Abstract

The chromatic discrimination capabilities of 3- and 7-week-old infants were tested using 8°, 417-, 448-, 486-, 540-, and 645-nm test fields embedded in a 547-nm surround and 486-nm test fields in a broadband red surround. In corroboration of earlier studies, few 3-week-old infants demonstrated chromatic discriminations, although their performance was somewhat better when one of the lights was long wavelength. Most 7-week-old infants could make chromatic discriminations, but they still demonstrated performance minima. The radiances of the test lights at the infants’ performance minima were used to generate a spectral luminous efficiency curve. This curve agreed with both the adult heterochromatic brightness matches measured at 30° of visual eccentricity in situ and the standard adult scotopic sensitivity curve V(λ) over the short- and mid-wavelength range but deviated from both adult curves for the 645-nm test stimulus on a 547-nm surround. The results suggest that rod-initiated signals play a major role in infants’ visual performance under the conditions tested.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

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  1. Reviewed by D. Y. Teller, M. H. Bornstein, “Infant color vision and color perception,” in Handbook of Infant Perception (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1987), Vol. 1, pp. 185–236.
  2. M. J. Schaller, “Chromatic vision in human infants: conditioned operant fixation to hues of varying intensity,” Psychon. Soc. Bull. 6, 39–42 (1975).
  3. M. H. Bornstein, “Infants are trichromats,” J. Exp. Child Psychol. 21, 425–445 (1976).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. R. D. Hamer, K. R. Alexander, D. Y. Teller, “Rayleigh discriminations in young human infants,” Vision Res. 22, 575–587 (1982).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. O. Packer, E. E. Hartmann, D. Y. Teller, “Infant color vision: the effect of test field size on Rayleigh discriminations,” Vision Res. 24, 1247–1260 (1984).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. D. Varner, J. E. Cook, M. E. Schneck, M. McDonald, D. Y. Teller, “Tritan discriminations by 1- and 2-month-old human infants,” Vision Res. 25, 821–831 (1985).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. D. R. Peeples, D. Y. Teller, “Color vision and brightness discrimination in two-month-old human infants,” Science 189, 1102–1103 (1975).
    [Crossref]
  8. D. Y. Teller, D. R. Peeples, M. Sekel, “Discrimination of chromatic from white light by two-month-old human infants,” Vision Res. 18, 41–48 (1978).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. D. Allen, M. S. Banks, B. Schefrin, “Chromatic discrimination in human infants, a re-examination,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 29, 25 (1988).
  10. R. J. Adams, D. Maurer, M. Davis, “Newborns’ discrimination of chromatic from achromatic stimuli,” J. Exp. Child Psychol. 41, 267–281 (1986).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. I. Abramov, J. Gordon, A. Hendrickson, L. Hainline, V. Dobson, E. LaBossiere, “The retina of the newborn human infant,” Science 217, 265–267 (1982).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. C. Yuodelis, A. Hendrickson, “A qualitative and quantitative analysis of the human fovea during development,” Vision Res. 26, 847–855 (1986).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. A. M. Brown, V. Dobson, J. Maier, “Visual acuity of human infants at scotopic, mesopic, and photopic luminances,” Vision Res. 27, 1845–1858 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  14. M. S. Banks, P. J. Bennett, B. Schefrin, “Inefficient cones limit infants’ spatial and chromatic vision,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 29, 59 (1988).
  15. D. Y. Teller, “The forced-choice preferential looking procedure: a psychophysical technique for use with human infants,” Infant Behav. Dev. 2, 135–153 (1979).
    [Crossref]
  16. D. Y. Teller, D. R. Peeples, M. Sekel, “Discrimination of chromatic from white light by two-month-old human infants,” Vision Res. 18, 41–48 (1978).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. The 417- and 540-nm test stimuli were the same as those used by Varner et al.6 The difference in specified wavelength stems from the fact that those authors specified the wavelengths of maximum energy, while we specified ours as described by the formula in the text. The main difference is due to the wide and asymmteric tails of the 540-nm spectral transmittance function.
  18. V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500 nm,” Vision Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. L. M. Hurvich, D. Jameson, “An opponent-process theory of color vision,” Psychol. Rev. 64, 384–404 (1957).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. T. Indow, T. Uchizono, “Multidimensional mapping of Munsell colors varying in hue and chroma,” J. Exp. Psychol. 59, 321–329 (1960).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. J. Gordon, I. Abramov, “Scaling procedures for specifying color appearance,” Color Res. Appl. (to be published).
  22. M. Aguilar, W. S. Stiles, “Saturation of the rod mechanism at high levels of stimulation,” Opt. Acta 1, 59–65 (1954).
    [Crossref]
  23. Other estimates of the true minima, including the simple numerical minimum of each data set, were also tried. They yielded essentially the same results as the least-squares method.
  24. J. L. Dannemiller, M. S. Banks, “The development of light adaptation in human infants,” Vision Res. 23, 599–609 (1983).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. R. M. Hansen, A. B. Fulton, S. J. Harris, “Background adaptation in human infants,” Vision Res. 26, 771–779 (1986).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts, Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1982).
  27. J. S. Werner, “Development of scotopic sensitivity and the absorption spectrum of the human ocular media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 247–258 (1982).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. J. S. Werner, Department of Psychology, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (personal communication, 1988).
  29. J. Gordon, I. Abramov, “Color vision in the peripheral retina. II. Hue and saturation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 202–207 (1977).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. I. Abramov, J. Gordon, “Color vision in the peripheral retina. I. Spectral sensitivity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 195–202 (1977).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  31. M. K. Powers, M. Schneck, D. Y. Teller, “Spectral sensitivity of human infants at absolute visual threshold,” Vision Res. 21, 1005–1016 (1981).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  32. D. R. Peeples, D. Y. Teller, “White-adapted photopic spectral sensitivity in human infants,” Vision Res. 18, 49–53 (1978).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  33. R. G. Boothe, V. Dobson, D. Y. Teller, “Postnatal development of vision in human and nonhuman primates,” Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 8, 495–545 (1985).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  34. These ideas were first developed by A. M. Brown in a paper presented in the symposium, Visual Development and Visual Theory, at the 1986 Annual Meeting of the Optical Society of America: “Development of photoreceptor sensitivity and color vision in early infancy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3(13), P104 (1986).
  35. V. Dobson, “Spectral sensitivity of the 2-month infant as measured by the visually evoked cortical potential,” Vision Res. 16, 367–374 (1976).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  36. A. Moskowitz-Cook, “The development of photopic spectral sensitivity in human infants,” Vision Res. 19, 1133–1142 (1979).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  37. A. Fulton, I. Abramov, J. Allen, J. Gwiazda, L. Hainline, J. O’Neill, P. Raymond, D. Varner, “Optical radiation effects on visual development,” in Optical Radiation and Visual Health, M. Waxier, V. M. Hitchins, eds. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1986), pp. 137–146.

