Abstract

The sensitivity of short-wavelength-sensitive (SWS) cone pathways throughout the central 30-deg visual field was determined in both eyes of 62 normal volunteers between the ages of 20 and 72 years. We found an average SWS cone pathway sensitivity decrease with age of ~0.15 log unit per decade. The sensitivity reduction was approximately linear, with a slightly larger decrease beyond the age of 50 years. The age-related SWS cone pathway sensitivity reductions also became larger as a function of increasing stimulus eccentricity. Measurements of ocular-media absorption characteristics in each eye revealed that 30–40% of the age-related sensitivity loss could be attributed to reductions in transmission of short-wavelength light by the ocular media. After corrections for preretinal media transmission loss, the decrease in the sensitivity of SWS cone pathways with age was ~0.09 log unit per decade. This age-related loss is greater than age-related sensitivity decreases in the middle-wavelength-sensitive and/or long-wavelength-sensitive cones (appoximately 0.06 to 0.07 log unit per decade). In the age group older than 60 years, there was an inverse relationship between media-corrected SWS cone pathway sensitivity and media absorption characteristics (i.e., media-corrected SWS cone pathway sensitivity was higher in eyes with lower media transmission of short wavelengths). This relationship was not so evident for younger subjects. A similar inverse relationship between transmission loss in the ocular media and SWS cone pathway sensitivity was found between left and right eyes of the same individual. These findings raise the possibility that reductions in short-wavelength transmission by the ocular media may have a long-term protective effect against light-induced damage to SWS cone pathways.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

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1988 (4)

M. E. Schneck, A. J. Adams, “Changes in S-cone system sensitivity and ocular media absorption with age,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 29, 301 (1988).

J. S. Werner, V. G. Steele, “Sensitivity of human foveal color mechanisms throughout the life span,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 2122–2130 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Heron, A. J. Adams, R. Husted, “Central visual fields for short wavelength sensitive pathways in glaucoma and ocular hypertension,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 29, 64–72 (1988).
[PubMed]

G. Haegerstrom-Portnoy, “Macular pigment, S cones and aging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 2140–2144 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (9)

A. J. Adams, G. Heron, R. Husted, “Clinical measures of central vision function in glaucoma and ocular hypertension,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 105, 782–787 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Celesia, D. Kaufmann, S. Cone, “Effects of age and sex on pattern electroretinograms and visual evoked potentials,” Electroenceph. Clin. Neurophys. 68, 161–171 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. Eisner, S. A. Fleming, M. L. Klein, W. M. Mauldin, “Sensitivities in older eyes with good acuity: cross-sectional norms,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 28, 1824–1831 (1987).
[PubMed]

P. K. Ahnelt, H. Kolb, R. Pflug, “Identification of a subtype of cone photoreceptor, likely to be blue sensitive, in the human retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 255, 18–34 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Baylor, B. J. Nunn, J. L. Schnapf, “Spectral sensitivity of cones of the monkey Macaca fascicularis,” J. Physiol. 390, 145–160 (1987).

M. A. Johnson, D. Choy, “On the definition of age-related norms for visual function testing,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1449–1454 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, M. Lutze, “Aging of the human lens,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1437–1440 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Heijl, G. Lindgren, J. Olsson, “Normal variability of static perimetric threshold values across the central visual field,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 105, 1544–1549 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Katz, A. Sommer, “A longitudinal study of age-adjusted variability of automated visual fields,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 105, 1083–1086 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (6)

P. E. Kilbride, L. P. Hutman, M. Fishman, J. S. Read, “Foveal cone pigment density differences in the aging human eye,” Vision Res. 26, 321–325 (1986).
[CrossRef]

C. Yuodelis, A. Hendrickson, “A qualitative and quantitative analysis of the human fovea during development,” Vision Res. 26, 847–855 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Jaffe, J. Alvarado, R. Juster, “Age-related changes of the normal visual field,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 104, 1021–1025 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Haas, J. Flammer, U. Schneider, “Influence of age on visual fields of normal subjects,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 101, 199–203 (1986).
[PubMed]

R. S. Sekuler, K. S. Ball, “Visual localization: age and practice,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 864–867 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. S. Brenton, C. D. Phelps, “The normal visual field on the Humphrey field analyzer,” Ophthalmologica 193, 56–74 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (2)

D. van Norren, G. J. van Meel, “Density of human cone photopigments as a function of age,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 26, 1014–1016 (1985).
[PubMed]

D. B. Farber, J. G. Flannery, R. N. Lolley, D. Bok, “Distribution patterns of photoreceptors, protein and cyclic nucleotides in the human retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 26, 1558–1568 (1985).
[PubMed]

1984 (3)

A. G. Balaszi, J. Rootman, S. M. Drance, M. Schulzer, G. R. Douglas, “The effect of age on the nerve fiber population on the human optic nerve,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 97, 760–766 (1984).

