Abstract

Spectral sensitivities of mechanisms dominated by short-, middle-, or long-wavelength-sensitive cones were measured for 76 observers ranging in age from 10 to 84 years. The short-wavelength mechanism was isolated with a yellow adapting background and five test wavelengths between 420 and 550 nm modulated at 2 Hz. Sensitivity declined with age, but the slopes of the functions varied as a function of wavelength. When the data were corrected for light losses in the ocular media, the slopes were similar for λ ≤ 500 nm and still significantly correlated with age. At 440 nm, the sensitivity of the short-wavelength mechanism, specified at the retinal level, declined at a rate of 0.08 log unit per decade. Sensitivity at 550 nm under these conditions was dependent on middle- and/or long-wavelength-sensitive cones and was not correlated significantly with age. To study isolated middle- and long-wavelength mechanisms, sensitivities were measured at six wavelengths between 500 and 650 nm, using a 20-Hz test stimulus and appropriate chromatic adapting backgrounds. The sensitivities at all wavelengths were correlated negatively with age. When specified at the retinal level, the sensitivity at 560 nm declined at a rate of 0.11 log unit per decade for both middle- and long-wavelength mechanisms. These data support the view that the sensitivities of all three cone types and/or at least one of their postreceptoral pathways declines from 10 to 84 years of age.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

1988 (4)

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, L. Fernandez, S. L. Tarsis, “Analysis of the macular pigment by HPLC: retinal distribution and age study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 29, 843–849 (1988).
[PubMed]

M. E. Schneck, A. J. Adams, “Changes in S-cone system sensitivity and ocular media absorption with age,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 29, 301 (1988).

C. A. Johnson, A. J. Adams, J. D. Twelker, J. M. Quigg, “Age-related changes of the central visual field for short-wavelength sensitive pathways,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 5, 2131–2139 (1988).
[Crossref]

M. Kalloniatis, R. S. Harwerth, “Red/green opponency at detection threshold under chromatic adaptation,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 29, 299 (1988).

1987 (6)

A. J. Adams, B. Schefrin, K. Huie, “New clinical color threshold test for eye disease,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 64, 29–37 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, M. Lutze, “Aging of the human lens,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1437–1440 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. S. Werner, S. K. Donnelly, R. Kliegl, “Aging and human macular pigment density; appended with translations from the work of Max Schultze and Ewald Hering,” Vision Res. 27, 257–268 (1987).
[Crossref]

A. Eisner, S. A. Fleming, M. L. Klein, W. M. Mauldin, “Sensitivities in older eyes with good acuity: cross-sectional norms,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 28, 1824–1831 (1987).
[PubMed]

K. Knoblauch, F. Saunders, M. Kusuda, R. Hynes, M. Podgor, K. E. Higgins, F. M. deMonasterio, “Age and illuminance effects in the Farnsworth–Munsell 100-hue test,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1441–1448 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. J. Volbrecht, J. S. Werner, “Isolation of short-wavelength-sensitive cone photoreceptors in 4–6-week-old human infants,” Vision Res. 27, 469–478 (1987).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

C. Yuodelis, A. Hendrickson, “A qualitative and quantitative analysis of the human fovea during development,” Vision Res. 26, 847–855 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1984 (3)

I. Abramov, L. Hainline, J. Turkel, E. Lemerise, H. Smith, J. Gordon, S. Petry, “Rocket ship psychophysics. Assessing visual function in young children,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 25, 1307–1315 (1984).
[PubMed]

A. G. Balazsi, J. Rootman, S. M. Drance, M. Schulzer, G. R. Douglas, “The effect of age on the nerve fiber population of the human optic nerve,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 97, 760–766 (1984).
[PubMed]

P. E. King-Smith, M. Lubow, S. C. Benes, “Selective damage to chromatic mechanisms in neuro-ophthalmic diseases. I. Review of published evidence,” Doc. Ophthalmol. 58, 241–250 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1983 (2)

H. Yaguchi, M. Ikeda, “Subadditivity and superadditivity in heterochromatic brightness matching,” Vision Res. 23, 1711–1718 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. E. Thornton, E. N. Pugh, “Red/green color opponency at detection threshold,” Science 219, 191–193 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1982 (4)

A. Eisner, “Comparison of flicker-photometric and flicker-threshold spectral sensitivities while the eye is adapted to colored backgrounds,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 517–518 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. S. Werner, “Development of scotopic sensitivity and the absorption spectrum of the human ocular media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 247–258 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Verriest, J. V. Laethem, A. Uvijls, “A new assessment of the normal ranges of the Farnsworth–Munsell 100-hue test scores,” Am. J.. Ophthalmol. 93, 635–642 (1982).
[PubMed]

J. S. Werner, J. Walraven, “Effect of chromatic adaptation on the achromatic locus: the role of contrast, luminance and background color,” Vision Res. 22, 924–943 (1982).
[Crossref]

1981 (2)

C. R. Ingling, E. Martinez, “Stiles’s π5mechanism: failure to show univariance is caused by opponent-channel input,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 1134–1137 (1981).
[Crossref]

S. Gartner, P. Henkind, “Aging and degeneration of the human macula. 1. Outer nuclear layer and photoreceptors,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 65, 23–28 (1981).