1988 (2)

D. Allen, M. S. Banks, B. Schefrin, “Chromatic discrimination in human infants, a re-examination,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 29, 25 (1988).

M. S. Banks, P. J. Bennett, B. Schefrin, “Inefficient cones limit infants’ spatial and chromatic vision,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 29, 59 (1988).

1987 (1)

A. M. Brown, V. Dobson, J. Maier, “Visual acuity of human infants at scotopic, mesopic, and photopic luminances,” Vision Res. 27, 1845–1858 (1987).
[Crossref]

1986 (4)

R. M. Hansen, A. B. Fulton, S. J. Harris, “Background adaptation in human infants,” Vision Res. 26, 771–779 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

These ideas were first developed by A. M. Brown in a paper presented in the symposium, Visual Development and Visual Theory, at the 1986 Annual Meeting of the Optical Society of America: “Development of photoreceptor sensitivity and color vision in early infancy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3(13), P104 (1986).

C. Yuodelis, A. Hendrickson, “A qualitative and quantitative analysis of the human fovea during development,” Vision Res. 26, 847–855 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. J. Adams, D. Maurer, M. Davis, “Newborns’ discrimination of chromatic from achromatic stimuli,” J. Exp. Child Psychol. 41, 267–281 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1985 (2)

D. Varner, J. E. Cook, M. E. Schneck, M. McDonald, D. Y. Teller, “Tritan discriminations by 1- and 2-month-old human infants,” Vision Res. 25, 821–831 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. G. Boothe, V. Dobson, D. Y. Teller, “Postnatal development of vision in human and nonhuman primates,” Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 8, 495–545 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1984 (1)

O. Packer, E. E. Hartmann, D. Y. Teller, “Infant color vision: the effect of test field size on Rayleigh discriminations,” Vision Res. 24, 1247–1260 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

J. L. Dannemiller, M. S. Banks, “The development of light adaptation in human infants,” Vision Res. 23, 599–609 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1982 (3)