K. Egge, “The visual field in normal subjects,” Acta Ophthalmol. Suppl. 169, 1–64 (1984).
[PubMed]

F. Zwas, D. H. Shin, P. F. McKinnon, “Early diagnosis of glaucoma in ocular hypertensive patients,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 25, 193 (1984).

1983 (1)

C. A. Johnson, R. B. Post, J. L. Keltner, “Effects of age on kinetic visual field testing in normal observers,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 24, 132 (1983).

1982 (2)

A. J. Adams, “Chromatic and luminosity processing in retinal disease,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 59, 954–960 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. T. Ham, “Action spectrum for retinal injury from near UV radiation in the aphakic monkey,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 93, 299–306 (1982).
[PubMed]

1981 (4)

R. G. Weleber, “The effect of age on human cone and rod Ganzfeld electroretinograms,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 20, 392–399 (1981).
[PubMed]

D. M. deMonastario, S. J. Schein, E. P. McCrane, “Staining of blue-sensitive cones of the macaque retina by a fluorescent dye,” Science 213, 1278–1281 (1981).
[CrossRef]

S. Gartner, P. Henkind, “Aging and degeneration of the human macula: 1. Outer nuclear layer and photoreceptors,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 65, 23–28 (1981).

S. Sokol, A. Moskowitz, V. L. Towle, “Age-related changes in the latency of the visual evoked potential: Influence of check size,” Electroenceph. Clin. Neurophys. E51, 559–562 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (2)

K. O. Devaney, H. A. Johnson, “Neuron loss in the aging visual cortex of man,” J. Gerontol. 35, 836–841 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Dolman, A. Q. McCormick, S. M. Drance, “Aging of the optic nerve,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 98, 2053–2058 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1975 (1)

M. E. Scheibel, R. D. Lindsay, U. Tomiyasu, A. B. Scheibel, “Progressive dendritic changes in aging human cortex,” Exp. Neurol. 47, 392–403 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1974 (2)

D. van Nooren, J. J. Vos, “Spectral transmission of the human ocular media,” Vision Res. 14, 1237–1244 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Mellerio, “Light absorption and scatter in the human lens,” Vision Res. 11, 129–141 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1967 (2)

S. M. Drance, V. Berry, A. Hughes, “Studies on the effects of age on the central and peripheral isopters of the visual field in normal subjects,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 63, 1667–1672 (1967).
[PubMed]

S. M. Drance, V. Berry, A. Hughes, “The effects of age on the central isopter of the normal visual field,” Can. J. Ophthalmol. 2, 79–82 (1967).
[PubMed]

1965 (1)

F. Vrabec, “Senile changes in the ganglion cells of the human retina,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 49, 561–572 (1965).

1959 (1)

F. S. Said, R. A. Weale, “The variation with age of the spectral transmissivity of the living human crystalline lens,” Gerentologica 3, 213–231 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Adams, A. J.

M. E. Schneck, A. J. Adams, “Changes in S-cone system sensitivity and ocular media absorption with age,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 29, 301 (1988).

G. Heron, A. J. Adams, R. Husted, “Central visual fields for short wavelength sensitive pathways in glaucoma and ocular hypertension,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 29, 64–72 (1988).
[PubMed]

A. J. Adams, G. Heron, R. Husted, “Clinical measures of central vision function in glaucoma and ocular hypertension,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 105, 782–787 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Adams, “Chromatic and luminosity processing in retinal disease,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 59, 954–960 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Heron, A. J. Adams, R. Husted, “Central and peripheral measures of blue-sensitive pathways in glaucoma and ocular hypertension,” in Digest of Topical Meeting on Noninvasive Assessment of the Visual System (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1986), paper WC1.

C. A. Johnson, A. J. Adams, C. W. Adams, R. A. Lewis, “Evidence for a neural basis of age-related visual field changes,” in Digest of Topical Meeting on Noninvasive Assessment of the Visual System (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), pp. 44–47.

Adams, C. W.

C. A. Johnson, A. J. Adams, C. W. Adams, R. A. Lewis, “Evidence for a neural basis of age-related visual field changes,” in Digest of Topical Meeting on Noninvasive Assessment of the Visual System (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), pp. 44–47.

Ahnelt, P. K.

P. K. Ahnelt, H. Kolb, R. Pflug, “Identification of a subtype of cone photoreceptor, likely to be blue sensitive, in the human retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 255, 18–34 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alvarado, J.

J. Jaffe, J. Alvarado, R. Juster, “Age-related changes of the normal visual field,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 104, 1021–1025 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, D. R.

D. R. Anderson, Perimetry With and Without Automation (Mosby, St. Louis, Mo., 1987).

Balaszi, A. G.

A. G. Balaszi, J. Rootman, S. M. Drance, M. Schulzer, G. R. Douglas, “The effect of age on the nerve fiber population on the human optic nerve,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 97, 760–766 (1984).

Ball, K. S.

Barr, S. A. N.

G. Haegerstrom-Portnoy, S. E. Hewlett, S. A. N. Barr, “S cone loss in aging,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies IX, G. Verriest, ed. (Junk, The Hague, to be published).

