Abstract

Temporal modulation sensitivity was measured as a function of the relative phase of two equiluminous chromatic sources (564 and 625 nm) for temporal frequencies from 6 to 20 Hz. The difference between 180° and the phase of least sensitivity was computed as the measured phase shift. A 2° test field was superimposed upon 8° chromatic adapting fields with luminances from 100 to 3000 Td and chromaticities of 500, 600, and 650 nm. For each adapting field, the 564-nm source was set to 175 Td, and the 625-nm source was matched to it with heterochromatic flicker photometry (giving an effective mean luminance of 350 Td). The 650-nm adapting fields produced large changes in photometric setting but only small changes in the measured phase shift. The 600- and 500-nm adapting fields produced smaller changes in photometric setting but larger changes in the measured phase shift. In general, increased adapting luminance resulted in an increase in the measured phase shift for 600-nm adaptation and a decrease in the measured phase shift for 500-nm adaptation.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. M. Boynton, Human Color Vision (Holt, Rinehart & Winston, New York, 1979), Chap. 9.
  2. D. H. Kelly, D. van Norren, “Two-band model of heterochromatic flicker,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1081–1091 (1977).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. D. Varner, D. Jameson, L. M. Hurvich, “Temporal sensitivities related to color theory,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 1, 474–481 (1984).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. C. F. Stromeyer, G. R. Cole, R. E. Kronauer, “Chromatic suppression of cone inputs to the luminance flicker mechanism,” Vision Res. 27, 1113–1137 (1987).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. A. Eisner, D. I. A. MacLeod, “Flicker photometric study of chromatic adaptation: selective suppression of cone inputs by colored backgrounds,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 705–718 (1981).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. H. deLange, “Research into the dynamic nature of the human fovea-cortex systems with intermittent and modulated light. II. Phase shift in brightness and delay in color perception,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 784–789 (1958).
    [Crossref]
  7. P. L. Walraven, H. J. Leebeek, “Phase shift of alternating coloured stimuli,” Doc. Ophthalmol. 18, 56–71 (1964).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. J. J. Vos, P. L. Walraven, “Phase shift in the perception of sinusoidally modulated light at low luminances,” in Performance of the Eye at Low Luminances: Proceedings of the Colloquium in Delft 1965, M. A. Bouman, J. J. Vos, eds. (Excerpta Medica, New York, 1966).
  9. M. W. von Grunau, “Lateral interactions and rod intrusion in color flicker,” Vision Res. 17, 911–916 (1977).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. W. B. Cushman, J. Z. Levinson, “Phase shift in red and green counterphase flicker at high frequencies,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 73, 1557–1561 (1983).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. B. A. Drum, “Cone interactions at high flicker frequencies: evidence for cone latency differences,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1601–1603 (1977).
    [Crossref]
  12. W. H. Swanson, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “Effects of temporal frequency on phase-dependent sensitivity to heterochromatic flicker,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 2266–2273 (1987).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. W. H. Swanson, T. Ueno, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Temporal modulation sensitivity and pulse-detection thresholds for chromatic and luminance perturbations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 1992–2005 (1987).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. D. T. Lindsey, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “Phase-dependent. sensitivity to heterochromatic flicker,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 921–927 (1986).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. R. W. Nygaard, T. E. Frumkes, “Calibration of the retinal illuminance provided by the Maxwellian view,” Vision Res. 22, 433–434 (1982).
    [Crossref]
  16. Observer JP used 16 Hz for the 1000- to 3000-Td adapting luminances, and observer WS used 26.7 Hz for the 100- and 300-Td adapting luminances.
  17. Y. Yamashita, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “Phase shifts for chromatic appearing flicker,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 28, 213 (1987).
  18. B. A. Drum, “Cone response latency and log sensitivity: proportional changes with light adaptation,” Vision Res. 24, 323–331 (1984).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. In an earlier study with a 600-nm 900-Td field, 12 we found that, as the stimulus frequency changed between 13 and 27 Hz, the phase of least sensitivity changed from the stimulus condition red-leads-green (MWS cone signal leading LWS cone signal) to the stimulus condition green-leads-red (LWS cone signal leading MWS cone signal), similar to the pattern in the current study for 600- and 650-nm adapting conditions. Therefore our data do not contradict earlier studies that focused on only high temporal frequencies.
  20. It has been suggested that, owing to local adaptation within photoreceptor outer segments, univariance may not always hold [J. D. Mollon, “Color vision,” Ann. Rev. Psychol. 33, 75–76 (1982)]. Our results for anomalous trichromats show that this argument cannot account for our data, and our results on dichromats indicate that univariance holds under our experimental conditions, to the precision of our measaurements (measured phase shift within ±4°). We had dichromats make photometric settings for counterphase modulation at 8 Hz with 100% contrast; they reported no percept of flicker once the photometric setting had been made.
    [Crossref]
  21. H. L. De Vries, “The heredity of the relative numbers of red and green receptors in the human eye,” Genetica 24, 199–212 (1948).
    [Crossref]
  22. W. A. H. Rushton, H. D. Baker, “Red/green sensitivity in normal vision,” Vision Res. 4, 75–85 (1964).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. A. Adam, “Foveal red-green ratios of normals, colour-blinds and heterozygotes,” Proc. Tel-Hashomer Hosp. (Tel-Aviv) 8, 2–6 (1969).
  24. Computations show that, if the relative weights of the cone inputs to the luminance response were identical at 6 and 16 Hz, the photometric settings for JP and NW would have been more than 0.1 log unit below the settings of protanopes.
  25. For example, if the cone inputs to the luminance systems are modeled as linear temporal filters, a larger number of stages for the LWS cone would account for our data; then both the change in sensitivity from 6 to 16 Hz and the physiological phase shift could be larger for the LWS cone (if the two cone inputs had the same number of stages, it would not be possible for both of these conditions to hold).

