Abstract

The useful field of view is defined as the visual area in which information can be acquired within one eye fixation. We studied visual search within this context and found a reduction in the size of the field as a function of age. This loss, however, was recovered partially with practice. Standard acuity and perimetric tests of visual field, although diagnostic of disease, underestimate the degree of difficulty experienced by visually healthy older adults in everyday activities requiring the use of peripheral vision. To aid in predicting such performance, a model incorporating the effects of distractors and secondary task demands was developed.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  50. C. K. Hertzog, A. B. Williams, D. A. Walsh, “The effect of practice on age differences in central perceptual processing,” J. Geront. 31, 428–433 (1976).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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1988 (3)

W. Kosnik, L. Winslow, D. Kline, K. Rasinski, R. Sekuler, “Vision changes in daily life throughout adulthood,” J. Geront. 43, 63–70 (1988).
[Crossref]

D. A. Walsh, “Aging and visual information processing: potential implications for everyday seeing,” J. Am. Opt. Assoc. 59, 301–306 (1988).

M. Morgan, “Vision through my aging eyes,” J. Am. Opt. Assoc. 59, 278–280 (1988).

1987 (3)

C. T. Scialfa, D. W. Kline, B. J. Lyman, “Age differences in target identification as a function of retinal location and noise level: an examination of the useful field of view,” Psychol. Aging 2, 14–19 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. K. Ball, B. L. Beard, R. L. Miller, D. L. Roenker, “Mapping the useful field of view as a function of age,” Gerontologist 27, 166A (1987).

C. T. Scialfa, P. A. Games, “Problems with step-wise regression on aging and recommended alternatives,” J. Geront. 42, 579–583 (1987).
[Crossref]

1986 (7)

C. A. Johnson, J. L. Keltner, “Incidence of visual field loss in 20,000 eyes and its relationship to driving performance”. Arch. Ophthalmol. 101, 371–375 (1986).
[Crossref]

B. J. Avolio, K. B. Kroeck, P. E. Panek, “Individual differences in information-processing ability as a predictor of motor vehicle accidents,” Human Factors 27, 577–588 (1986).

A. Haas, J. Flammer, U. Schnieder, “Influence of age on visual fields of normal subjects,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 101, 199-203 (1986).
[PubMed]

J. Jaffe, J. Alvarado, R. Juster, “Age-related changes of the normal visual field,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 104, 1021–1025 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. S. Brenton, C. D. Phelps, “The normal visual field on the Humphrey field analyzer,” Ophthalmologica 193, 56–74 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Sekuler, K. Ball, “Visual localization: age and practice,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 864–867 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Kosnik, J. Fikre, R. Sekuler, “Visual fixation stability in older adults,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 27, 1720–1725 (1986).
[PubMed]

1985 (1)

J. Cerella, “Age-related decline in extrafoveal letter perception,” J. Geront. 40, 727–736 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1983 (4)

D. J. Plude, D. B. Kaye, W. J. Hoyer, T. A. Post, M. J. Saynisch, M. V. Hahn, “Aging and visual search under consistent and varied mapping,” Dev. Psychol. 19, 508–512 (1983).
[Crossref]

J. E. Carter, L. Obier, S. Woodward, M. L. Albert, “Effect of increasing age on the latency of saccadic eye movements,” J. Geront. 38, 318–320 (1983).
[Crossref]

J. R. Bergen, B. Julesz, “Parallel versus serial processing in rapid pattern discrimination,” Nature 303, 696–698 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. D. Williams, “Aging and central visual area,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 60, 888–891 (1983).
[Crossref]

1982 (4)

R. L. Moore, I. P. Sedgely, B. E. Sabey, “Ages of car drivers involved in accidents with special reference to junctions,” Transport Road Res. Lab. 142, 1–30 (1982).

L. J. Williams, “Cognitive load and the functional field of view,” Human Factors 24, 683–692 (1982).
[PubMed]

D. J. Madden, “Age differences and similarities in the improvement of controlled search,” Exp. Aging Res. 8, 91–98 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. A. Salthouse, B. L. Somberg, “Skilled performance: the effects of adult age and experience on elementary processes,” J. Exp. Psychol. Gen. 111, 176–207 (1982).
[Crossref]

1980 (2)

M. S. Farkas, W. J. Hoyer, “Processing consequences of perceptual grouping in selective attention,” J. Geront. 35, 207–216 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Treisman, G. Gelade, “A feature-integration theory of attention,” Cogn. Psychol. 12, 97–136 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1979 (1)

D. A. Walsh, M. V. Williams, C. K. Hertzog, “Age-related differences in two stages of central perceptual processes: the effects of short duration targets and criterion differences,” J. Geront. 34, 234–241 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1978 (2)

C. G. Drury, M. R. Clement, “The effect of area, density, and number of background characters in visual search,” Human Factors 20, 597–602 (1978).