Baylor, D. A.

D. A. Baylor, B. J. Nunn, J. L. Schnapf, “Spectral sensitivity of cones of the monkey Macaca fascicularis,” J. Physiol. 390, 145–160 (1987).

Berry, V.

S. M. Drance, V. Berry, A. Hughes, “The effects of age on the central isopter of the normal visual field,” Can. J. Ophthalmol. 2, 79–82 (1967).
[PubMed]

S. M. Drance, V. Berry, A. Hughes, “Studies on the effects of age on the central and peripheral isopters of the visual field in normal subjects,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 63, 1667–1672 (1967).
[PubMed]

Bok, D.

D. B. Farber, J. G. Flannery, R. N. Lolley, D. Bok, “Distribution patterns of photoreceptors, protein and cyclic nucleotides in the human retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 26, 1558–1568 (1985).
[PubMed]

Brenton, R. S.

R. S. Brenton, C. D. Phelps, “The normal visual field on the Humphrey field analyzer,” Ophthalmologica 193, 56–74 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Celesia, G. C.

G. C. Celesia, D. Kaufmann, S. Cone, “Effects of age and sex on pattern electroretinograms and visual evoked potentials,” Electroenceph. Clin. Neurophys. 68, 161–171 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Choy, D.

Cone, S.

G. C. Celesia, D. Kaufmann, S. Cone, “Effects of age and sex on pattern electroretinograms and visual evoked potentials,” Electroenceph. Clin. Neurophys. 68, 161–171 (1987).
[CrossRef]

deMonastario, D. M.

D. M. deMonastario, S. J. Schein, E. P. McCrane, “Staining of blue-sensitive cones of the macaque retina by a fluorescent dye,” Science 213, 1278–1281 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Devaney, K. O.

K. O. Devaney, H. A. Johnson, “Neuron loss in the aging visual cortex of man,” J. Gerontol. 35, 836–841 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dolman, C. L.

C. L. Dolman, A. Q. McCormick, S. M. Drance, “Aging of the optic nerve,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 98, 2053–2058 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Douglas, G. R.

A. G. Balaszi, J. Rootman, S. M. Drance, M. Schulzer, G. R. Douglas, “The effect of age on the nerve fiber population on the human optic nerve,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 97, 760–766 (1984).

Drance, S. M.

A. G. Balaszi, J. Rootman, S. M. Drance, M. Schulzer, G. R. Douglas, “The effect of age on the nerve fiber population on the human optic nerve,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 97, 760–766 (1984).

C. L. Dolman, A. Q. McCormick, S. M. Drance, “Aging of the optic nerve,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 98, 2053–2058 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Drance, V. Berry, A. Hughes, “Studies on the effects of age on the central and peripheral isopters of the visual field in normal subjects,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 63, 1667–1672 (1967).
[PubMed]

S. M. Drance, V. Berry, A. Hughes, “The effects of age on the central isopter of the normal visual field,” Can. J. Ophthalmol. 2, 79–82 (1967).
[PubMed]

Egge, K.

K. Egge, “The visual field in normal subjects,” Acta Ophthalmol. Suppl. 169, 1–64 (1984).
[PubMed]

Eisner, A.

A. Eisner, S. A. Fleming, M. L. Klein, W. M. Mauldin, “Sensitivities in older eyes with good acuity: cross-sectional norms,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 28, 1824–1831 (1987).
[PubMed]

Farber, D. B.

D. B. Farber, J. G. Flannery, R. N. Lolley, D. Bok, “Distribution patterns of photoreceptors, protein and cyclic nucleotides in the human retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 26, 1558–1568 (1985).
[PubMed]

Fishman, M.

P. E. Kilbride, L. P. Hutman, M. Fishman, J. S. Read, “Foveal cone pigment density differences in the aging human eye,” Vision Res. 26, 321–325 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Flammer, J.

A. Haas, J. Flammer, U. Schneider, “Influence of age on visual fields of normal subjects,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 101, 199–203 (1986).
[PubMed]

Flannery, J. G.

D. B. Farber, J. G. Flannery, R. N. Lolley, D. Bok, “Distribution patterns of photoreceptors, protein and cyclic nucleotides in the human retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 26, 1558–1568 (1985).
[PubMed]

Fleming, S. A.

A. Eisner, S. A. Fleming, M. L. Klein, W. M. Mauldin, “Sensitivities in older eyes with good acuity: cross-sectional norms,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 28, 1824–1831 (1987).
[PubMed]

Gartner, S.

S. Gartner, P. Henkind, “Aging and degeneration of the human macula: 1. Outer nuclear layer and photoreceptors,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 65, 23–28 (1981).

Haas, A.

A. Haas, J. Flammer, U. Schneider, “Influence of age on visual fields of normal subjects,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 101, 199–203 (1986).
[PubMed]

Haegerstrom-Portnoy, G.