1980 (4)

K. O. Devaney, H. A. Johnson, “Neuron loss in the aging visual cortex of man,” J. Gerontol. 35, 836–841 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. A. Wandell, E. N. Pugh, “A field-additive pathway detects brief-duration, long-wavelength incremental flashes,” Vision Res. 20, 613–624 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. A. Wandell, E. N. Pugh, “Detection of long-duration, long-wavelength incremental flashes by a chromatically coded pathway,” Vision Res. 20, 625–636 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. K. Bowmaker, H. J. A. Dartnall, J. D. Mollon, “Microspectrophotometric demonstration of four classes of photoreceptor in an old world primate, Macaca fascicularis,” J. Physiol. 298, 131–143 (1980).

1979 (1)

E. N. Pugh, J. D. Mollon, “A theory of the π1and π3color mechanisms of Stiles,” Vision Res. 19, 293–312 (1979).
[Crossref]

1978 (2)

E. N. Pugh, C. Sigel, “Evaluation of the candidacy of the π-mechanisms of Stiles for color-matching fundamentals. Vision Res. 18, 317–330 (1978).
[Crossref]

J. J. Vos, “Colorimetric and photometric properties of a 2° fundamental observer,” Col. Res. Appl. 3, 125–128 (1978).
[Crossref]

1977 (1)

O. Estévez, C. R. Cavonius, “Human color perception and Stiles’ π mechanisms,” Vision Res. 17, 417–422 (1977).
[Crossref]

1976 (1)

D. V. Norren, M. Bouman, “Is it possible to isolate fundamental cone mechanisms with Wald’s method of chromatic adaptation?” Mod. Probl. Ophthalmol. 17, 27–32 (1976).

1975 (4)

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500 nm,” Vision Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. R. Peeples, D. Y. Teller, “Color vision and brightness discrimination in two-month-old human infants,” Science 189, 1102–1103 (1975)
[Crossref]

M. J. Schaller, “Chromatic vision in human infants: conditioned operant fixation to ‘hues’ of varying intensity,” Bull. Psychonom. Soc. 6, 39–42 (1975).

R. M. Boynton, W. S. Baron, “Sinusoidal flicker characteristics of primate cones in response to heterochromatic stimuli,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 1091–1100 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1974 (1)

D. V. Norren, J. J. Vos, “Spectral transmission of the human ocular media,” Vision Res. 14, 1237–1244 (1974).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1969 (1)

S. L. Guth, N. J. Donley, R. T. Marrocco, “On luminance additivity and related topics,” Vision Res. 9, 537–575 (1969).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1966 (1)

G. S. Brindley, J. J. DuCroz, W. A. H. Rushton, “The flicker fusion frequency of the blue-sensitive mechanism of colour vision,” J. Physiol. 183, 497–500 (1966).

1964 (1)

G. Wald, “The receptors of human color vision,” Science 145, 1007–1016 (1964).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1962 (1)

E. A. Boettner, J. R. Wolter, “Transmission of the ocular media,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 1, 776–783 (1962).

1959 (1)

F. S. Said, R. A. Weale, “The variation with age of the spectral transmissivity of the living human crystalline lens,” Gerontologia 3, 213–231 (1959).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1958 (1)

V. Kadlecová, M. Peleška, A. Vaško, “Dependence on age of the diameter of the pupil in the dark,” Nature 182, 1520–1521 (1958).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1953 (1)

W. S. Stiles, “Further studies of visual mechanisms by the two-colour increment threshold method,” Coloq. Probl. Opt. Vis. Union Int. Phys. Pure Appl. 1, 65–103 (1953).

Abramov, I.

I. Abramov, L. Hainline, J. Turkel, E. Lemerise, H. Smith, J. Gordon, S. Petry, “Rocket ship psychophysics. Assessing visual function in young children,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 25, 1307–1315 (1984).
[PubMed]

Adams, A. J.

M. E. Schneck, A. J. Adams, “Changes in S-cone system sensitivity and ocular media absorption with age,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 29, 301 (1988).

C. A. Johnson, A. J. Adams, J. D. Twelker, J. M. Quigg, “Age-related changes of the central visual field for short-wavelength sensitive pathways,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 5, 2131–2139 (1988).
[Crossref]

A. J. Adams, B. Schefrin, K. Huie, “New clinical color threshold test for eye disease,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 64, 29–37 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Balazsi, A. G.

A. G. Balazsi, J. Rootman, S. M. Drance, M. Schulzer, G. R. Douglas, “The effect of age on the nerve fiber population of the human optic nerve,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 97, 760–766 (1984).
[PubMed]

Baron, W. S.

Barr, S. A. N.

G. Haegerstrom-Portnoy, S. E. Hewlett, S. A. N. Barr, “S cone loss in aging,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies IX, G. Verriest, ed. (Junk, The Hague, to be published).

Benes, S. C.

P. E. King-Smith, M. Lubow, S. C. Benes, “Selective damage to chromatic mechanisms in neuro-ophthalmic diseases. I. Review of published evidence,” Doc. Ophthalmol. 58, 241–250 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boettner, E. A.