D. A. Walsh, R. E. Till, M. V. Williams, “Age differences in peripheral perceptual processing: a monoptic backward masking investigation,” J. Exp. Psychol. Perform. 4, 232–243 (1978).
[Crossref]

1977 (1)

F. L. Engle, “Visual conspicuity, visual search and fixation tendencies of the eye,” Vision Res. 17, 95–108 (1977).
[Crossref]

1976 (2)

C. K. Hertzog, A. B. Williams, D. A. Walsh, “The effect of practice on age differences in central perceptual processing,” J. Geront. 31, 428–433 (1976).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. A. Walsh, “Age differences in central perceptual processing: a dichoptic backward masking investigation,” J. Geront. 31, 181–188 (1976).
[Crossref]

1975 (4)

D. W. Kline, J. Szafran, “Age differences in backward monoptic visual noise masking,” J. Geront. 30, 307–311 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. W. Kline, J. E. Birren, “Age differences in backward dichoptic masking,” Exp. Aging Res. 1, 17–25 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ikeda, T. Takeuchi, “Influence of foveal load on the functional visual field,” Percept. Psychophys. 18, 255–260 (1975).
[Crossref]

B. Layton, “Perceptual noise and aging,” Psychol. Bull. 82, 875–883 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1972 (1)

J. R. Bloomfield, “Visual search in complex fields: size differences between target disc and surrounding discs,” Human Factors 14, 139–148 (1972).
[PubMed]

1970 (1)

A. F. Sanders, “Some aspects of the selective process in the functional field of view,” Ergonomics 13, 101–117 (1970).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1969 (1)

H. W. Leibowitz, S. Appelle, “The effect of a central task on luminance thresholds for peripherally presented stimuli,” Human Factors 11, 387–392 (1969).
[PubMed]

1967 (2)

S. M. Drance, V. Berry, A. Hughes, “Studies of the effects of age on the central and peripheral isopters of the visual field in normal subjects,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 63, 1667–1672 (1967).
[PubMed]

E. Wolf, “Studies in the shrinkage of the visual field with age,” Highway Res. Rec. 167, 1–7 (1967).

1966 (1)

B. J. Campbell, “Driver age and sex related to accident time and type,” Traffic Safety Res. Rev. 10, 36–44 (1966).

1955 (1)

Adams, A. J.

C. A. Johnson, A. J. Adams, C. W. Adams, R. A. Lewis, “Evidence for a neural basis of age-related visual field changes,” in Digest of Topical Meeting on Noninvasive Assessment of the Visual System (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), pp. 44–47.

Adams, C. W.

C. A. Johnson, A. J. Adams, C. W. Adams, R. A. Lewis, “Evidence for a neural basis of age-related visual field changes,” in Digest of Topical Meeting on Noninvasive Assessment of the Visual System (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), pp. 44–47.

Albert, M. L.

J. E. Carter, L. Obier, S. Woodward, M. L. Albert, “Effect of increasing age on the latency of saccadic eye movements,” J. Geront. 38, 318–320 (1983).
[Crossref]

Allen, J. A.

F. M. Council, J. A. Allen, “A study of the visual fields of North Carolina drivers and their relationship to accidents,” (Highway Safety Research Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, N.C., 1974).

Allen, M. J.

M. J. Allen, Vision and Highway Safety (Chilton, Radnor, Pa., 1970).

Alvarado, J.

J. Jaffe, J. Alvarado, R. Juster, “Age-related changes of the normal visual field,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 104, 1021–1025 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appelle, S.

H. W. Leibowitz, S. Appelle, “The effect of a central task on luminance thresholds for peripherally presented stimuli,” Human Factors 11, 387–392 (1969).
[PubMed]

Avolio, B. J.

B. J. Avolio, K. B. Kroeck, P. E. Panek, “Individual differences in information-processing ability as a predictor of motor vehicle accidents,” Human Factors 27, 577–588 (1986).

Ball, K.

Ball, K. K.

K. K. Ball, B. L. Beard, R. L. Miller, D. L. Roenker, “Mapping the useful field of view as a function of age,” Gerontologist 27, 166A (1987).

K. K. Ball, C. Owsley, B. L. Beard, “Clinical visual perimetry underestimates peripheral field problems in older adults,” submitted to Clin. Vis. Sci.

Beard, B. L.

K. K. Ball, B. L. Beard, R. L. Miller, D. L. Roenker, “Mapping the useful field of view as a function of age,” Gerontologist 27, 166A (1987).

K. K. Ball, C. Owsley, B. L. Beard, “Clinical visual perimetry underestimates peripheral field problems in older adults,” submitted to Clin. Vis. Sci.