G. Haegerstrom-Portnoy, “Macular pigment, S cones and aging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 2140–2144 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Haegerstrom-Portnoy, S. E. Hewlett, S. A. N. Barr, “S cone loss in aging,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies IX, G. Verriest, ed. (Junk, The Hague, to be published).

Ham, W. T.

W. T. Ham, “Action spectrum for retinal injury from near UV radiation in the aphakic monkey,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 93, 299–306 (1982).
[PubMed]

Heijl, A.

A. Heijl, G. Lindgren, J. Olsson, “Normal variability of static perimetric threshold values across the central visual field,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 105, 1544–1549 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hendrickson, A.

C. Yuodelis, A. Hendrickson, “A qualitative and quantitative analysis of the human fovea during development,” Vision Res. 26, 847–855 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Henkind, P.

S. Gartner, P. Henkind, “Aging and degeneration of the human macula: 1. Outer nuclear layer and photoreceptors,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 65, 23–28 (1981).

Heron, G.

G. Heron, A. J. Adams, R. Husted, “Central visual fields for short wavelength sensitive pathways in glaucoma and ocular hypertension,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 29, 64–72 (1988).
[PubMed]

A. J. Adams, G. Heron, R. Husted, “Clinical measures of central vision function in glaucoma and ocular hypertension,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 105, 782–787 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Heron, A. J. Adams, R. Husted, “Central and peripheral measures of blue-sensitive pathways in glaucoma and ocular hypertension,” in Digest of Topical Meeting on Noninvasive Assessment of the Visual System (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1986), paper WC1.

Hewlett, S. E.

G. Haegerstrom-Portnoy, S. E. Hewlett, S. A. N. Barr, “S cone loss in aging,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies IX, G. Verriest, ed. (Junk, The Hague, to be published).

Hughes, A.

S. M. Drance, V. Berry, A. Hughes, “The effects of age on the central isopter of the normal visual field,” Can. J. Ophthalmol. 2, 79–82 (1967).
[PubMed]

S. M. Drance, V. Berry, A. Hughes, “Studies on the effects of age on the central and peripheral isopters of the visual field in normal subjects,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 63, 1667–1672 (1967).
[PubMed]

Husted, R.

G. Heron, A. J. Adams, R. Husted, “Central visual fields for short wavelength sensitive pathways in glaucoma and ocular hypertension,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 29, 64–72 (1988).
[PubMed]

A. J. Adams, G. Heron, R. Husted, “Clinical measures of central vision function in glaucoma and ocular hypertension,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 105, 782–787 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Heron, A. J. Adams, R. Husted, “Central and peripheral measures of blue-sensitive pathways in glaucoma and ocular hypertension,” in Digest of Topical Meeting on Noninvasive Assessment of the Visual System (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1986), paper WC1.

Hutman, L. P.

P. E. Kilbride, L. P. Hutman, M. Fishman, J. S. Read, “Foveal cone pigment density differences in the aging human eye,” Vision Res. 26, 321–325 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Jaffe, J.

J. Jaffe, J. Alvarado, R. Juster, “Age-related changes of the normal visual field,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 104, 1021–1025 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, C. A.

C. A. Johnson, R. B. Post, J. L. Keltner, “Effects of age on kinetic visual field testing in normal observers,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 24, 132 (1983).

C. A. Johnson, A. J. Adams, C. W. Adams, R. A. Lewis, “Evidence for a neural basis of age-related visual field changes,” in Digest of Topical Meeting on Noninvasive Assessment of the Visual System (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), pp. 44–47.

Johnson, H. A.

K. O. Devaney, H. A. Johnson, “Neuron loss in the aging visual cortex of man,” J. Gerontol. 35, 836–841 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, M. A.

Juster, R.

J. Jaffe, J. Alvarado, R. Juster, “Age-related changes of the normal visual field,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 104, 1021–1025 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Katz, J.

J. Katz, A. Sommer, “A longitudinal study of age-adjusted variability of automated visual fields,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 105, 1083–1086 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaufmann, D.

G. C. Celesia, D. Kaufmann, S. Cone, “Effects of age and sex on pattern electroretinograms and visual evoked potentials,” Electroenceph. Clin. Neurophys. 68, 161–171 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Keltner, J. L.

C. A. Johnson, R. B. Post, J. L. Keltner, “Effects of age on kinetic visual field testing in normal observers,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 24, 132 (1983).

Kilbride, P. E.

P. E. Kilbride, L. P. Hutman, M. Fishman, J. S. Read, “Foveal cone pigment density differences in the aging human eye,” Vision Res. 26, 321–325 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Klein, M. L.

A. Eisner, S. A. Fleming, M. L. Klein, W. M. Mauldin, “Sensitivities in older eyes with good acuity: cross-sectional norms,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 28, 1824–1831 (1987).
[PubMed]

Kolb, H.

P. K. Ahnelt, H. Kolb, R. Pflug, “Identification of a subtype of cone photoreceptor, likely to be blue sensitive, in the human retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 255, 18–34 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laties, A.