J. S. Werner, “Development of scotopic sensitivity and the absorption spectrum of the human ocular media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 247–258 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. D. Hamer, K. R. Alexander, D. Y. Teller, “Rayleigh discriminations in young human infants,” Vision Res. 22, 575–587 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, A. Hendrickson, L. Hainline, V. Dobson, E. LaBossiere, “The retina of the newborn human infant,” Science 217, 265–267 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1981 (1)

M. K. Powers, M. Schneck, D. Y. Teller, “Spectral sensitivity of human infants at absolute visual threshold,” Vision Res. 21, 1005–1016 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1979 (2)

A. Moskowitz-Cook, “The development of photopic spectral sensitivity in human infants,” Vision Res. 19, 1133–1142 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Y. Teller, “The forced-choice preferential looking procedure: a psychophysical technique for use with human infants,” Infant Behav. Dev. 2, 135–153 (1979).
[Crossref]

1978 (3)

D. Y. Teller, D. R. Peeples, M. Sekel, “Discrimination of chromatic from white light by two-month-old human infants,” Vision Res. 18, 41–48 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Y. Teller, D. R. Peeples, M. Sekel, “Discrimination of chromatic from white light by two-month-old human infants,” Vision Res. 18, 41–48 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. R. Peeples, D. Y. Teller, “White-adapted photopic spectral sensitivity in human infants,” Vision Res. 18, 49–53 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1977 (2)

1976 (2)

V. Dobson, “Spectral sensitivity of the 2-month infant as measured by the visually evoked cortical potential,” Vision Res. 16, 367–374 (1976).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. H. Bornstein, “Infants are trichromats,” J. Exp. Child Psychol. 21, 425–445 (1976).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1975 (3)

M. J. Schaller, “Chromatic vision in human infants: conditioned operant fixation to hues of varying intensity,” Psychon. Soc. Bull. 6, 39–42 (1975).

D. R. Peeples, D. Y. Teller, “Color vision and brightness discrimination in two-month-old human infants,” Science 189, 1102–1103 (1975).
[Crossref]

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500 nm,” Vision Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1960 (1)

T. Indow, T. Uchizono, “Multidimensional mapping of Munsell colors varying in hue and chroma,” J. Exp. Psychol. 59, 321–329 (1960).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1957 (1)

L. M. Hurvich, D. Jameson, “An opponent-process theory of color vision,” Psychol. Rev. 64, 384–404 (1957).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1954 (1)

M. Aguilar, W. S. Stiles, “Saturation of the rod mechanism at high levels of stimulation,” Opt. Acta 1, 59–65 (1954).
[Crossref]

Abramov, I.

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, A. Hendrickson, L. Hainline, V. Dobson, E. LaBossiere, “The retina of the newborn human infant,” Science 217, 265–267 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, “Color vision in the peripheral retina. I. Spectral sensitivity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 195–202 (1977).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Gordon, I. Abramov, “Color vision in the peripheral retina. II. Hue and saturation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 202–207 (1977).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Gordon, I. Abramov, “Scaling procedures for specifying color appearance,” Color Res. Appl. (to be published).

A. Fulton, I. Abramov, J. Allen, J. Gwiazda, L. Hainline, J. O’Neill, P. Raymond, D. Varner, “Optical radiation effects on visual development,” in Optical Radiation and Visual Health, M. Waxier, V. M. Hitchins, eds. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1986), pp. 137–146.

Adams, R. J.

R. J. Adams, D. Maurer, M. Davis, “Newborns’ discrimination of chromatic from achromatic stimuli,” J. Exp. Child Psychol. 41, 267–281 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aguilar, M.

M. Aguilar, W. S. Stiles, “Saturation of the rod mechanism at high levels of stimulation,” Opt. Acta 1, 59–65 (1954).
[Crossref]

Alexander, K. R.

R. D. Hamer, K. R. Alexander, D. Y. Teller, “Rayleigh discriminations in young human infants,” Vision Res. 22, 575–587 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Allen, D.

D. Allen, M. S. Banks, B. Schefrin, “Chromatic discrimination in human infants, a re-examination,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 29, 25 (1988).

Allen, J.

A. Fulton, I. Abramov, J. Allen, J. Gwiazda, L. Hainline, J. O’Neill, P. Raymond, D. Varner, “Optical radiation effects on visual development,” in Optical Radiation and Visual Health, M. Waxier, V. M. Hitchins, eds. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1986), pp. 137–146.

Banks, M. S.

M. S. Banks, P. J. Bennett, B. Schefrin, “Inefficient cones limit infants’ spatial and chromatic vision,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 29, 59 (1988).

D. Allen, M. S. Banks, B. Schefrin, “Chromatic discrimination in human infants, a re-examination,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 29, 25 (1988).