Bergen, J. R.

J. R. Bergen, B. Julesz, “Parallel versus serial processing in rapid pattern discrimination,” Nature 303, 696–698 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berry, V.

S. M. Drance, V. Berry, A. Hughes, “Studies of the effects of age on the central and peripheral isopters of the visual field in normal subjects,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 63, 1667–1672 (1967).
[PubMed]

Birren, J. E.

D. W. Kline, J. E. Birren, “Age differences in backward dichoptic masking,” Exp. Aging Res. 1, 17–25 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bloomfield, J. R.

J. R. Bloomfield, “Visual search in complex fields: size differences between target disc and surrounding discs,” Human Factors 14, 139–148 (1972).
[PubMed]

Botwinick, J.

J. Botwinick, Aging and Behavior (Springer, New York, 1978).

Brenton, R. S.

R. S. Brenton, C. D. Phelps, “The normal visual field on the Humphrey field analyzer,” Ophthalmologica 193, 56–74 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burg, A.

R. L. Henderson, A. Burg, Tech. Rep. TM(L)-5297/000/00 (System Development Corporation, Department of Transportation, Vision and Audition in Driving, Washington, D.C., 1974).

Campbell, B. J.

B. J. Campbell, “Driver age and sex related to accident time and type,” Traffic Safety Res. Rev. 10, 36–44 (1966).

Carter, J. E.

J. E. Carter, L. Obier, S. Woodward, M. L. Albert, “Effect of increasing age on the latency of saccadic eye movements,” J. Geront. 38, 318–320 (1983).
[Crossref]

Cerella, J.

J. Cerella, “Age-related decline in extrafoveal letter perception,” J. Geront. 40, 727–736 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clement, M. R.

C. G. Drury, M. R. Clement, “The effect of area, density, and number of background characters in visual search,” Human Factors 20, 597–602 (1978).

Council, F. M.

F. M. Council, J. A. Allen, “A study of the visual fields of North Carolina drivers and their relationship to accidents,” (Highway Safety Research Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, N.C., 1974).

Doussard-Roosevelt, J. A.

D. J. Plude, J. A. Doussard-Roosevelt, “Aging, selective attention and feature integration,” Psychol. Aging (to be published).

Drance, S. M.

S. M. Drance, V. Berry, A. Hughes, “Studies of the effects of age on the central and peripheral isopters of the visual field in normal subjects,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 63, 1667–1672 (1967).
[PubMed]

Drury, C. G.

C. G. Drury, M. R. Clement, “The effect of area, density, and number of background characters in visual search,” Human Factors 20, 597–602 (1978).

Engle, F. L.

F. L. Engle, “Visual conspicuity, visual search and fixation tendencies of the eye,” Vision Res. 17, 95–108 (1977).
[Crossref]

Farkas, M. S.

M. S. Farkas, W. J. Hoyer, “Processing consequences of perceptual grouping in selective attention,” J. Geront. 35, 207–216 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fikre, J.

W. Kosnik, J. Fikre, R. Sekuler, “Visual fixation stability in older adults,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 27, 1720–1725 (1986).
[PubMed]

Flammer, J.

A. Haas, J. Flammer, U. Schnieder, “Influence of age on visual fields of normal subjects,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 101, 199-203 (1986).
[PubMed]

Games, P. A.

C. T. Scialfa, P. A. Games, “Problems with step-wise regression on aging and recommended alternatives,” J. Geront. 42, 579–583 (1987).
[Crossref]

Gelade, G.

A. M. Treisman, G. Gelade, “A feature-integration theory of attention,” Cogn. Psychol. 12, 97–136 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grant, D. A.

Haas, A.

A. Haas, J. Flammer, U. Schnieder, “Influence of age on visual fields of normal subjects,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 101, 199-203 (1986).
[PubMed]

Hahn, M. V.

D. J. Plude, D. B. Kaye, W. J. Hoyer, T. A. Post, M. J. Saynisch, M. V. Hahn, “Aging and visual search under consistent and varied mapping,” Dev. Psychol. 19, 508–512 (1983).
[Crossref]

Henderson, R. L.

R. L. Henderson, A. Burg, Tech. Rep. TM(L)-5297/000/00 (System Development Corporation, Department of Transportation, Vision and Audition in Driving, Washington, D.C., 1974).

Hertzog, C. K.

D. A. Walsh, M. V. Williams, C. K. Hertzog, “Age-related differences in two stages of central perceptual processes: the effects of short duration targets and criterion differences,” J. Geront. 34, 234–241 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. K. Hertzog, A. B. Williams, D. A. Walsh, “The effect of practice on age differences in central perceptual processing,” J. Geront. 31, 428–433 (1976).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hoyer, W. J.