E. A. Boettner, J. R. Wolter, “Transmission of the ocular media,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 1, 776–783 (1962).

Bone, R. A.

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, L. Fernandez, S. L. Tarsis, “Analysis of the macular pigment by HPLC: retinal distribution and age study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 29, 843–849 (1988).
[PubMed]

Bouman, M.

D. V. Norren, M. Bouman, “Is it possible to isolate fundamental cone mechanisms with Wald’s method of chromatic adaptation?” Mod. Probl. Ophthalmol. 17, 27–32 (1976).

Bowmaker, J. K.

J. K. Bowmaker, H. J. A. Dartnall, J. D. Mollon, “Microspectrophotometric demonstration of four classes of photoreceptor in an old world primate, Macaca fascicularis,” J. Physiol. 298, 131–143 (1980).

Boynton, R. M.

Brindley, G. S.

G. S. Brindley, J. J. DuCroz, W. A. H. Rushton, “The flicker fusion frequency of the blue-sensitive mechanism of colour vision,” J. Physiol. 183, 497–500 (1966).

Carr, R. E.

V. C. Greenstein, D. C. Hood, R. E. Carr, “A comparison of S cone pathway loss in patients with diabetes and retinitis pigmentosa,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies IX, G. Verriest, ed. (Junk, The Hague, to be published).

Cavonius, C. R.

O. Estévez, C. R. Cavonius, “Human color perception and Stiles’ π mechanisms,” Vision Res. 17, 417–422 (1977).
[Crossref]

Cicerone, C. M.

C. M. Cicerone, J. L. Nerger, “The relative numbers of long-wavelength-sensitive to middle-wavelength-sensitive cones in the human fovea centralis,” Vision Res. (to be published).

Dartnall, H. J. A.

J. K. Bowmaker, H. J. A. Dartnall, J. D. Mollon, “Microspectrophotometric demonstration of four classes of photoreceptor in an old world primate, Macaca fascicularis,” J. Physiol. 298, 131–143 (1980).

deMonasterio, F. M.

Devaney, K. O.

K. O. Devaney, H. A. Johnson, “Neuron loss in the aging visual cortex of man,” J. Gerontol. 35, 836–841 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Donley, N. J.

S. L. Guth, N. J. Donley, R. T. Marrocco, “On luminance additivity and related topics,” Vision Res. 9, 537–575 (1969).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Donnelly, S. K.

J. S. Werner, S. K. Donnelly, R. Kliegl, “Aging and human macular pigment density; appended with translations from the work of Max Schultze and Ewald Hering,” Vision Res. 27, 257–268 (1987).
[Crossref]

Douglas, G. R.

A. G. Balazsi, J. Rootman, S. M. Drance, M. Schulzer, G. R. Douglas, “The effect of age on the nerve fiber population of the human optic nerve,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 97, 760–766 (1984).
[PubMed]

Drance, S. M.

A. G. Balazsi, J. Rootman, S. M. Drance, M. Schulzer, G. R. Douglas, “The effect of age on the nerve fiber population of the human optic nerve,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 97, 760–766 (1984).
[PubMed]

DuCroz, J. J.

G. S. Brindley, J. J. DuCroz, W. A. H. Rushton, “The flicker fusion frequency of the blue-sensitive mechanism of colour vision,” J. Physiol. 183, 497–500 (1966).

Eisner, A.

A. Eisner, S. A. Fleming, M. L. Klein, W. M. Mauldin, “Sensitivities in older eyes with good acuity: cross-sectional norms,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 28, 1824–1831 (1987).
[PubMed]

A. Eisner, “Comparison of flicker-photometric and flicker-threshold spectral sensitivities while the eye is adapted to colored backgrounds,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 517–518 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Enoch, J. M.

J. M. Enoch, “The two-color threshold technique of Stiles and derived component color mechanisms,” in Handbook of Sensory Physiology, Vol. VII/4: Visual Psychophysics, D. Jameson, L. M. Hurvich, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1972), pp. 537–567.
[Crossref]

Estévez, O.

O. Estévez, C. R. Cavonius, “Human color perception and Stiles’ π mechanisms,” Vision Res. 17, 417–422 (1977).
[Crossref]

O. Estévez, “On the fundamental data-base of normal and dichromatic color vision,” doctoral dissertation (University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, 1979).

Fernandez, L.

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, L. Fernandez, S. L. Tarsis, “Analysis of the macular pigment by HPLC: retinal distribution and age study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 29, 843–849 (1988).
[PubMed]

Fleming, S. A.

A. Eisner, S. A. Fleming, M. L. Klein, W. M. Mauldin, “Sensitivities in older eyes with good acuity: cross-sectional norms,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 28, 1824–1831 (1987).
[PubMed]

Gartner, S.

S. Gartner, P. Henkind, “Aging and degeneration of the human macula. 1. Outer nuclear layer and photoreceptors,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 65, 23–28 (1981).

Gordon, J.

I. Abramov, L. Hainline, J. Turkel, E. Lemerise, H. Smith, J. Gordon, S. Petry, “Rocket ship psychophysics. Assessing visual function in young children,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 25, 1307–1315 (1984).
[PubMed]

Greenstein, V. C.