J. Marshall, A. Laties, “Special pathology of the aging macula,” in Retinal Degeneration, Experimental and Clinical Studies, M. M. LaVail, L. G. Hollyfield, R. E. Anderson, eds. (Liss, New York, 1985), pp. 389–400.

Lewis, R. A.

C. A. Johnson, A. J. Adams, C. W. Adams, R. A. Lewis, “Evidence for a neural basis of age-related visual field changes,” in Digest of Topical Meeting on Noninvasive Assessment of the Visual System (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), pp. 44–47.

Lindgren, G.

A. Heijl, G. Lindgren, J. Olsson, “Normal variability of static perimetric threshold values across the central visual field,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 105, 1544–1549 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lindsay, R. D.

M. E. Scheibel, R. D. Lindsay, U. Tomiyasu, A. B. Scheibel, “Progressive dendritic changes in aging human cortex,” Exp. Neurol. 47, 392–403 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lolley, R. N.

D. B. Farber, J. G. Flannery, R. N. Lolley, D. Bok, “Distribution patterns of photoreceptors, protein and cyclic nucleotides in the human retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 26, 1558–1568 (1985).
[PubMed]

Lutze, M.

Marshall, J.

J. Marshall, “Aging changes in human cones,” in Proceedings of the 23rd International Congress of Ophthalmology, K. Shimizu, J. A. Oosterhuis, eds. (Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam, 1979), pp. 375–378.

J. Marshall, A. Laties, “Special pathology of the aging macula,” in Retinal Degeneration, Experimental and Clinical Studies, M. M. LaVail, L. G. Hollyfield, R. E. Anderson, eds. (Liss, New York, 1985), pp. 389–400.

Mauldin, W. M.

A. Eisner, S. A. Fleming, M. L. Klein, W. M. Mauldin, “Sensitivities in older eyes with good acuity: cross-sectional norms,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 28, 1824–1831 (1987).
[PubMed]

McCormick, A. Q.

C. L. Dolman, A. Q. McCormick, S. M. Drance, “Aging of the optic nerve,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 98, 2053–2058 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McCrane, E. P.

D. M. deMonastario, S. J. Schein, E. P. McCrane, “Staining of blue-sensitive cones of the macaque retina by a fluorescent dye,” Science 213, 1278–1281 (1981).
[CrossRef]

McKinnon, P. F.

F. Zwas, D. H. Shin, P. F. McKinnon, “Early diagnosis of glaucoma in ocular hypertensive patients,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 25, 193 (1984).

Mellerio, J.

J. Mellerio, “Light absorption and scatter in the human lens,” Vision Res. 11, 129–141 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Moskowitz, A.

S. Sokol, A. Moskowitz, V. L. Towle, “Age-related changes in the latency of the visual evoked potential: Influence of check size,” Electroenceph. Clin. Neurophys. E51, 559–562 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Nunn, B. J.

D. A. Baylor, B. J. Nunn, J. L. Schnapf, “Spectral sensitivity of cones of the monkey Macaca fascicularis,” J. Physiol. 390, 145–160 (1987).

Olsson, J.

A. Heijl, G. Lindgren, J. Olsson, “Normal variability of static perimetric threshold values across the central visual field,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 105, 1544–1549 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pflug, R.

P. K. Ahnelt, H. Kolb, R. Pflug, “Identification of a subtype of cone photoreceptor, likely to be blue sensitive, in the human retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 255, 18–34 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phelps, C. D.

R. S. Brenton, C. D. Phelps, “The normal visual field on the Humphrey field analyzer,” Ophthalmologica 193, 56–74 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pokorny, J.

Post, R. B.

C. A. Johnson, R. B. Post, J. L. Keltner, “Effects of age on kinetic visual field testing in normal observers,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 24, 132 (1983).

Read, J. S.

P. E. Kilbride, L. P. Hutman, M. Fishman, J. S. Read, “Foveal cone pigment density differences in the aging human eye,” Vision Res. 26, 321–325 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Rootman, J.

A. G. Balaszi, J. Rootman, S. M. Drance, M. Schulzer, G. R. Douglas, “The effect of age on the nerve fiber population on the human optic nerve,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 97, 760–766 (1984).

Said, F. S.

F. S. Said, R. A. Weale, “The variation with age of the spectral transmissivity of the living human crystalline lens,” Gerentologica 3, 213–231 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Scheibel, A. B.

M. E. Scheibel, R. D. Lindsay, U. Tomiyasu, A. B. Scheibel, “Progressive dendritic changes in aging human cortex,” Exp. Neurol. 47, 392–403 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scheibel, M. E.

M. E. Scheibel, R. D. Lindsay, U. Tomiyasu, A. B. Scheibel, “Progressive dendritic changes in aging human cortex,” Exp. Neurol. 47, 392–403 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schein, S. J.

D. M. deMonastario, S. J. Schein, E. P. McCrane, “Staining of blue-sensitive cones of the macaque retina by a fluorescent dye,” Science 213, 1278–1281 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Schnapf, J. L.