D. J. Plude, D. B. Kaye, W. J. Hoyer, T. A. Post, M. J. Saynisch, M. V. Hahn, “Aging and visual search under consistent and varied mapping,” Dev. Psychol. 19, 508–512 (1983).
[Crossref]

M. S. Farkas, W. J. Hoyer, “Processing consequences of perceptual grouping in selective attention,” J. Geront. 35, 207–216 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hughes, A.

S. M. Drance, V. Berry, A. Hughes, “Studies of the effects of age on the central and peripheral isopters of the visual field in normal subjects,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 63, 1667–1672 (1967).
[PubMed]

Ikeda, M.

M. Ikeda, T. Takeuchi, “Influence of foveal load on the functional visual field,” Percept. Psychophys. 18, 255–260 (1975).
[Crossref]

Jaffe, J.

J. Jaffe, J. Alvarado, R. Juster, “Age-related changes of the normal visual field,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 104, 1021–1025 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Johnson, C. A.

C. A. Johnson, J. L. Keltner, “Incidence of visual field loss in 20,000 eyes and its relationship to driving performance”. Arch. Ophthalmol. 101, 371–375 (1986).
[Crossref]

C. A. Johnson, A. J. Adams, C. W. Adams, R. A. Lewis, “Evidence for a neural basis of age-related visual field changes,” in Digest of Topical Meeting on Noninvasive Assessment of the Visual System (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), pp. 44–47.

Julesz, B.

J. R. Bergen, B. Julesz, “Parallel versus serial processing in rapid pattern discrimination,” Nature 303, 696–698 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Juster, R.

J. Jaffe, J. Alvarado, R. Juster, “Age-related changes of the normal visual field,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 104, 1021–1025 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kaye, D. B.

D. J. Plude, D. B. Kaye, W. J. Hoyer, T. A. Post, M. J. Saynisch, M. V. Hahn, “Aging and visual search under consistent and varied mapping,” Dev. Psychol. 19, 508–512 (1983).
[Crossref]

Keltner, J. L.

C. A. Johnson, J. L. Keltner, “Incidence of visual field loss in 20,000 eyes and its relationship to driving performance”. Arch. Ophthalmol. 101, 371–375 (1986).
[Crossref]

Kline, D.

W. Kosnik, L. Winslow, D. Kline, K. Rasinski, R. Sekuler, “Vision changes in daily life throughout adulthood,” J. Geront. 43, 63–70 (1988).
[Crossref]

Kline, D. W.

C. T. Scialfa, D. W. Kline, B. J. Lyman, “Age differences in target identification as a function of retinal location and noise level: an examination of the useful field of view,” Psychol. Aging 2, 14–19 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. W. Kline, J. E. Birren, “Age differences in backward dichoptic masking,” Exp. Aging Res. 1, 17–25 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. W. Kline, J. Szafran, “Age differences in backward monoptic visual noise masking,” J. Geront. 30, 307–311 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. W. Kline, “Visual aging and driver performance,” presented at the Conference on Work, Aging, and Vision, Committee on Vision, National Academy of Sciences, Washington D.C., 1986.

Kosnik, W.

W. Kosnik, L. Winslow, D. Kline, K. Rasinski, R. Sekuler, “Vision changes in daily life throughout adulthood,” J. Geront. 43, 63–70 (1988).
[Crossref]

W. Kosnik, J. Fikre, R. Sekuler, “Visual fixation stability in older adults,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 27, 1720–1725 (1986).
[PubMed]

Kroeck, K. B.

B. J. Avolio, K. B. Kroeck, P. E. Panek, “Individual differences in information-processing ability as a predictor of motor vehicle accidents,” Human Factors 27, 577–588 (1986).

Layton, B.

B. Layton, “Perceptual noise and aging,” Psychol. Bull. 82, 875–883 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leibowitz, H.

Leibowitz, H. W.

H. W. Leibowitz, S. Appelle, “The effect of a central task on luminance thresholds for peripherally presented stimuli,” Human Factors 11, 387–392 (1969).
[PubMed]

Lewis, R. A.

C. A. Johnson, A. J. Adams, C. W. Adams, R. A. Lewis, “Evidence for a neural basis of age-related visual field changes,” in Digest of Topical Meeting on Noninvasive Assessment of the Visual System (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), pp. 44–47.

Lyman, B. J.

C. T. Scialfa, D. W. Kline, B. J. Lyman, “Age differences in target identification as a function of retinal location and noise level: an examination of the useful field of view,” Psychol. Aging 2, 14–19 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Madden, D. J.

D. J. Madden, “Age differences and similarities in the improvement of controlled search,” Exp. Aging Res. 8, 91–98 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miller, R. L.