V. C. Greenstein, D. C. Hood, R. E. Carr, “A comparison of S cone pathway loss in patients with diabetes and retinitis pigmentosa,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies IX, G. Verriest, ed. (Junk, The Hague, to be published).

Guth, S. L.

S. L. Guth, N. J. Donley, R. T. Marrocco, “On luminance additivity and related topics,” Vision Res. 9, 537–575 (1969).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haegerstrom-Portnoy, G.

G. Haegerstrom-Portnoy, S. E. Hewlett, S. A. N. Barr, “S cone loss in aging,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies IX, G. Verriest, ed. (Junk, The Hague, to be published).

Hainline, L.

I. Abramov, L. Hainline, J. Turkel, E. Lemerise, H. Smith, J. Gordon, S. Petry, “Rocket ship psychophysics. Assessing visual function in young children,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 25, 1307–1315 (1984).
[PubMed]

Harwerth, R. S.

M. Kalloniatis, R. S. Harwerth, “Red/green opponency at detection threshold under chromatic adaptation,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 29, 299 (1988).

Hendrickson, A.

C. Yuodelis, A. Hendrickson, “A qualitative and quantitative analysis of the human fovea during development,” Vision Res. 26, 847–855 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Henkind, P.

S. Gartner, P. Henkind, “Aging and degeneration of the human macula. 1. Outer nuclear layer and photoreceptors,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 65, 23–28 (1981).

Hewlett, S. E.

G. Haegerstrom-Portnoy, S. E. Hewlett, S. A. N. Barr, “S cone loss in aging,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies IX, G. Verriest, ed. (Junk, The Hague, to be published).

Higgins, K. E.

Hood, D. C.

V. C. Greenstein, D. C. Hood, R. E. Carr, “A comparison of S cone pathway loss in patients with diabetes and retinitis pigmentosa,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies IX, G. Verriest, ed. (Junk, The Hague, to be published).

Huie, K.

A. J. Adams, B. Schefrin, K. Huie, “New clinical color threshold test for eye disease,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 64, 29–37 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hynes, R.

Ikeda, M.

H. Yaguchi, M. Ikeda, “Subadditivity and superadditivity in heterochromatic brightness matching,” Vision Res. 23, 1711–1718 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ingling, C. R.

Johnson, C. A.

C. A. Johnson, A. J. Adams, J. D. Twelker, J. M. Quigg, “Age-related changes of the central visual field for short-wavelength sensitive pathways,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 5, 2131–2139 (1988).
[Crossref]

Johnson, H. A.

K. O. Devaney, H. A. Johnson, “Neuron loss in the aging visual cortex of man,” J. Gerontol. 35, 836–841 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kadlecová, V.

V. Kadlecová, M. Peleška, A. Vaško, “Dependence on age of the diameter of the pupil in the dark,” Nature 182, 1520–1521 (1958).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kalloniatis, M.

M. Kalloniatis, R. S. Harwerth, “Red/green opponency at detection threshold under chromatic adaptation,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 29, 299 (1988).

King-Smith, P. E.

P. E. King-Smith, M. Lubow, S. C. Benes, “Selective damage to chromatic mechanisms in neuro-ophthalmic diseases. I. Review of published evidence,” Doc. Ophthalmol. 58, 241–250 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kinnear, P.

P. Kinnear, M. Marré, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, G. Verriest, “Specialized methods of evaluating color vision defects,” in Congenital and Acquired Color Vision Defects, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, G. Verriest, A. J. L. G. Pinckers, eds. (Grune and Stratton, New York, 1979), pp. 137–181.

Klein, M. L.

A. Eisner, S. A. Fleming, M. L. Klein, W. M. Mauldin, “Sensitivities in older eyes with good acuity: cross-sectional norms,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 28, 1824–1831 (1987).
[PubMed]

Kliegl, R.

J. S. Werner, S. K. Donnelly, R. Kliegl, “Aging and human macular pigment density; appended with translations from the work of Max Schultze and Ewald Hering,” Vision Res. 27, 257–268 (1987).
[Crossref]

Kline, D. W.

D. W. Kline, F. J. Schieber, “Visual persistence and temporal resolution,” in Aging and Human Visual Function, R. Sekuler, D. Kline, K. Dismukes, eds. (Liss, New York, 1982).

Knoblauch, K.

Kusuda, M.

Laethem, J. V.

G. Verriest, J. V. Laethem, A. Uvijls, “A new assessment of the normal ranges of the Farnsworth–Munsell 100-hue test scores,” Am. J.. Ophthalmol. 93, 635–642 (1982).
[PubMed]

Landrum, J. T.

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, L. Fernandez, S. L. Tarsis, “Analysis of the macular pigment by HPLC: retinal distribution and age study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 29, 843–849 (1988).
[PubMed]

Lemerise, E.

I. Abramov, L. Hainline, J. Turkel, E. Lemerise, H. Smith, J. Gordon, S. Petry, “Rocket ship psychophysics. Assessing visual function in young children,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 25, 1307–1315 (1984).
[PubMed]

Lubow, M.

P. E. King-Smith, M. Lubow, S. C. Benes, “Selective damage to chromatic mechanisms in neuro-ophthalmic diseases. I. Review of published evidence,” Doc. Ophthalmol. 58, 241–250 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lutze, M.