J. L. Dannemiller, M. S. Banks, “The development of light adaptation in human infants,” Vision Res. 23, 599–609 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bennett, P. J.

M. S. Banks, P. J. Bennett, B. Schefrin, “Inefficient cones limit infants’ spatial and chromatic vision,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 29, 59 (1988).

Boothe, R. G.

R. G. Boothe, V. Dobson, D. Y. Teller, “Postnatal development of vision in human and nonhuman primates,” Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 8, 495–545 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bornstein, M. H.

M. H. Bornstein, “Infants are trichromats,” J. Exp. Child Psychol. 21, 425–445 (1976).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reviewed by D. Y. Teller, M. H. Bornstein, “Infant color vision and color perception,” in Handbook of Infant Perception (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1987), Vol. 1, pp. 185–236.

Brown, A. M.

A. M. Brown, V. Dobson, J. Maier, “Visual acuity of human infants at scotopic, mesopic, and photopic luminances,” Vision Res. 27, 1845–1858 (1987).
[Crossref]

These ideas were first developed by A. M. Brown in a paper presented in the symposium, Visual Development and Visual Theory, at the 1986 Annual Meeting of the Optical Society of America: “Development of photoreceptor sensitivity and color vision in early infancy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3(13), P104 (1986).

Cook, J. E.

D. Varner, J. E. Cook, M. E. Schneck, M. McDonald, D. Y. Teller, “Tritan discriminations by 1- and 2-month-old human infants,” Vision Res. 25, 821–831 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dannemiller, J. L.

J. L. Dannemiller, M. S. Banks, “The development of light adaptation in human infants,” Vision Res. 23, 599–609 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Davis, M.

R. J. Adams, D. Maurer, M. Davis, “Newborns’ discrimination of chromatic from achromatic stimuli,” J. Exp. Child Psychol. 41, 267–281 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dobson, V.

A. M. Brown, V. Dobson, J. Maier, “Visual acuity of human infants at scotopic, mesopic, and photopic luminances,” Vision Res. 27, 1845–1858 (1987).
[Crossref]

R. G. Boothe, V. Dobson, D. Y. Teller, “Postnatal development of vision in human and nonhuman primates,” Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 8, 495–545 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, A. Hendrickson, L. Hainline, V. Dobson, E. LaBossiere, “The retina of the newborn human infant,” Science 217, 265–267 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Dobson, “Spectral sensitivity of the 2-month infant as measured by the visually evoked cortical potential,” Vision Res. 16, 367–374 (1976).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fulton, A.

A. Fulton, I. Abramov, J. Allen, J. Gwiazda, L. Hainline, J. O’Neill, P. Raymond, D. Varner, “Optical radiation effects on visual development,” in Optical Radiation and Visual Health, M. Waxier, V. M. Hitchins, eds. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1986), pp. 137–146.

Fulton, A. B.

R. M. Hansen, A. B. Fulton, S. J. Harris, “Background adaptation in human infants,” Vision Res. 26, 771–779 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gordon, J.

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, A. Hendrickson, L. Hainline, V. Dobson, E. LaBossiere, “The retina of the newborn human infant,” Science 217, 265–267 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, “Color vision in the peripheral retina. I. Spectral sensitivity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 195–202 (1977).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Gordon, I. Abramov, “Color vision in the peripheral retina. II. Hue and saturation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 202–207 (1977).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Gordon, I. Abramov, “Scaling procedures for specifying color appearance,” Color Res. Appl. (to be published).

Gwiazda, J.

A. Fulton, I. Abramov, J. Allen, J. Gwiazda, L. Hainline, J. O’Neill, P. Raymond, D. Varner, “Optical radiation effects on visual development,” in Optical Radiation and Visual Health, M. Waxier, V. M. Hitchins, eds. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1986), pp. 137–146.

Hainline, L.

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, A. Hendrickson, L. Hainline, V. Dobson, E. LaBossiere, “The retina of the newborn human infant,” Science 217, 265–267 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Fulton, I. Abramov, J. Allen, J. Gwiazda, L. Hainline, J. O’Neill, P. Raymond, D. Varner, “Optical radiation effects on visual development,” in Optical Radiation and Visual Health, M. Waxier, V. M. Hitchins, eds. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1986), pp. 137–146.

Hamer, R. D.

R. D. Hamer, K. R. Alexander, D. Y. Teller, “Rayleigh discriminations in young human infants,” Vision Res. 22, 575–587 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hansen, R. M.