K. K. Ball, B. L. Beard, R. L. Miller, D. L. Roenker, “Mapping the useful field of view as a function of age,” Gerontologist 27, 166A (1987).

Moore, R. L.

R. L. Moore, I. P. Sedgely, B. E. Sabey, “Ages of car drivers involved in accidents with special reference to junctions,” Transport Road Res. Lab. 142, 1–30 (1982).

Morgan, M.

M. Morgan, “Vision through my aging eyes,” J. Am. Opt. Assoc. 59, 278–280 (1988).

Myers, J. L.

J. L. Myers, Fundamentals of Experimental Design, 2nd ed. (Allyn and Bacon, Boston, Mass., 1972), p. 77.

Myers, N. A.

Obier, L.

J. E. Carter, L. Obier, S. Woodward, M. L. Albert, “Effect of increasing age on the latency of saccadic eye movements,” J. Geront. 38, 318–320 (1983).
[Crossref]

Owsley, C.

K. K. Ball, C. Owsley, B. L. Beard, “Clinical visual perimetry underestimates peripheral field problems in older adults,” submitted to Clin. Vis. Sci.

Panek, P. E.

B. J. Avolio, K. B. Kroeck, P. E. Panek, “Individual differences in information-processing ability as a predictor of motor vehicle accidents,” Human Factors 27, 577–588 (1986).

Phelps, C. D.

R. S. Brenton, C. D. Phelps, “The normal visual field on the Humphrey field analyzer,” Ophthalmologica 193, 56–74 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Planek, T. W.

T. W. Planek, “The aging driver in today’s traffic: a critical review,” in Aging and Highway Safety: the Elderly in a Mobile Society, Vol. 7 of the Proceedings of the North Carolina Symposium on Highway Safety (University of North Carolina Highway Safety Research Center, Chapel Hill, N.C., 1973), pp. 101–117.

Plude, D. J.

D. J. Plude, D. B. Kaye, W. J. Hoyer, T. A. Post, M. J. Saynisch, M. V. Hahn, “Aging and visual search under consistent and varied mapping,” Dev. Psychol. 19, 508–512 (1983).
[Crossref]

D. J. Plude, J. A. Doussard-Roosevelt, “Aging, selective attention and feature integration,” Psychol. Aging (to be published).

Post, T. A.

D. J. Plude, D. B. Kaye, W. J. Hoyer, T. A. Post, M. J. Saynisch, M. V. Hahn, “Aging and visual search under consistent and varied mapping,” Dev. Psychol. 19, 508–512 (1983).
[Crossref]

Rasinski, K.

W. Kosnik, L. Winslow, D. Kline, K. Rasinski, R. Sekuler, “Vision changes in daily life throughout adulthood,” J. Geront. 43, 63–70 (1988).
[Crossref]

Roenker, D. L.

K. K. Ball, B. L. Beard, R. L. Miller, D. L. Roenker, “Mapping the useful field of view as a function of age,” Gerontologist 27, 166A (1987).

Sabey, B. E.

R. L. Moore, I. P. Sedgely, B. E. Sabey, “Ages of car drivers involved in accidents with special reference to junctions,” Transport Road Res. Lab. 142, 1–30 (1982).

Salthouse, T. A.

T. A. Salthouse, B. L. Somberg, “Skilled performance: the effects of adult age and experience on elementary processes,” J. Exp. Psychol. Gen. 111, 176–207 (1982).
[Crossref]

Sanders, A. F.

A. F. Sanders, “Some aspects of the selective process in the functional field of view,” Ergonomics 13, 101–117 (1970).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saynisch, M. J.

D. J. Plude, D. B. Kaye, W. J. Hoyer, T. A. Post, M. J. Saynisch, M. V. Hahn, “Aging and visual search under consistent and varied mapping,” Dev. Psychol. 19, 508–512 (1983).
[Crossref]

Schnieder, U.

A. Haas, J. Flammer, U. Schnieder, “Influence of age on visual fields of normal subjects,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 101, 199-203 (1986).
[PubMed]

Scialfa, C. T.

C. T. Scialfa, P. A. Games, “Problems with step-wise regression on aging and recommended alternatives,” J. Geront. 42, 579–583 (1987).
[Crossref]

C. T. Scialfa, D. W. Kline, B. J. Lyman, “Age differences in target identification as a function of retinal location and noise level: an examination of the useful field of view,” Psychol. Aging 2, 14–19 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sedgely, I. P.

R. L. Moore, I. P. Sedgely, B. E. Sabey, “Ages of car drivers involved in accidents with special reference to junctions,” Transport Road Res. Lab. 142, 1–30 (1982).

Sekuler, R.