D. A. Baylor, B. J. Nunn, J. L. Schnapf, “Spectral sensitivity of cones of the monkey Macaca fascicularis,” J. Physiol. 390, 145–160 (1987).

Schneck, M. E.

M. E. Schneck, A. J. Adams, “Changes in S-cone system sensitivity and ocular media absorption with age,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 29, 301 (1988).

Schneider, U.

A. Haas, J. Flammer, U. Schneider, “Influence of age on visual fields of normal subjects,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 101, 199–203 (1986).
[PubMed]

Schulzer, M.

A. G. Balaszi, J. Rootman, S. M. Drance, M. Schulzer, G. R. Douglas, “The effect of age on the nerve fiber population on the human optic nerve,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 97, 760–766 (1984).

Sekuler, R. S.

Shin, D. H.

F. Zwas, D. H. Shin, P. F. McKinnon, “Early diagnosis of glaucoma in ocular hypertensive patients,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 25, 193 (1984).

Smith, V. C.

Sokol, S.

S. Sokol, A. Moskowitz, V. L. Towle, “Age-related changes in the latency of the visual evoked potential: Influence of check size,” Electroenceph. Clin. Neurophys. E51, 559–562 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Sommer, A.

J. Katz, A. Sommer, “A longitudinal study of age-adjusted variability of automated visual fields,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 105, 1083–1086 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steele, V. G.

J. S. Werner, V. G. Steele, “Sensitivity of human foveal color mechanisms throughout the life span,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 2122–2130 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Werner, V. G. Steele, Department of Psychology, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (personal communication, 1988).

Tomiyasu, U.

M. E. Scheibel, R. D. Lindsay, U. Tomiyasu, A. B. Scheibel, “Progressive dendritic changes in aging human cortex,” Exp. Neurol. 47, 392–403 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Towle, V. L.

S. Sokol, A. Moskowitz, V. L. Towle, “Age-related changes in the latency of the visual evoked potential: Influence of check size,” Electroenceph. Clin. Neurophys. E51, 559–562 (1981).
[CrossRef]

van Meel, G. J.

D. van Norren, G. J. van Meel, “Density of human cone photopigments as a function of age,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 26, 1014–1016 (1985).
[PubMed]

van Nooren, D.

D. van Nooren, J. J. Vos, “Spectral transmission of the human ocular media,” Vision Res. 14, 1237–1244 (1974).
[CrossRef]

van Norren, D.

D. van Norren, G. J. van Meel, “Density of human cone photopigments as a function of age,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 26, 1014–1016 (1985).
[PubMed]

Vos, J. J.

D. van Nooren, J. J. Vos, “Spectral transmission of the human ocular media,” Vision Res. 14, 1237–1244 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Vrabec, F.

F. Vrabec, “Senile changes in the ganglion cells of the human retina,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 49, 561–572 (1965).

Weale, R. A.

F. S. Said, R. A. Weale, “The variation with age of the spectral transmissivity of the living human crystalline lens,” Gerentologica 3, 213–231 (1959).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Weale, The Aging Eye (Lewis, London, 1963).

R. A. Weale, “Senile ocular changes, cell death and vision,” in Aging and Human Visual Function, R. S. Sekuler, D. W. Kline, K. Dismukes, eds. (Liss, New York, 1982), pp. 161–171.

R. A. Weale, Focus on Vision (Harvard U. Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1982).

Weleber, R. G.

R. G. Weleber, “The effect of age on human cone and rod Ganzfeld electroretinograms,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 20, 392–399 (1981).
[PubMed]

Werner, J. S.

J. S. Werner, V. G. Steele, “Sensitivity of human foveal color mechanisms throughout the life span,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 2122–2130 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Werner, V. G. Steele, Department of Psychology, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (personal communication, 1988).

Yuodelis, C.

C. Yuodelis, A. Hendrickson, “A qualitative and quantitative analysis of the human fovea during development,” Vision Res. 26, 847–855 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zwas, F.

F. Zwas, D. H. Shin, P. F. McKinnon, “Early diagnosis of glaucoma in ocular hypertensive patients,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 25, 193 (1984).

Acta Ophthalmol. Suppl. (1)

K. Egge, “The visual field in normal subjects,” Acta Ophthalmol. Suppl. 169, 1–64 (1984).
[PubMed]

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (4)

A. Haas, J. Flammer, U. Schneider, “Influence of age on visual fields of normal subjects,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 101, 199–203 (1986).
[PubMed]

S. M. Drance, V. Berry, A. Hughes, “Studies on the effects of age on the central and peripheral isopters of the visual field in normal subjects,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 63, 1667–1672 (1967).
[PubMed]

A. G. Balaszi, J. Rootman, S. M. Drance, M. Schulzer, G. R. Douglas, “The effect of age on the nerve fiber population on the human optic nerve,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 97, 760–766 (1984).