R. M. Hansen, A. B. Fulton, S. J. Harris, “Background adaptation in human infants,” Vision Res. 26, 771–779 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Harris, S. J.

R. M. Hansen, A. B. Fulton, S. J. Harris, “Background adaptation in human infants,” Vision Res. 26, 771–779 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hartmann, E. E.

O. Packer, E. E. Hartmann, D. Y. Teller, “Infant color vision: the effect of test field size on Rayleigh discriminations,” Vision Res. 24, 1247–1260 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hendrickson, A.

C. Yuodelis, A. Hendrickson, “A qualitative and quantitative analysis of the human fovea during development,” Vision Res. 26, 847–855 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, A. Hendrickson, L. Hainline, V. Dobson, E. LaBossiere, “The retina of the newborn human infant,” Science 217, 265–267 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hurvich, L. M.

L. M. Hurvich, D. Jameson, “An opponent-process theory of color vision,” Psychol. Rev. 64, 384–404 (1957).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Indow, T.

T. Indow, T. Uchizono, “Multidimensional mapping of Munsell colors varying in hue and chroma,” J. Exp. Psychol. 59, 321–329 (1960).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jameson, D.

L. M. Hurvich, D. Jameson, “An opponent-process theory of color vision,” Psychol. Rev. 64, 384–404 (1957).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

LaBossiere, E.

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, A. Hendrickson, L. Hainline, V. Dobson, E. LaBossiere, “The retina of the newborn human infant,” Science 217, 265–267 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maier, J.

A. M. Brown, V. Dobson, J. Maier, “Visual acuity of human infants at scotopic, mesopic, and photopic luminances,” Vision Res. 27, 1845–1858 (1987).
[Crossref]

Maurer, D.

R. J. Adams, D. Maurer, M. Davis, “Newborns’ discrimination of chromatic from achromatic stimuli,” J. Exp. Child Psychol. 41, 267–281 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McDonald, M.

D. Varner, J. E. Cook, M. E. Schneck, M. McDonald, D. Y. Teller, “Tritan discriminations by 1- and 2-month-old human infants,” Vision Res. 25, 821–831 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moskowitz-Cook, A.

A. Moskowitz-Cook, “The development of photopic spectral sensitivity in human infants,” Vision Res. 19, 1133–1142 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O’Neill, J.

A. Fulton, I. Abramov, J. Allen, J. Gwiazda, L. Hainline, J. O’Neill, P. Raymond, D. Varner, “Optical radiation effects on visual development,” in Optical Radiation and Visual Health, M. Waxier, V. M. Hitchins, eds. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1986), pp. 137–146.

Packer, O.

O. Packer, E. E. Hartmann, D. Y. Teller, “Infant color vision: the effect of test field size on Rayleigh discriminations,” Vision Res. 24, 1247–1260 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peeples, D. R.

D. Y. Teller, D. R. Peeples, M. Sekel, “Discrimination of chromatic from white light by two-month-old human infants,” Vision Res. 18, 41–48 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. R. Peeples, D. Y. Teller, “White-adapted photopic spectral sensitivity in human infants,” Vision Res. 18, 49–53 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Y. Teller, D. R. Peeples, M. Sekel, “Discrimination of chromatic from white light by two-month-old human infants,” Vision Res. 18, 41–48 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. R. Peeples, D. Y. Teller, “Color vision and brightness discrimination in two-month-old human infants,” Science 189, 1102–1103 (1975).
[Crossref]

Pokorny, J.

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500 nm,” Vision Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Powers, M. K.

M. K. Powers, M. Schneck, D. Y. Teller, “Spectral sensitivity of human infants at absolute visual threshold,” Vision Res. 21, 1005–1016 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Raymond, P.

A. Fulton, I. Abramov, J. Allen, J. Gwiazda, L. Hainline, J. O’Neill, P. Raymond, D. Varner, “Optical radiation effects on visual development,” in Optical Radiation and Visual Health, M. Waxier, V. M. Hitchins, eds. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1986), pp. 137–146.

Schaller, M. J.

M. J. Schaller, “Chromatic vision in human infants: conditioned operant fixation to hues of varying intensity,” Psychon. Soc. Bull. 6, 39–42 (1975).

Schefrin, B.

D. Allen, M. S. Banks, B. Schefrin, “Chromatic discrimination in human infants, a re-examination,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 29, 25 (1988).

M. S. Banks, P. J. Bennett, B. Schefrin, “Inefficient cones limit infants’ spatial and chromatic vision,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 29, 59 (1988).

Schneck, M.