Marré, M.

P. Kinnear, M. Marré, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, G. Verriest, “Specialized methods of evaluating color vision defects,” in Congenital and Acquired Color Vision Defects, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, G. Verriest, A. J. L. G. Pinckers, eds. (Grune and Stratton, New York, 1979), pp. 137–181.

Marrocco, R. T.

S. L. Guth, N. J. Donley, R. T. Marrocco, “On luminance additivity and related topics,” Vision Res. 9, 537–575 (1969).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marshall, J.

J. Marshall, “Ageing changes in human cones,” in XXIII Concilium Ophthalmologicum, Kyoto, K. Shimizu, J. A. Oosterhuis, eds. (Elsevier/North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1978), pp. 375–378.

Martinez, E.

Mauldin, W. M.

A. Eisner, S. A. Fleming, M. L. Klein, W. M. Mauldin, “Sensitivities in older eyes with good acuity: cross-sectional norms,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 28, 1824–1831 (1987).
[PubMed]

Mollon, J. D.

J. K. Bowmaker, H. J. A. Dartnall, J. D. Mollon, “Microspectrophotometric demonstration of four classes of photoreceptor in an old world primate, Macaca fascicularis,” J. Physiol. 298, 131–143 (1980).

E. N. Pugh, J. D. Mollon, “A theory of the π1and π3color mechanisms of Stiles,” Vision Res. 19, 293–312 (1979).
[Crossref]

Nerger, J. L.

C. M. Cicerone, J. L. Nerger, “The relative numbers of long-wavelength-sensitive to middle-wavelength-sensitive cones in the human fovea centralis,” Vision Res. (to be published).

Norren, D. V.

D. V. Norren, M. Bouman, “Is it possible to isolate fundamental cone mechanisms with Wald’s method of chromatic adaptation?” Mod. Probl. Ophthalmol. 17, 27–32 (1976).

D. V. Norren, J. J. Vos, “Spectral transmission of the human ocular media,” Vision Res. 14, 1237–1244 (1974).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peeples, D. R.

D. R. Peeples, D. Y. Teller, “Color vision and brightness discrimination in two-month-old human infants,” Science 189, 1102–1103 (1975)
[Crossref]

Peleška, M.

V. Kadlecová, M. Peleška, A. Vaško, “Dependence on age of the diameter of the pupil in the dark,” Nature 182, 1520–1521 (1958).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Petry, S.

I. Abramov, L. Hainline, J. Turkel, E. Lemerise, H. Smith, J. Gordon, S. Petry, “Rocket ship psychophysics. Assessing visual function in young children,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 25, 1307–1315 (1984).
[PubMed]

Podgor, M.

Pokorny, J.

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, M. Lutze, “Aging of the human lens,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1437–1440 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500 nm,” Vision Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Kinnear, M. Marré, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, G. Verriest, “Specialized methods of evaluating color vision defects,” in Congenital and Acquired Color Vision Defects, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, G. Verriest, A. J. L. G. Pinckers, eds. (Grune and Stratton, New York, 1979), pp. 137–181.

Pugh, E. N.

J. E. Thornton, E. N. Pugh, “Red/green color opponency at detection threshold,” Science 219, 191–193 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. A. Wandell, E. N. Pugh, “A field-additive pathway detects brief-duration, long-wavelength incremental flashes,” Vision Res. 20, 613–624 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. A. Wandell, E. N. Pugh, “Detection of long-duration, long-wavelength incremental flashes by a chromatically coded pathway,” Vision Res. 20, 625–636 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. N. Pugh, J. D. Mollon, “A theory of the π1and π3color mechanisms of Stiles,” Vision Res. 19, 293–312 (1979).
[Crossref]

E. N. Pugh, C. Sigel, “Evaluation of the candidacy of the π-mechanisms of Stiles for color-matching fundamentals. Vision Res. 18, 317–330 (1978).
[Crossref]

Quigg, J. M.

C. A. Johnson, A. J. Adams, J. D. Twelker, J. M. Quigg, “Age-related changes of the central visual field for short-wavelength sensitive pathways,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 5, 2131–2139 (1988).
[Crossref]

Rootman, J.

A. G. Balazsi, J. Rootman, S. M. Drance, M. Schulzer, G. R. Douglas, “The effect of age on the nerve fiber population of the human optic nerve,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 97, 760–766 (1984).
[PubMed]

Rushton, W. A. H.

G. S. Brindley, J. J. DuCroz, W. A. H. Rushton, “The flicker fusion frequency of the blue-sensitive mechanism of colour vision,” J. Physiol. 183, 497–500 (1966).

Said, F. S.

F. S. Said, R. A. Weale, “The variation with age of the spectral transmissivity of the living human crystalline lens,” Gerontologia 3, 213–231 (1959).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saunders, F.

Schaller, M. J.

M. J. Schaller, “Chromatic vision in human infants: conditioned operant fixation to ‘hues’ of varying intensity,” Bull. Psychonom. Soc. 6, 39–42 (1975).

Schefrin, B.

A. J. Adams, B. Schefrin, K. Huie, “New clinical color threshold test for eye disease,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 64, 29–37 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schieber, F. J.