1987 (4)

C. F. Stromeyer, G. R. Cole, R. E. Kronauer, “Chromatic suppression of cone inputs to the luminance flicker mechanism,” Vision Res. 27, 1113–1137 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yamashita, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “Phase shifts for chromatic appearing flicker,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 28, 213 (1987).

W. H. Swanson, T. Ueno, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Temporal modulation sensitivity and pulse-detection thresholds for chromatic and luminance perturbations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 1992–2005 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. H. Swanson, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “Effects of temporal frequency on phase-dependent sensitivity to heterochromatic flicker,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 2266–2273 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

1984 (2)

D. Varner, D. Jameson, L. M. Hurvich, “Temporal sensitivities related to color theory,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 1, 474–481 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. A. Drum, “Cone response latency and log sensitivity: proportional changes with light adaptation,” Vision Res. 24, 323–331 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

1982 (2)

It has been suggested that, owing to local adaptation within photoreceptor outer segments, univariance may not always hold [J. D. Mollon, “Color vision,” Ann. Rev. Psychol. 33, 75–76 (1982)]. Our results for anomalous trichromats show that this argument cannot account for our data, and our results on dichromats indicate that univariance holds under our experimental conditions, to the precision of our measaurements (measured phase shift within ±4°). We had dichromats make photometric settings for counterphase modulation at 8 Hz with 100% contrast; they reported no percept of flicker once the photometric setting had been made.
[Crossref]

R. W. Nygaard, T. E. Frumkes, “Calibration of the retinal illuminance provided by the Maxwellian view,” Vision Res. 22, 433–434 (1982).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

1977 (3)

1969 (1)

A. Adam, “Foveal red-green ratios of normals, colour-blinds and heterozygotes,” Proc. Tel-Hashomer Hosp. (Tel-Aviv) 8, 2–6 (1969).

1964 (2)

W. A. H. Rushton, H. D. Baker, “Red/green sensitivity in normal vision,” Vision Res. 4, 75–85 (1964).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. L. Walraven, H. J. Leebeek, “Phase shift of alternating coloured stimuli,” Doc. Ophthalmol. 18, 56–71 (1964).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1958 (1)

1948 (1)

H. L. De Vries, “The heredity of the relative numbers of red and green receptors in the human eye,” Genetica 24, 199–212 (1948).
[Crossref]

Adam, A.

A. Adam, “Foveal red-green ratios of normals, colour-blinds and heterozygotes,” Proc. Tel-Hashomer Hosp. (Tel-Aviv) 8, 2–6 (1969).

Baker, H. D.

W. A. H. Rushton, H. D. Baker, “Red/green sensitivity in normal vision,” Vision Res. 4, 75–85 (1964).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boynton, R. M.

R. M. Boynton, Human Color Vision (Holt, Rinehart & Winston, New York, 1979), Chap. 9.

Cole, G. R.