M. K. Powers, M. Schneck, D. Y. Teller, “Spectral sensitivity of human infants at absolute visual threshold,” Vision Res. 21, 1005–1016 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schneck, M. E.

D. Varner, J. E. Cook, M. E. Schneck, M. McDonald, D. Y. Teller, “Tritan discriminations by 1- and 2-month-old human infants,” Vision Res. 25, 821–831 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sekel, M.

D. Y. Teller, D. R. Peeples, M. Sekel, “Discrimination of chromatic from white light by two-month-old human infants,” Vision Res. 18, 41–48 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Y. Teller, D. R. Peeples, M. Sekel, “Discrimination of chromatic from white light by two-month-old human infants,” Vision Res. 18, 41–48 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smith, V. C.

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500 nm,” Vision Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stiles, W. S.

M. Aguilar, W. S. Stiles, “Saturation of the rod mechanism at high levels of stimulation,” Opt. Acta 1, 59–65 (1954).
[Crossref]

G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts, Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1982).

Teller, D. Y.

D. Varner, J. E. Cook, M. E. Schneck, M. McDonald, D. Y. Teller, “Tritan discriminations by 1- and 2-month-old human infants,” Vision Res. 25, 821–831 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. G. Boothe, V. Dobson, D. Y. Teller, “Postnatal development of vision in human and nonhuman primates,” Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 8, 495–545 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Packer, E. E. Hartmann, D. Y. Teller, “Infant color vision: the effect of test field size on Rayleigh discriminations,” Vision Res. 24, 1247–1260 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. D. Hamer, K. R. Alexander, D. Y. Teller, “Rayleigh discriminations in young human infants,” Vision Res. 22, 575–587 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. K. Powers, M. Schneck, D. Y. Teller, “Spectral sensitivity of human infants at absolute visual threshold,” Vision Res. 21, 1005–1016 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Y. Teller, “The forced-choice preferential looking procedure: a psychophysical technique for use with human infants,” Infant Behav. Dev. 2, 135–153 (1979).
[Crossref]

D. Y. Teller, D. R. Peeples, M. Sekel, “Discrimination of chromatic from white light by two-month-old human infants,” Vision Res. 18, 41–48 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. R. Peeples, D. Y. Teller, “White-adapted photopic spectral sensitivity in human infants,” Vision Res. 18, 49–53 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Y. Teller, D. R. Peeples, M. Sekel, “Discrimination of chromatic from white light by two-month-old human infants,” Vision Res. 18, 41–48 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. R. Peeples, D. Y. Teller, “Color vision and brightness discrimination in two-month-old human infants,” Science 189, 1102–1103 (1975).
[Crossref]

Reviewed by D. Y. Teller, M. H. Bornstein, “Infant color vision and color perception,” in Handbook of Infant Perception (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1987), Vol. 1, pp. 185–236.

Uchizono, T.

T. Indow, T. Uchizono, “Multidimensional mapping of Munsell colors varying in hue and chroma,” J. Exp. Psychol. 59, 321–329 (1960).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Varner, D.

D. Varner, J. E. Cook, M. E. Schneck, M. McDonald, D. Y. Teller, “Tritan discriminations by 1- and 2-month-old human infants,” Vision Res. 25, 821–831 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Fulton, I. Abramov, J. Allen, J. Gwiazda, L. Hainline, J. O’Neill, P. Raymond, D. Varner, “Optical radiation effects on visual development,” in Optical Radiation and Visual Health, M. Waxier, V. M. Hitchins, eds. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1986), pp. 137–146.

Werner, J. S.

J. S. Werner, “Development of scotopic sensitivity and the absorption spectrum of the human ocular media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 247–258 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. S. Werner, Department of Psychology, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (personal communication, 1988).

Wyszecki, G.

G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts, Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1982).

Yuodelis, C.

C. Yuodelis, A. Hendrickson, “A qualitative and quantitative analysis of the human fovea during development,” Vision Res. 26, 847–855 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (1)

R. G. Boothe, V. Dobson, D. Y. Teller, “Postnatal development of vision in human and nonhuman primates,” Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 8, 495–545 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Infant Behav. Dev. (1)

D. Y. Teller, “The forced-choice preferential looking procedure: a psychophysical technique for use with human infants,” Infant Behav. Dev. 2, 135–153 (1979).
[Crossref]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. (2)

M. S. Banks, P. J. Bennett, B. Schefrin, “Inefficient cones limit infants’ spatial and chromatic vision,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 29, 59 (1988).