W. Kosnik, L. Winslow, D. Kline, K. Rasinski, R. Sekuler, “Vision changes in daily life throughout adulthood,” J. Geront. 43, 63–70 (1988).
[Crossref]

W. Kosnik, J. Fikre, R. Sekuler, “Visual fixation stability in older adults,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 27, 1720–1725 (1986).
[PubMed]

R. Sekuler, K. Ball, “Visual localization: age and practice,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 864–867 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shinar, D.

D. Shinar, “Driver visual limitations: diagnosis and treatment,” Department of Transportation contract DOT-HS-5-1275 (Institute for Research in Public Safety, Indiana University, Bloomington, Ind., 1977).

Somberg, B. L.

T. A. Salthouse, B. L. Somberg, “Skilled performance: the effects of adult age and experience on elementary processes,” J. Exp. Psychol. Gen. 111, 176–207 (1982).
[Crossref]

Szafran, J.

D. W. Kline, J. Szafran, “Age differences in backward monoptic visual noise masking,” J. Geront. 30, 307–311 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takeuchi, T.

M. Ikeda, T. Takeuchi, “Influence of foveal load on the functional visual field,” Percept. Psychophys. 18, 255–260 (1975).
[Crossref]

Till, R. E.

D. A. Walsh, R. E. Till, M. V. Williams, “Age differences in peripheral perceptual processing: a monoptic backward masking investigation,” J. Exp. Psychol. Perform. 4, 232–243 (1978).
[Crossref]

Treisman, A. M.

A. M. Treisman, G. Gelade, “A feature-integration theory of attention,” Cogn. Psychol. 12, 97–136 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Walsh, D. A.

D. A. Walsh, “Aging and visual information processing: potential implications for everyday seeing,” J. Am. Opt. Assoc. 59, 301–306 (1988).

D. A. Walsh, M. V. Williams, C. K. Hertzog, “Age-related differences in two stages of central perceptual processes: the effects of short duration targets and criterion differences,” J. Geront. 34, 234–241 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. A. Walsh, R. E. Till, M. V. Williams, “Age differences in peripheral perceptual processing: a monoptic backward masking investigation,” J. Exp. Psychol. Perform. 4, 232–243 (1978).
[Crossref]

C. K. Hertzog, A. B. Williams, D. A. Walsh, “The effect of practice on age differences in central perceptual processing,” J. Geront. 31, 428–433 (1976).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. A. Walsh, “Age differences in central perceptual processing: a dichoptic backward masking investigation,” J. Geront. 31, 181–188 (1976).
[Crossref]

Wickens, C. D.

C. D. Wickens, Engineering Psychology and Human Performance (Merrill, Columbus, Ohio, 1984).

Williams, A. B.

C. K. Hertzog, A. B. Williams, D. A. Walsh, “The effect of practice on age differences in central perceptual processing,” J. Geront. 31, 428–433 (1976).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Williams, L. J.

L. J. Williams, “Cognitive load and the functional field of view,” Human Factors 24, 683–692 (1982).
[PubMed]

Williams, M. V.

D. A. Walsh, M. V. Williams, C. K. Hertzog, “Age-related differences in two stages of central perceptual processes: the effects of short duration targets and criterion differences,” J. Geront. 34, 234–241 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. A. Walsh, R. E. Till, M. V. Williams, “Age differences in peripheral perceptual processing: a monoptic backward masking investigation,” J. Exp. Psychol. Perform. 4, 232–243 (1978).
[Crossref]

Williams, T. D.

T. D. Williams, “Aging and central visual area,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 60, 888–891 (1983).
[Crossref]

Winslow, L.

W. Kosnik, L. Winslow, D. Kline, K. Rasinski, R. Sekuler, “Vision changes in daily life throughout adulthood,” J. Geront. 43, 63–70 (1988).
[Crossref]

Wolf, E.

E. Wolf, “Studies in the shrinkage of the visual field with age,” Highway Res. Rec. 167, 1–7 (1967).

Woodward, S.

J. E. Carter, L. Obier, S. Woodward, M. L. Albert, “Effect of increasing age on the latency of saccadic eye movements,” J. Geront. 38, 318–320 (1983).
[Crossref]

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (2)

S. M. Drance, V. Berry, A. Hughes, “Studies of the effects of age on the central and peripheral isopters of the visual field in normal subjects,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 63, 1667–1672 (1967).
[PubMed]

A. Haas, J. Flammer, U. Schnieder, “Influence of age on visual fields of normal subjects,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 101, 199-203 (1986).
[PubMed]

Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. (1)

T. D. Williams, “Aging and central visual area,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 60, 888–891 (1983).
[Crossref]

Arch. Ophthalmol. (2)