C. F. Stromeyer, G. R. Cole, R. E. Kronauer, “Chromatic suppression of cone inputs to the luminance flicker mechanism,” Vision Res. 27, 1113–1137 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cushman, W. B.

De Vries, H. L.

H. L. De Vries, “The heredity of the relative numbers of red and green receptors in the human eye,” Genetica 24, 199–212 (1948).
[Crossref]

deLange, H.

Drum, B. A.

B. A. Drum, “Cone response latency and log sensitivity: proportional changes with light adaptation,” Vision Res. 24, 323–331 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. A. Drum, “Cone interactions at high flicker frequencies: evidence for cone latency differences,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1601–1603 (1977).
[Crossref]

Eisner, A.

Frumkes, T. E.

R. W. Nygaard, T. E. Frumkes, “Calibration of the retinal illuminance provided by the Maxwellian view,” Vision Res. 22, 433–434 (1982).
[Crossref]

Hurvich, L. M.

Jameson, D.

Kelly, D. H.

Kronauer, R. E.

C. F. Stromeyer, G. R. Cole, R. E. Kronauer, “Chromatic suppression of cone inputs to the luminance flicker mechanism,” Vision Res. 27, 1113–1137 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leebeek, H. J.

P. L. Walraven, H. J. Leebeek, “Phase shift of alternating coloured stimuli,” Doc. Ophthalmol. 18, 56–71 (1964).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Levinson, J. Z.

Lindsey, D. T.

MacLeod, D. I. A.

Mollon, J. D.

It has been suggested that, owing to local adaptation within photoreceptor outer segments, univariance may not always hold [J. D. Mollon, “Color vision,” Ann. Rev. Psychol. 33, 75–76 (1982)]. Our results for anomalous trichromats show that this argument cannot account for our data, and our results on dichromats indicate that univariance holds under our experimental conditions, to the precision of our measaurements (measured phase shift within ±4°). We had dichromats make photometric settings for counterphase modulation at 8 Hz with 100% contrast; they reported no percept of flicker once the photometric setting had been made.
[Crossref]

Nygaard, R. W.

R. W. Nygaard, T. E. Frumkes, “Calibration of the retinal illuminance provided by the Maxwellian view,” Vision Res. 22, 433–434 (1982).
[Crossref]

Pokorny, J.

Rushton, W. A. H.

W. A. H. Rushton, H. D. Baker, “Red/green sensitivity in normal vision,” Vision Res. 4, 75–85 (1964).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smith, V. C.

Stromeyer, C. F.

C. F. Stromeyer, G. R. Cole, R. E. Kronauer, “Chromatic suppression of cone inputs to the luminance flicker mechanism,” Vision Res. 27, 1113–1137 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Swanson, W. H.

Ueno, T.

van Norren, D.

Varner, D.

von Grunau, M. W.

M. W. von Grunau, “Lateral interactions and rod intrusion in color flicker,” Vision Res. 17, 911–916 (1977).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vos, J. J.

J. J. Vos, P. L. Walraven, “Phase shift in the perception of sinusoidally modulated light at low luminances,” in Performance of the Eye at Low Luminances: Proceedings of the Colloquium in Delft 1965, M. A. Bouman, J. J. Vos, eds. (Excerpta Medica, New York, 1966).

Walraven, P. L.

P. L. Walraven, H. J. Leebeek, “Phase shift of alternating coloured stimuli,” Doc. Ophthalmol. 18, 56–71 (1964).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. J. Vos, P. L. Walraven, “Phase shift in the perception of sinusoidally modulated light at low luminances,” in Performance of the Eye at Low Luminances: Proceedings of the Colloquium in Delft 1965, M. A. Bouman, J. J. Vos, eds. (Excerpta Medica, New York, 1966).

Yamashita, Y.

Y. Yamashita, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “Phase shifts for chromatic appearing flicker,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 28, 213 (1987).