D. Allen, M. S. Banks, B. Schefrin, “Chromatic discrimination in human infants, a re-examination,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 29, 25 (1988).

J. Exp. Child Psychol. (2)

R. J. Adams, D. Maurer, M. Davis, “Newborns’ discrimination of chromatic from achromatic stimuli,” J. Exp. Child Psychol. 41, 267–281 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. H. Bornstein, “Infants are trichromats,” J. Exp. Child Psychol. 21, 425–445 (1976).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Exp. Psychol. (1)

T. Indow, T. Uchizono, “Multidimensional mapping of Munsell colors varying in hue and chroma,” J. Exp. Psychol. 59, 321–329 (1960).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (3)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

These ideas were first developed by A. M. Brown in a paper presented in the symposium, Visual Development and Visual Theory, at the 1986 Annual Meeting of the Optical Society of America: “Development of photoreceptor sensitivity and color vision in early infancy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3(13), P104 (1986).

Opt. Acta (1)

M. Aguilar, W. S. Stiles, “Saturation of the rod mechanism at high levels of stimulation,” Opt. Acta 1, 59–65 (1954).
[Crossref]

Psychol. Rev. (1)

L. M. Hurvich, D. Jameson, “An opponent-process theory of color vision,” Psychol. Rev. 64, 384–404 (1957).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Psychon. Soc. Bull. (1)

M. J. Schaller, “Chromatic vision in human infants: conditioned operant fixation to hues of varying intensity,” Psychon. Soc. Bull. 6, 39–42 (1975).

Science (2)

D. R. Peeples, D. Y. Teller, “Color vision and brightness discrimination in two-month-old human infants,” Science 189, 1102–1103 (1975).
[Crossref]

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, A. Hendrickson, L. Hainline, V. Dobson, E. LaBossiere, “The retina of the newborn human infant,” Science 217, 265–267 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vision Res. (14)

C. Yuodelis, A. Hendrickson, “A qualitative and quantitative analysis of the human fovea during development,” Vision Res. 26, 847–855 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Brown, V. Dobson, J. Maier, “Visual acuity of human infants at scotopic, mesopic, and photopic luminances,” Vision Res. 27, 1845–1858 (1987).
[Crossref]

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500 nm,” Vision Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Y. Teller, D. R. Peeples, M. Sekel, “Discrimination of chromatic from white light by two-month-old human infants,” Vision Res. 18, 41–48 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Y. Teller, D. R. Peeples, M. Sekel, “Discrimination of chromatic from white light by two-month-old human infants,” Vision Res. 18, 41–48 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. D. Hamer, K. R. Alexander, D. Y. Teller, “Rayleigh discriminations in young human infants,” Vision Res. 22, 575–587 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Packer, E. E. Hartmann, D. Y. Teller, “Infant color vision: the effect of test field size on Rayleigh discriminations,” Vision Res. 24, 1247–1260 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Varner, J. E. Cook, M. E. Schneck, M. McDonald, D. Y. Teller, “Tritan discriminations by 1- and 2-month-old human infants,” Vision Res. 25, 821–831 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. L. Dannemiller, M. S. Banks, “The development of light adaptation in human infants,” Vision Res. 23, 599–609 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Hansen, A. B. Fulton, S. J. Harris, “Background adaptation in human infants,” Vision Res. 26, 771–779 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Dobson, “Spectral sensitivity of the 2-month infant as measured by the visually evoked cortical potential,” Vision Res. 16, 367–374 (1976).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Moskowitz-Cook, “The development of photopic spectral sensitivity in human infants,” Vision Res. 19, 1133–1142 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. K. Powers, M. Schneck, D. Y. Teller, “Spectral sensitivity of human infants at absolute visual threshold,” Vision Res. 21, 1005–1016 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. R. Peeples, D. Y. Teller, “White-adapted photopic spectral sensitivity in human infants,” Vision Res. 18, 49–53 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (7)

A. Fulton, I. Abramov, J. Allen, J. Gwiazda, L. Hainline, J. O’Neill, P. Raymond, D. Varner, “Optical radiation effects on visual development,” in Optical Radiation and Visual Health, M. Waxier, V. M. Hitchins, eds. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1986), pp. 137–146.

G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts, Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1982).

J. S. Werner, Department of Psychology, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (personal communication, 1988).

Other estimates of the true minima, including the simple numerical minimum of each data set, were also tried. They yielded essentially the same results as the least-squares method.

J. Gordon, I. Abramov, “Scaling procedures for specifying color appearance,” Color Res. Appl. (to be published).

Reviewed by D. Y. Teller, M. H. Bornstein, “Infant color vision and color perception,” in Handbook of Infant Perception (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1987), Vol. 1, pp. 185–236.