J. Jaffe, J. Alvarado, R. Juster, “Age-related changes of the normal visual field,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 104, 1021–1025 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. A. Johnson, J. L. Keltner, “Incidence of visual field loss in 20,000 eyes and its relationship to driving performance”. Arch. Ophthalmol. 101, 371–375 (1986).
[Crossref]

Cogn. Psychol. (1)

A. M. Treisman, G. Gelade, “A feature-integration theory of attention,” Cogn. Psychol. 12, 97–136 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dev. Psychol. (1)

D. J. Plude, D. B. Kaye, W. J. Hoyer, T. A. Post, M. J. Saynisch, M. V. Hahn, “Aging and visual search under consistent and varied mapping,” Dev. Psychol. 19, 508–512 (1983).
[Crossref]

Ergonomics (1)

A. F. Sanders, “Some aspects of the selective process in the functional field of view,” Ergonomics 13, 101–117 (1970).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Exp. Aging Res. (2)

D. J. Madden, “Age differences and similarities in the improvement of controlled search,” Exp. Aging Res. 8, 91–98 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. W. Kline, J. E. Birren, “Age differences in backward dichoptic masking,” Exp. Aging Res. 1, 17–25 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gerontologist (1)

K. K. Ball, B. L. Beard, R. L. Miller, D. L. Roenker, “Mapping the useful field of view as a function of age,” Gerontologist 27, 166A (1987).

Highway Res. Rec. (1)

E. Wolf, “Studies in the shrinkage of the visual field with age,” Highway Res. Rec. 167, 1–7 (1967).

Human Factors (5)

H. W. Leibowitz, S. Appelle, “The effect of a central task on luminance thresholds for peripherally presented stimuli,” Human Factors 11, 387–392 (1969).
[PubMed]

B. J. Avolio, K. B. Kroeck, P. E. Panek, “Individual differences in information-processing ability as a predictor of motor vehicle accidents,” Human Factors 27, 577–588 (1986).

J. R. Bloomfield, “Visual search in complex fields: size differences between target disc and surrounding discs,” Human Factors 14, 139–148 (1972).
[PubMed]

L. J. Williams, “Cognitive load and the functional field of view,” Human Factors 24, 683–692 (1982).
[PubMed]

C. G. Drury, M. R. Clement, “The effect of area, density, and number of background characters in visual search,” Human Factors 20, 597–602 (1978).

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1)

W. Kosnik, J. Fikre, R. Sekuler, “Visual fixation stability in older adults,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 27, 1720–1725 (1986).
[PubMed]

J. Am. Opt. Assoc. (2)

M. Morgan, “Vision through my aging eyes,” J. Am. Opt. Assoc. 59, 278–280 (1988).

D. A. Walsh, “Aging and visual information processing: potential implications for everyday seeing,” J. Am. Opt. Assoc. 59, 301–306 (1988).

J. Exp. Psychol. Gen. (1)

T. A. Salthouse, B. L. Somberg, “Skilled performance: the effects of adult age and experience on elementary processes,” J. Exp. Psychol. Gen. 111, 176–207 (1982).
[Crossref]

J. Exp. Psychol. Perform. (1)

D. A. Walsh, R. E. Till, M. V. Williams, “Age differences in peripheral perceptual processing: a monoptic backward masking investigation,” J. Exp. Psychol. Perform. 4, 232–243 (1978).
[Crossref]

J. Geront. (9)

D. A. Walsh, M. V. Williams, C. K. Hertzog, “Age-related differences in two stages of central perceptual processes: the effects of short duration targets and criterion differences,” J. Geront. 34, 234–241 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. K. Hertzog, A. B. Williams, D. A. Walsh, “The effect of practice on age differences in central perceptual processing,” J. Geront. 31, 428–433 (1976).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. A. Walsh, “Age differences in central perceptual processing: a dichoptic backward masking investigation,” J. Geront. 31, 181–188 (1976).
[Crossref]

D. W. Kline, J. Szafran, “Age differences in backward monoptic visual noise masking,” J. Geront. 30, 307–311 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. E. Carter, L. Obier, S. Woodward, M. L. Albert, “Effect of increasing age on the latency of saccadic eye movements,” J. Geront. 38, 318–320 (1983).
[Crossref]

C. T. Scialfa, P. A. Games, “Problems with step-wise regression on aging and recommended alternatives,” J. Geront. 42, 579–583 (1987).
[Crossref]

J. Cerella, “Age-related decline in extrafoveal letter perception,” J. Geront. 40, 727–736 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Farkas, W. J. Hoyer, “Processing consequences of perceptual grouping in selective attention,” J. Geront. 35, 207–216 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Kosnik, L. Winslow, D. Kline, K. Rasinski, R. Sekuler, “Vision changes in daily life throughout adulthood,” J. Geront. 43, 63–70 (1988).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Nature (1)

