511 (1980).
[PubMed]

J. Theor. Biol.

E. N. Willmer, “Human colour vision and the perception of blue,” J. Theor. Biol. 2, 141–179 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Acta

F. J. J. Clarke, “Further studies of extrafoveal colour metrics,” Opt. Acta 10, 257 (1963).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Moreland, A. Cruz, “Colour perception with the peripheral retina,” Opt. Acta 6, 117 (1959).
[CrossRef]

M. Aguilar, W. S. Stiles, “Saturation of the rod mechanism of the retina at high levels of stimulation,” Opt. Acta 1, 59–65 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Vision Res.

U. Stabell, B. Stabell, “Effects of rod activity on color threshold,” Vision Res. 16, 1105–1110 (1976).
[CrossRef]

U. Stabell, B. Stabell, “Change in hue with rod intrusion during dark adaptation,” Vision Res. 19, 1127–1131 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Other

G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science (Wiley, New York, 1967).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Spectral transmittance curves for the different filters selected to produce the primary chromaticities in the different experimental cases.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Discrimination ellipses for the different initial matches analyzed and results for observer LJ with reference to the CIE-1931 standard observer: (a) blue stimulus; (b) red–orange stimulus; (c) yellow–green stimulus. The subscript b is used to indicate that the ellipse was obtained with photopigment bleaching.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Discrimination ellipses for the different initial matches analyzed and results for observer MM with reference to the CIE-1931 standard observer: (a) blue stimulus; (b) red–orange stimulus; (c) yellow–green stimulus. The subscript b is used to indicate that the ellipse was obtained with photopigment bleaching.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Deuteranopic confusion lines and yellow-green thresholds (semiaxes are four times enlarged); results are shown for observer LJ.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Chromaticity Coordinates of Stimuli Studied (CIE-1931 Standard Observer) and Initial Matches Performed in Each Experimental Case to Determine the Differential Color Threshold with Photopigment Bleaching

Tables Icon

Table 2 Differences and Relationships between Isom Ellipse Parameters and Those Determined with or without Prior Photopigment Bleachinga

Equations (1)

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A ( x x 0 ) 2 + B ( y y 0 ) 2 + C ( Y Y 0 ) 2 + 2 D ( x x 0 ) ( y y 0 ) + 2 E ( y y 0 ) ( Y Y 0 ) + 2 F ( x x 0 ) ( Y Y 0 ) = 7.81 ,

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