W. T. Ham, “Action spectrum for retinal injury from near UV radiation in the aphakic monkey,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 93, 299–306 (1982).
[PubMed]

Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. (1)

A. J. Adams, “Chromatic and luminosity processing in retinal disease,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 59, 954–960 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Arch. Ophthalmol. (5)

J. Katz, A. Sommer, “A longitudinal study of age-adjusted variability of automated visual fields,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 105, 1083–1086 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Heijl, G. Lindgren, J. Olsson, “Normal variability of static perimetric threshold values across the central visual field,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 105, 1544–1549 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Jaffe, J. Alvarado, R. Juster, “Age-related changes of the normal visual field,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 104, 1021–1025 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Dolman, A. Q. McCormick, S. M. Drance, “Aging of the optic nerve,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 98, 2053–2058 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Adams, G. Heron, R. Husted, “Clinical measures of central vision function in glaucoma and ocular hypertension,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 105, 782–787 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Br. J. Ophthalmol. (2)

S. Gartner, P. Henkind, “Aging and degeneration of the human macula: 1. Outer nuclear layer and photoreceptors,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 65, 23–28 (1981).

F. Vrabec, “Senile changes in the ganglion cells of the human retina,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 49, 561–572 (1965).

Can. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

S. M. Drance, V. Berry, A. Hughes, “The effects of age on the central isopter of the normal visual field,” Can. J. Ophthalmol. 2, 79–82 (1967).
[PubMed]

Electroenceph. Clin. Neurophys. (2)

G. C. Celesia, D. Kaufmann, S. Cone, “Effects of age and sex on pattern electroretinograms and visual evoked potentials,” Electroenceph. Clin. Neurophys. 68, 161–171 (1987).
[CrossRef]

S. Sokol, A. Moskowitz, V. L. Towle, “Age-related changes in the latency of the visual evoked potential: Influence of check size,” Electroenceph. Clin. Neurophys. E51, 559–562 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Exp. Neurol. (1)

M. E. Scheibel, R. D. Lindsay, U. Tomiyasu, A. B. Scheibel, “Progressive dendritic changes in aging human cortex,” Exp. Neurol. 47, 392–403 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gerentologica (1)

F. S. Said, R. A. Weale, “The variation with age of the spectral transmissivity of the living human crystalline lens,” Gerentologica 3, 213–231 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (5)

G. Heron, A. J. Adams, R. Husted, “Central visual fields for short wavelength sensitive pathways in glaucoma and ocular hypertension,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 29, 64–72 (1988).
[PubMed]

R. G. Weleber, “The effect of age on human cone and rod Ganzfeld electroretinograms,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 20, 392–399 (1981).
[PubMed]

A. Eisner, S. A. Fleming, M. L. Klein, W. M. Mauldin, “Sensitivities in older eyes with good acuity: cross-sectional norms,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 28, 1824–1831 (1987).
[PubMed]

D. van Norren, G. J. van Meel, “Density of human cone photopigments as a function of age,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 26, 1014–1016 (1985).
[PubMed]

D. B. Farber, J. G. Flannery, R. N. Lolley, D. Bok, “Distribution patterns of photoreceptors, protein and cyclic nucleotides in the human retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 26, 1558–1568 (1985).
[PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. (3)

C. A. Johnson, R. B. Post, J. L. Keltner, “Effects of age on kinetic visual field testing in normal observers,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 24, 132 (1983).

M. E. Schneck, A. J. Adams, “Changes in S-cone system sensitivity and ocular media absorption with age,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 29, 301 (1988).

F. Zwas, D. H. Shin, P. F. McKinnon, “Early diagnosis of glaucoma in ocular hypertensive patients,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 25, 193 (1984).

J. Comp. Neurol. (1)

P. K. Ahnelt, H. Kolb, R. Pflug, “Identification of a subtype of cone photoreceptor, likely to be blue sensitive, in the human retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 255, 18–34 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Gerontol. (1)

K. O. Devaney, H. A. Johnson, “Neuron loss in the aging visual cortex of man,” J. Gerontol. 35, 836–841 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (3)

J. Physiol. (1)

D. A. Baylor, B. J. Nunn, J. L. Schnapf, “Spectral sensitivity of cones of the monkey Macaca fascicularis,” J. Physiol. 390, 145–160 (1987).

Ophthalmologica (1)

R. S. Brenton, C. D. Phelps, “The normal visual field on the Humphrey field analyzer,” Ophthalmologica 193, 56–74 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

D. M. deMonastario, S. J. Schein, E. P. McCrane, “Staining of blue-sensitive cones of the macaque retina by a fluorescent dye,” Science 213, 1278–1281 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Vision Res. (4)

D. van Nooren, J. J. Vos, “Spectral transmission of the human ocular media,” Vision Res. 14, 1237–1244 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Mellerio, “Light absorption and scatter in the human lens,” Vision Res. 11, 129–141 (1974).
[CrossRef]

P. E. Kilbride, L. P. Hutman, M. Fishman, J. S. Read, “Foveal cone pigment density differences in the aging human eye,” Vision Res. 26, 321–325 (1986).
[CrossRef]

C. Yuodelis, A. Hendrickson, “A qualitative and quantitative analysis of the human fovea during development,” Vision Res. 26, 847–855 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (11)

J. Marshall, “Aging changes in human cones,” in Proceedings of the 23rd International Congress of Ophthalmology, K. Shimizu, J. A. Oosterhuis, eds. (Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam, 1979), pp. 375–378.