The 417- and 540-nm test stimuli were the same as those used by Varner et al.6 The difference in specified wavelength stems from the fact that those authors specified the wavelengths of maximum energy, while we specified ours as described by the formula in the text. The main difference is due to the wide and asymmteric tails of the 540-nm spectral transmittance function.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Results of experiment I. Individual discrimination-versus-radiance functions for 3-week-old (left-hand column) and 7-week-old (right-hand column) infants. The abscissa shows the radiance of the test field; the ordinate shows the observer’s percent correct in judging the location of the stimulus in a forced-choice preferential looking paradigm. For each condition, the best (⋄), worst (∇), and typical (▼) data sets are shown. The top row shows results for the 540/547 isochromatic condition. Rows 2, 3, 4, and 5 show results for stimuli of 417, 448, 486, and 645 nm, respectively. The surround field was 547 nm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Unshifted averages for experiment I, showing preliminary (●, ▲) and final (○, Δ) data sets for 3-week-old (left-hand column) and 7-week-old (right-hand column) infants. The radiances at minimum performance are similar for both age groups and for both preliminary and final data.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Shifted averages for the data for 3-week-old (left-hand column) and 7-week-old (right-hand column) infants under the heterochromatic conditions of experiment I. The data have been shifted parallel to the radiance axis before averaging, as described in the text. The solid lines show templates derived from the 540/547 condition (Fig. 2).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Results of experiment II. The test stimulus was 486 nm, and the surround was broadband red. Best, worst, and typical individual discrimination-versus-radiance functions for A, 3-week-old and B, 7-week-old infants. C, Unshifted averages for 3-week-old (○) and 7-week-old (Δ) infants. D, E, Shifted averages for 3-week-old and 7-week-old infants, respectively. Low and high radiance ranges of the test stimulus are shown in the left- and right-hand segments of the top three panels. The shifted averages have been pooled across both radiance ranges. The bold lines in D and E are the templates from the isochromatic condition in experiment I. Other conventions are as in Figs. 1 and 3.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Shifted average heterochromatic discrimination-versus-radiance curves for the infants whose data met both of two criteria: the minimum performance was not significantly above chance and the performance minimum was statistically significant. The solid lines are the templates for the 540/547 condition, and the dotted line is a template (derived from the data) for the 486/547 condition, both from Fig. 2. A, B, Averages of data for the 417/547, 448/547, and 486/547 conditions for 3-week-old and 7-week-old infants, respectively. C, D, Data for the 645/547 condition for 3-week-old and 7-week-old infants, respectively. E, Data for the 486/red condition for 3-week-old infants. All 7-week-old infants succeeded under the 486/red condition.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Infant spectral luminous efficiency curve. Log sensitivities at the performance minima are shown for all infants who showed statistically significant performance minima (cf. Table 3). Symbols: ○, data for 3-week-old infants; Δ, data for 7-week-old infants. The continuous curve is V(λ), the standard adult scotopic spectral luminous efficiency function.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Comparison of infant spectral luminous efficiency with spectral luminous efficiencies of photoreceptors and with various adult spectral luminous efficiency curves. All curves are normalized to the infant data, as described in the text. Filled symbols, with macular pigment; open symbols, without macular pigment. A, Comparison with the four photopigments: LWS cones (●, ○), MWS cones (▲, Δ), SWS cones (▼, ∇), and rods (□). B, Comparison with V(λ), as revised by Judd (▲, Δ), and with foveal heterochromatic brightness matches from Wyzecki and Stiles (●, ○).26 C, Comparison with adult heterochromatic brightness matches made with the present apparatus, with fixation central (♦, ⋄) or at 30° of eccentricity (∇), with data for rods (□) repeated from panel A.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Comparison of averaged infant spectral luminous efficiency data from Fig. 6 to data from Werner.27 The error bars show ±1 standard error of the present data.

Tables (3)

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Table 1 Criteria for Performance Minimaa

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Table 2 Chromatic Discriminationsa

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Table 3 Performance Minimaa

Equations (4)

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L ( λ ) = E ( λ ) S ( λ ) , L = L ( λ ) d λ ,
L ( λ ) = E ( λ ) S ( λ ) [ 1 10 M ( λ ) ] 1
[ E ( λ ) ] [ λ ] d λ E ( λ ) d λ ,
α = [ c n * ( 1 c ) 11 n ] { [ 11 ! ( 11 n ) ! ] / n ! } ,

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