D. W. Kline, F. J. Schieber, “Visual persistence and temporal resolution,” in Aging and Human Visual Function, R. Sekuler, D. Kline, K. Dismukes, eds. (Liss, New York, 1982).

Schneck, M. E.

M. E. Schneck, A. J. Adams, “Changes in S-cone system sensitivity and ocular media absorption with age,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 29, 301 (1988).

Schultze, M.

M. Schultze, Ueber den gelben Fleck der Retina, seinen Einfluss auf normales Sehen und auf Farbenblindheit (Cohen & Sohn, Bonn, Germany, 1866).

Schulzer, M.

A. G. Balazsi, J. Rootman, S. M. Drance, M. Schulzer, G. R. Douglas, “The effect of age on the nerve fiber population of the human optic nerve,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 97, 760–766 (1984).
[PubMed]

Sigel, C.

E. N. Pugh, C. Sigel, “Evaluation of the candidacy of the π-mechanisms of Stiles for color-matching fundamentals. Vision Res. 18, 317–330 (1978).
[Crossref]

Smith, H.

I. Abramov, L. Hainline, J. Turkel, E. Lemerise, H. Smith, J. Gordon, S. Petry, “Rocket ship psychophysics. Assessing visual function in young children,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 25, 1307–1315 (1984).
[PubMed]

Smith, V. C.

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, M. Lutze, “Aging of the human lens,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1437–1440 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500 nm,” Vision Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Kinnear, M. Marré, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, G. Verriest, “Specialized methods of evaluating color vision defects,” in Congenital and Acquired Color Vision Defects, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, G. Verriest, A. J. L. G. Pinckers, eds. (Grune and Stratton, New York, 1979), pp. 137–181.

Stiles, W. S.

W. S. Stiles, “Further studies of visual mechanisms by the two-colour increment threshold method,” Coloq. Probl. Opt. Vis. Union Int. Phys. Pure Appl. 1, 65–103 (1953).

Tarsis, S. L.

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, L. Fernandez, S. L. Tarsis, “Analysis of the macular pigment by HPLC: retinal distribution and age study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 29, 843–849 (1988).
[PubMed]

Teller, D. Y.

D. R. Peeples, D. Y. Teller, “Color vision and brightness discrimination in two-month-old human infants,” Science 189, 1102–1103 (1975)
[Crossref]

Thornton, J. E.

J. E. Thornton, E. N. Pugh, “Red/green color opponency at detection threshold,” Science 219, 191–193 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Turkel, J.

I. Abramov, L. Hainline, J. Turkel, E. Lemerise, H. Smith, J. Gordon, S. Petry, “Rocket ship psychophysics. Assessing visual function in young children,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 25, 1307–1315 (1984).
[PubMed]

Twelker, J. D.

C. A. Johnson, A. J. Adams, J. D. Twelker, J. M. Quigg, “Age-related changes of the central visual field for short-wavelength sensitive pathways,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 5, 2131–2139 (1988).
[Crossref]

Uvijls, A.

G. Verriest, J. V. Laethem, A. Uvijls, “A new assessment of the normal ranges of the Farnsworth–Munsell 100-hue test scores,” Am. J.. Ophthalmol. 93, 635–642 (1982).
[PubMed]

Vaško, A.

V. Kadlecová, M. Peleška, A. Vaško, “Dependence on age of the diameter of the pupil in the dark,” Nature 182, 1520–1521 (1958).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Verriest, G.

G. Verriest, J. V. Laethem, A. Uvijls, “A new assessment of the normal ranges of the Farnsworth–Munsell 100-hue test scores,” Am. J.. Ophthalmol. 93, 635–642 (1982).
[PubMed]

P. Kinnear, M. Marré, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, G. Verriest, “Specialized methods of evaluating color vision defects,” in Congenital and Acquired Color Vision Defects, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, G. Verriest, A. J. L. G. Pinckers, eds. (Grune and Stratton, New York, 1979), pp. 137–181.

Volbrecht, V. J.

V. J. Volbrecht, J. S. Werner, “Isolation of short-wavelength-sensitive cone photoreceptors in 4–6-week-old human infants,” Vision Res. 27, 469–478 (1987).
[Crossref]

Vos, J. J.

J. J. Vos, “Colorimetric and photometric properties of a 2° fundamental observer,” Col. Res. Appl. 3, 125–128 (1978).
[Crossref]

D. V. Norren, J. J. Vos, “Spectral transmission of the human ocular media,” Vision Res. 14, 1237–1244 (1974).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wald, G.

G. Wald, “The receptors of human color vision,” Science 145, 1007–1016 (1964).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Walraven, J.

J. S. Werner, J. Walraven, “Effect of chromatic adaptation on the achromatic locus: the role of contrast, luminance and background color,” Vision Res. 22, 924–943 (1982).
[Crossref]

Wandell, B. A.

B. A. Wandell, E. N. Pugh, “Detection of long-duration, long-wavelength incremental flashes by a chromatically coded pathway,” Vision Res. 20, 625–636 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. A. Wandell, E. N. Pugh, “A field-additive pathway detects brief-duration, long-wavelength incremental flashes,” Vision Res. 20, 613–624 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weale, R. A.