Ann. Rev. Psychol. (1)

It has been suggested that, owing to local adaptation within photoreceptor outer segments, univariance may not always hold [J. D. Mollon, “Color vision,” Ann. Rev. Psychol. 33, 75–76 (1982)]. Our results for anomalous trichromats show that this argument cannot account for our data, and our results on dichromats indicate that univariance holds under our experimental conditions, to the precision of our measaurements (measured phase shift within ±4°). We had dichromats make photometric settings for counterphase modulation at 8 Hz with 100% contrast; they reported no percept of flicker once the photometric setting had been made.
[Crossref]

Doc. Ophthalmol. (1)

P. L. Walraven, H. J. Leebeek, “Phase shift of alternating coloured stimuli,” Doc. Ophthalmol. 18, 56–71 (1964).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Genetica (1)

H. L. De Vries, “The heredity of the relative numbers of red and green receptors in the human eye,” Genetica 24, 199–212 (1948).
[Crossref]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. (1)

Y. Yamashita, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “Phase shifts for chromatic appearing flicker,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 28, 213 (1987).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (5)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (4)

Proc. Tel-Hashomer Hosp. (Tel-Aviv) (1)

A. Adam, “Foveal red-green ratios of normals, colour-blinds and heterozygotes,” Proc. Tel-Hashomer Hosp. (Tel-Aviv) 8, 2–6 (1969).

Vision Res. (5)

R. W. Nygaard, T. E. Frumkes, “Calibration of the retinal illuminance provided by the Maxwellian view,” Vision Res. 22, 433–434 (1982).
[Crossref]

B. A. Drum, “Cone response latency and log sensitivity: proportional changes with light adaptation,” Vision Res. 24, 323–331 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. A. H. Rushton, H. D. Baker, “Red/green sensitivity in normal vision,” Vision Res. 4, 75–85 (1964).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. F. Stromeyer, G. R. Cole, R. E. Kronauer, “Chromatic suppression of cone inputs to the luminance flicker mechanism,” Vision Res. 27, 1113–1137 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. W. von Grunau, “Lateral interactions and rod intrusion in color flicker,” Vision Res. 17, 911–916 (1977).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (6)

R. M. Boynton, Human Color Vision (Holt, Rinehart & Winston, New York, 1979), Chap. 9.

J. J. Vos, P. L. Walraven, “Phase shift in the perception of sinusoidally modulated light at low luminances,” in Performance of the Eye at Low Luminances: Proceedings of the Colloquium in Delft 1965, M. A. Bouman, J. J. Vos, eds. (Excerpta Medica, New York, 1966).

In an earlier study with a 600-nm 900-Td field, 12 we found that, as the stimulus frequency changed between 13 and 27 Hz, the phase of least sensitivity changed from the stimulus condition red-leads-green (MWS cone signal leading LWS cone signal) to the stimulus condition green-leads-red (LWS cone signal leading MWS cone signal), similar to the pattern in the current study for 600- and 650-nm adapting conditions. Therefore our data do not contradict earlier studies that focused on only high temporal frequencies.

Observer JP used 16 Hz for the 1000- to 3000-Td adapting luminances, and observer WS used 26.7 Hz for the 100- and 300-Td adapting luminances.

Computations show that, if the relative weights of the cone inputs to the luminance response were identical at 6 and 16 Hz, the photometric settings for JP and NW would have been more than 0.1 log unit below the settings of protanopes.

For example, if the cone inputs to the luminance systems are modeled as linear temporal filters, a larger number of stages for the LWS cone would account for our data; then both the change in sensitivity from 6 to 16 Hz and the physiological phase shift could be larger for the LWS cone (if the two cone inputs had the same number of stages, it would not be possible for both of these conditions to hold).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Photometric settings: normalized ratios for radiances of 625- and 564-nm LED’s as a function of adapting luminance in trolands. The Judd observer without adaptation would have a log HFP of zero. Dashed lines show the range of settings made by protanopes (P) and deuteranopes (D). Each panel shows a different chromaticity: (a) 650 nm, (b) 600 nm, and (c) 500 nm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Axis of best symmetry for phase-dependent sensitivity data, as a function of temporal frequency. Each column shows a different observer. Each row shows a different adapting chromaticity: 650 nm (top), 600 nm (middle), and 500 nm (bottom).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Log sensitivity of the luminance and chromatic responses as a function of temporal frequency, derived by fitting the phase-dependent sensitivity data with the model of Lindsey et al.14 Sensitivities for the luminance response are shown as filled symbols, and sensitivities for the chromatic response are shown as open symbols. Sensitivities for the three observers are shown as squares (JP), circles (NW), and triangles (WS). The left-hand column shows 100-Td adapting fields, and the right column shows 3000-Td adapting fields. Each row shows a different adapting chromaticity: 650 nm (top), 600 nm (middle), and 500 nm (bottom).

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