J. Marshall, A. Laties, “Special pathology of the aging macula,” in Retinal Degeneration, Experimental and Clinical Studies, M. M. LaVail, L. G. Hollyfield, R. E. Anderson, eds. (Liss, New York, 1985), pp. 389–400.

The Field Analyzer Primer (Allergan Humphrey, San Leandro, Calif., 1986).

G. Haegerstrom-Portnoy, S. E. Hewlett, S. A. N. Barr, “S cone loss in aging,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies IX, G. Verriest, ed. (Junk, The Hague, to be published).

G. Heron, A. J. Adams, R. Husted, “Central and peripheral measures of blue-sensitive pathways in glaucoma and ocular hypertension,” in Digest of Topical Meeting on Noninvasive Assessment of the Visual System (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1986), paper WC1.

D. R. Anderson, Perimetry With and Without Automation (Mosby, St. Louis, Mo., 1987).

C. A. Johnson, A. J. Adams, C. W. Adams, R. A. Lewis, “Evidence for a neural basis of age-related visual field changes,” in Digest of Topical Meeting on Noninvasive Assessment of the Visual System (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), pp. 44–47.

R. A. Weale, The Aging Eye (Lewis, London, 1963).

J. S. Werner, V. G. Steele, Department of Psychology, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (personal communication, 1988).

R. A. Weale, “Senile ocular changes, cell death and vision,” in Aging and Human Visual Function, R. S. Sekuler, D. W. Kline, K. Dismukes, eds. (Liss, New York, 1982), pp. 161–171.

R. A. Weale, Focus on Vision (Harvard U. Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1982).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Distribution of visual field locations examined by Program 30-2 of the Humphrey field analyzer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Sensitivity as a function of stimulus wavelength for the 200-cd/m2 yellow background for one observer at the fovea (top) and 20 degrees in the peripheral nasal visual field (bottom).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Two-color incremental thresholds at 20 deg of eccentricity in the nasal visual field for a 1.6-deg test stimulus (blue OCLI 500-nm cutoff filter) superimposed upon a range of yellow (Schott OG530) background luminances. Stiles templates for pi mechanisms are fitted to the data, and the full templates are extrapolated for the pi4 (MWS cones) and pi1 (SWS cones) Stiles mechanisms. At the background luminance used in this study (vertical dashed line), there is approximately 1.1 log unit of SWS cone isolation (horizontal dashed lines).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Average SWS cone sensitivity for the central 30-deg visual field as a function of age. Data for right eyes are denoted by asterisks, and data for left eyes are represented by open triangles. (b) Same data as for (b), after a correction for short-wavelength transmission loss by the ocular media. (c) Log relative lens density (ocular media correction factor) as a function of age for each of the eyes evaluated.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Average SWS cone sensitivity (corrected for ocular-media transmission losses) as a function of visual-field location for (a) the 20–39-year-old group, (b) the 40–59-year-old group and (c) the 60–72-year-old group. Positive values on the x and y axes reflect temporal and superior visual-field eccentricities (in degrees), respectively. Negative values indicate nasal and inferior visual-field eccentricities (in degrees). Higher sensitivities are denoted by taller squares and lighter shades.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Average SWS cone sensitivity (corrected for ocular-media transmission losses) for the three age groups at 0–10, 10–20, and 20–30 deg of eccentricity. (b) Differences in average sensitivity among the three age groups for 0–10, 10–20, and 20–30 deg of eccentricity. Differences: filled bars, young versus middle; cross-hatched bars, young versus old; hatched bars, middle versus old.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Slope of the SWS cone sensitivity loss (corrected for ocular-media differences) as a function of age for each visual-field location. (b) Slope of the MWS and/or LWS cone sensitivity as a function of age for each visual-field location. (c) Differences between SWS cone sensitivity slopes and MWS and/or LWS cone sensitivity slopes for each visual-field location. Positive values on the x and y axes indicate temporal and superior visual-field locations (in degrees), respectively. Nasal and inferior visual-field eccentricities (in degrees) are denoted by negative numbers.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Log relative lens density, plotted as a function of SWS cone sensitivity (corrected for ocular media differences) for (a) the 20–39-year-old group, (b) the 40–59-year-old group, and (c) the 60–72-year-old group.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Difference in ocular-media transmission loss between eyes, plotted as a function of the difference in SWS cone sensitivity (corrected for ocular-media transmission differences) between eyes for the 20–39-year-old group (open circles), the 40–59-year-old group (asterisks), and the 60–72-year-old group (open triangles).

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Comparison of Studies Reporting SWS Cone Pathway Sensitivity Loss with Age

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