F. S. Said, R. A. Weale, “The variation with age of the spectral transmissivity of the living human crystalline lens,” Gerontologia 3, 213–231 (1959).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. A. Weale, The Aging Eye (Lewis, London, 1963).

Werner, J. S.

J. S. Werner, S. K. Donnelly, R. Kliegl, “Aging and human macular pigment density; appended with translations from the work of Max Schultze and Ewald Hering,” Vision Res. 27, 257–268 (1987).
[Crossref]

V. J. Volbrecht, J. S. Werner, “Isolation of short-wavelength-sensitive cone photoreceptors in 4–6-week-old human infants,” Vision Res. 27, 469–478 (1987).
[Crossref]

J. S. Werner, “Development of scotopic sensitivity and the absorption spectrum of the human ocular media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 247–258 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. S. Werner, J. Walraven, “Effect of chromatic adaptation on the achromatic locus: the role of contrast, luminance and background color,” Vision Res. 22, 924–943 (1982).
[Crossref]

Wolter, J. R.

E. A. Boettner, J. R. Wolter, “Transmission of the ocular media,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 1, 776–783 (1962).

Yaguchi, H.

H. Yaguchi, M. Ikeda, “Subadditivity and superadditivity in heterochromatic brightness matching,” Vision Res. 23, 1711–1718 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yuodelis, C.

C. Yuodelis, A. Hendrickson, “A qualitative and quantitative analysis of the human fovea during development,” Vision Res. 26, 847–855 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

A. G. Balazsi, J. Rootman, S. M. Drance, M. Schulzer, G. R. Douglas, “The effect of age on the nerve fiber population of the human optic nerve,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 97, 760–766 (1984).
[PubMed]

Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. (1)

A. J. Adams, B. Schefrin, K. Huie, “New clinical color threshold test for eye disease,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 64, 29–37 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Am. J.. Ophthalmol. (1)

G. Verriest, J. V. Laethem, A. Uvijls, “A new assessment of the normal ranges of the Farnsworth–Munsell 100-hue test scores,” Am. J.. Ophthalmol. 93, 635–642 (1982).
[PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Br. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

S. Gartner, P. Henkind, “Aging and degeneration of the human macula. 1. Outer nuclear layer and photoreceptors,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 65, 23–28 (1981).

Bull. Psychonom. Soc. (1)

M. J. Schaller, “Chromatic vision in human infants: conditioned operant fixation to ‘hues’ of varying intensity,” Bull. Psychonom. Soc. 6, 39–42 (1975).

Col. Res. Appl. (1)

J. J. Vos, “Colorimetric and photometric properties of a 2° fundamental observer,” Col. Res. Appl. 3, 125–128 (1978).
[Crossref]

Coloq. Probl. Opt. Vis. Union Int. Phys. Pure Appl. (1)

W. S. Stiles, “Further studies of visual mechanisms by the two-colour increment threshold method,” Coloq. Probl. Opt. Vis. Union Int. Phys. Pure Appl. 1, 65–103 (1953).

Doc. Ophthalmol. (1)

P. E. King-Smith, M. Lubow, S. C. Benes, “Selective damage to chromatic mechanisms in neuro-ophthalmic diseases. I. Review of published evidence,” Doc. Ophthalmol. 58, 241–250 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gerontologia (1)

F. S. Said, R. A. Weale, “The variation with age of the spectral transmissivity of the living human crystalline lens,” Gerontologia 3, 213–231 (1959).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. (1)

E. A. Boettner, J. R. Wolter, “Transmission of the ocular media,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 1, 776–783 (1962).

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (3)

I. Abramov, L. Hainline, J. Turkel, E. Lemerise, H. Smith, J. Gordon, S. Petry, “Rocket ship psychophysics. Assessing visual function in young children,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 25, 1307–1315 (1984).
[PubMed]

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, L. Fernandez, S. L. Tarsis, “Analysis of the macular pigment by HPLC: retinal distribution and age study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 29, 843–849 (1988).
[PubMed]

A. Eisner, S. A. Fleming, M. L. Klein, W. M. Mauldin, “Sensitivities in older eyes with good acuity: cross-sectional norms,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 28, 1824–1831 (1987).
[PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. (2)

M. E. Schneck, A. J. Adams, “Changes in S-cone system sensitivity and ocular media absorption with age,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 29, 301 (1988).

M. Kalloniatis, R. S. Harwerth, “Red/green opponency at detection threshold under chromatic adaptation,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 29, 299 (1988).

J. Gerontol. (1)

K. O. Devaney, H. A. Johnson, “Neuron loss in the aging visual cortex of man,” J. Gerontol. 35, 836–841 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (5)

J. Physiol. (2)

G. S. Brindley, J. J. DuCroz, W. A. H. Rushton, “The flicker fusion frequency of the blue-sensitive mechanism of colour vision,” J. Physiol. 183, 497–500 (1966).

J. K. Bowmaker, H. J. A. Dartnall, J. D. Mollon, “Microspectrophotometric demonstration of four classes of photoreceptor in an old world primate, Macaca fascicularis,” J. Physiol. 298, 131–143 (1980).