J. R. Bergen, B. Julesz, “Parallel versus serial processing in rapid pattern discrimination,” Nature 303, 696–698 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ophthalmologica (1)

R. S. Brenton, C. D. Phelps, “The normal visual field on the Humphrey field analyzer,” Ophthalmologica 193, 56–74 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Percept. Psychophys. (1)

M. Ikeda, T. Takeuchi, “Influence of foveal load on the functional visual field,” Percept. Psychophys. 18, 255–260 (1975).
[Crossref]

Psychol. Aging (1)

C. T. Scialfa, D. W. Kline, B. J. Lyman, “Age differences in target identification as a function of retinal location and noise level: an examination of the useful field of view,” Psychol. Aging 2, 14–19 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Psychol. Bull. (1)

B. Layton, “Perceptual noise and aging,” Psychol. Bull. 82, 875–883 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Traffic Safety Res. Rev. (1)

B. J. Campbell, “Driver age and sex related to accident time and type,” Traffic Safety Res. Rev. 10, 36–44 (1966).

Transport Road Res. Lab. (1)

R. L. Moore, I. P. Sedgely, B. E. Sabey, “Ages of car drivers involved in accidents with special reference to junctions,” Transport Road Res. Lab. 142, 1–30 (1982).

Vision Res. (1)

F. L. Engle, “Visual conspicuity, visual search and fixation tendencies of the eye,” Vision Res. 17, 95–108 (1977).
[Crossref]

Other (13)

D. J. Plude, J. A. Doussard-Roosevelt, “Aging, selective attention and feature integration,” Psychol. Aging (to be published).

J. L. Myers, Fundamentals of Experimental Design, 2nd ed. (Allyn and Bacon, Boston, Mass., 1972), p. 77.

D. W. Kline, “Visual aging and driver performance,” presented at the Conference on Work, Aging, and Vision, Committee on Vision, National Academy of Sciences, Washington D.C., 1986.

M. J. Allen, Vision and Highway Safety (Chilton, Radnor, Pa., 1970).

R. L. Henderson, A. Burg, Tech. Rep. TM(L)-5297/000/00 (System Development Corporation, Department of Transportation, Vision and Audition in Driving, Washington, D.C., 1974).

F. M. Council, J. A. Allen, “A study of the visual fields of North Carolina drivers and their relationship to accidents,” (Highway Safety Research Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, N.C., 1974).

D. Shinar, “Driver visual limitations: diagnosis and treatment,” Department of Transportation contract DOT-HS-5-1275 (Institute for Research in Public Safety, Indiana University, Bloomington, Ind., 1977).

C. A. Johnson, A. J. Adams, C. W. Adams, R. A. Lewis, “Evidence for a neural basis of age-related visual field changes,” in Digest of Topical Meeting on Noninvasive Assessment of the Visual System (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), pp. 44–47.

K. K. Ball, C. Owsley, B. L. Beard, “Clinical visual perimetry underestimates peripheral field problems in older adults,” submitted to Clin. Vis. Sci.

T. W. Planek, “The aging driver in today’s traffic: a critical review,” in Aging and Highway Safety: the Elderly in a Mobile Society, Vol. 7 of the Proceedings of the North Carolina Symposium on Highway Safety (University of North Carolina Highway Safety Research Center, Chapel Hill, N.C., 1973), pp. 101–117.

Senior Facts (State of California Department of Motor Vehicles, Sacramento, Calif., 1982).

C. D. Wickens, Engineering Psychology and Human Performance (Merrill, Columbus, Ohio, 1984).

J. Botwinick, Aging and Behavior (Springer, New York, 1978).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic representation of the type of stimulus used in the UFOV task. A frowning face is shown in the fixation box, and a peripheral target 10° from fixation is presented among 47 box distractors.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Radial localization error rates (arc sine transformed) for different center task demands as a function of age and eccentricity.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Radial localization error rates (arc sine transformed) for three different distractor conditions as functions of age and eccentricity.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Radial localization error rates (arc sine transformed) for pretraining and posttraining measures are shown separately for each age group as a function of eccentricity.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Data from Fig. 4 replotted with the posttraining eccentricity shifted down 10° relative to the pretraining measures.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Radial localization error rates (arc sine transformed) for pretraining, posttraining, and six monthly retests. Data are shown separately for each age group.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Experimental Conditions for Experiment 1: Pretraining, Posttraining, and Retest Measurements of UFOV

Tables Icon

Table 2 Training Conditions

Tables Icon

Table 3 Average Number of Center Task Misses Before and After Training

Tables Icon

Table 4 Regression Weights for Localization Errors

Metrics