Mod. Probl. Ophthalmol. (1)

D. V. Norren, M. Bouman, “Is it possible to isolate fundamental cone mechanisms with Wald’s method of chromatic adaptation?” Mod. Probl. Ophthalmol. 17, 27–32 (1976).

Nature (1)

V. Kadlecová, M. Peleška, A. Vaško, “Dependence on age of the diameter of the pupil in the dark,” Nature 182, 1520–1521 (1958).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (3)

D. R. Peeples, D. Y. Teller, “Color vision and brightness discrimination in two-month-old human infants,” Science 189, 1102–1103 (1975)
[Crossref]

G. Wald, “The receptors of human color vision,” Science 145, 1007–1016 (1964).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. E. Thornton, E. N. Pugh, “Red/green color opponency at detection threshold,” Science 219, 191–193 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vision Res. (13)

B. A. Wandell, E. N. Pugh, “A field-additive pathway detects brief-duration, long-wavelength incremental flashes,” Vision Res. 20, 613–624 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. L. Guth, N. J. Donley, R. T. Marrocco, “On luminance additivity and related topics,” Vision Res. 9, 537–575 (1969).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yaguchi, M. Ikeda, “Subadditivity and superadditivity in heterochromatic brightness matching,” Vision Res. 23, 1711–1718 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. S. Werner, S. K. Donnelly, R. Kliegl, “Aging and human macular pigment density; appended with translations from the work of Max Schultze and Ewald Hering,” Vision Res. 27, 257–268 (1987).
[Crossref]

C. Yuodelis, A. Hendrickson, “A qualitative and quantitative analysis of the human fovea during development,” Vision Res. 26, 847–855 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. J. Volbrecht, J. S. Werner, “Isolation of short-wavelength-sensitive cone photoreceptors in 4–6-week-old human infants,” Vision Res. 27, 469–478 (1987).
[Crossref]

B. A. Wandell, E. N. Pugh, “Detection of long-duration, long-wavelength incremental flashes by a chromatically coded pathway,” Vision Res. 20, 625–636 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. V. Norren, J. J. Vos, “Spectral transmission of the human ocular media,” Vision Res. 14, 1237–1244 (1974).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. S. Werner, J. Walraven, “Effect of chromatic adaptation on the achromatic locus: the role of contrast, luminance and background color,” Vision Res. 22, 924–943 (1982).
[Crossref]

E. N. Pugh, J. D. Mollon, “A theory of the π1and π3color mechanisms of Stiles,” Vision Res. 19, 293–312 (1979).
[Crossref]

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500 nm,” Vision Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Estévez, C. R. Cavonius, “Human color perception and Stiles’ π mechanisms,” Vision Res. 17, 417–422 (1977).
[Crossref]

E. N. Pugh, C. Sigel, “Evaluation of the candidacy of the π-mechanisms of Stiles for color-matching fundamentals. Vision Res. 18, 317–330 (1978).
[Crossref]

Other (10)

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J. M. Enoch, “The two-color threshold technique of Stiles and derived component color mechanisms,” in Handbook of Sensory Physiology, Vol. VII/4: Visual Psychophysics, D. Jameson, L. M. Hurvich, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1972), pp. 537–567.
[Crossref]

M. Schultze, Ueber den gelben Fleck der Retina, seinen Einfluss auf normales Sehen und auf Farbenblindheit (Cohen & Sohn, Bonn, Germany, 1866).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Log relative quantal sensitivity for one observer, plotted as a function of wavelength for three conditions of adaptation chosen to isolate SWS (open triangles), MWS (open circles), and LWS (filled circles) mechanisms. Smooth curves are field sensitivities of Stiles’s π1, π4, and π5 mechanisms.18

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Log relative quantal sensitivity computed from regression equations (parameters in Tables 1, 2, and 3) for a 19-year-old observer, plotted as a function of wavelength for three conditions of adaptation chosen to isolate SWS (triangles), MWS (open circles), and LWS (filled circles) mechanisms. Smooth curves are field sensitivities of Stiles’s π1, π4, and π5 mechanisms.18

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Log sensitivity measured under conditions of adaptation chosen to isolate a SWS mechanism, plotted as a function of age for each test wavelength. Parameters for the least-squares linear-regression equations are presented in Table 1.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Log sensitivity measured under conditions of adaptation chosen to isolate a MWS mechanism, plotted as a function of age for each test wavelength. Parameters for the least-squares linear-regression equations are presented in Table 2.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Log sensitivity measured under conditions of adaptation chosen to isolate a LWS mechanism, plotted as a function of age for each test wavelength. Parameters for the least-squares linear-regression equations are presented in Table 3.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Log sensitivity at 560 nm for (top) MWS and (bottom) LWS mechanisms, plotted as a function of the sensitivity of the SWS mechanism at 440 nm.

Tables (4)

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Table 1 SWS Mechanism: Parameters for Linear Regression of Sensitivity As a Function of Agea

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Table 2 MWS Mechanism: Parameters for Linear Regression of Sensitivity As a Function of Agea

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Table 3 LWS Mechanism: Parameters for Linear Regression of Sensitivity As a Function of Agea

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Table 4 Log Sensitivity Change Per Decade in Color Mechanisms Specified at the Retina

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