Abstract

In a generalized form, the cortical magnification theory of peripheral vision predicts that the thresholds of any visual stimuli are similar across the whole visual field if the cortical stimulus representations calculated by means of the cortical magnification factor are similar independently of eccentricity. Failures of the theory in spatial vision were analyzed, and the theory was tested with five visual acuity tasks and two hyperacuity tasks. Almost all increases in thresholds with eccentricity were explained by the theory in five of these tasks, which included the two-dot vernier hyperacuity test, the measurement of visual acuities with gratings, the Snellen E test, and two acuity tests that required either separation between dots or discrimination between two mirror-symmetric forms. The two-dot vernier thresholds could be explained as a special case of orientation discrimination, and orientation discrimination at different eccentricities was in agreement with the cortical magnification theory. The increase of thresholds in peripheral vision was larger than predicted by the theory in the Landolt visual acuity and bisection hyperacuity tests, possibly because of retinal undersampling.

© 1987 Optical Society of America

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1986 (5)

D. M. Levi and S. A. Klein, "Sampling in spatial vision," Nature 320, 360–362 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. T. Fox, M. A. Mintun, M. E. Raichle, F. M. Miezin, J. M. Allman, and D. C. Van Essen, "Mapping human visual cortex with positron emission tomography," Nature 323, 806–809 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Vandebussche, R. Vogels, and G. A. Orban, "Human orientation discrimination: changes with eccentricity in normal and amblyopic vision," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 27, 237–245 (1986).

N. W. Swindale and M. S. Cynader, "Vernier acuity of neurones in cat visual cortex," Nature 319, 591–593 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Shapley and J. Victor, "Hyperacuity in cat retinal ganglion cells," Science 231, 999–1002 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (13)

A. Parker and M. Hawken, "Capabilities of monkey cortical cells in spatial resolution tasks," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2, 1101–1114 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. H. Perry and A. Cowey, The ganglion cell and cone distributions in the monkey's retina: implications for central magnification factors," Vision Res. 25, 1795–1810 (1985).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Levi and S. A. Klein, "Vernier acuity, crowding and amblyopia," Vision Res. 25, 979–991 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Westheimer, "The oscilloscopic view: retinal illuminance and contrast of point and line targets," Vision Res. 25, 1097–1103 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Rentschler and B. Treutwein, "Loss of spatial phase relationships in extrafoveal vision," Nature 313, 308–310 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. Levi, S. A. Klein, and A. P. Aitsebaomo, "Vernier acuity, crowding and cortical magnification," Vision Res. 25, 963–977 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Calvert and J. P. Harris, "Cortical magnification and tilt after-effect," J. Physiol. (London) 364, 36 (1985).

H. C. Nothdurft, "Orientation sensitivity and texture segmentation in patterns with different line orientation," Vision Res. 25, 551–560 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. Swanson and H. R. Wilson, "Eccentricity dependence of contrast matching and oblique masking," Vision Res. 25, 1285–1295 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Johnston and M. J. Wright, "Lower thresholds of motion for gratings as a function of eccentricity and contrast," Vision Res. 25, 179–185 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Wright and A. Johnston, "The relationship of displacement thresholds for oscillating gratings to cortical magnification, spatiotemporal frequency and contrast," Vision Res. 25, 187–193 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Baker and O. J. Braddick, "Eccentricity-dependent scaling of the limits for short-range apparent motion perception," Vision Res. 25, 803–812 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Wright and A. Johnston, "Invariant tuning of motion aftereffect," Vision Res. 25, 1947–1955 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984 (9)

J. A. van Esch, E. E. Koldenhof, A. J. van Doom, and J. J. Koenderink, "Spectral sensitivity and wavelength discrimination of the human peripheral visual field," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 1, 443–450 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. H. Kelly, "Retinal inhomogeneity. I. Spatiotemporal contrast sensitivity," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 1, 107–113 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. T. Jamar, L. F. T. Kwakman, and J. J. Koenderink, "The sensitivity of the peripheral visual system to amplitude-modulation and frequency-modulation of sine-wave patterns," Vision Res. 24, 243–249 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Rovamo and A. Raninen, "Critical flicker frequency and M-scaling of stimulus size and retinal illuminance," Vision Res. 24, 1127–1131 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. P. McKee and K. Nakayama, "The detection of motion in the peripheral visual field," Vision Res. 24, 25–32 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Van Essen, W. T. Newsome, and J. H. R. Maunsell, "The visual field representation in striate cortex of the macaque monkey: asymmetries, anisotropics, and individual variability," Vision Res. 24, 429–448 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Watt, "Towards a general theory of the visual acuities for shape and spatial arrangement," Vision Res. 24, 1377–1386 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Spinelli, A. Bazzeo, and G. B. Vicario, "Orientation sensitivity in the peripheral visual field," Perception 13, 41–47 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Horton and E. T. Hedley-Whyte, "Mapping of cytochrome oxidase patches and ocular dominance columns in human visual cortex," Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. Ser. B 304, 255–272 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (9)

V. Virsu and B. B. Lee, "Light adaptation in cells of macaque lateral geniculate nucleus and its relation to human light adaptation," J. Neurophysiol. 50, 864–878 (1983).
[PubMed]

D. R. Hampton and A. E. Kertesz, "The extent of Panum's area and the human cortical magnification factor," Perception 12, 161–165 (1983).
[CrossRef]

M. Fendick and G. Westheimer, "Effects of practice and the separation of test targets on foveal and peripheral stereoacuity," Vision Res. 23, 145–150 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Hampton and A. E. Kertesz, "Fusional response to local peripheral stimulation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 73, 7–10 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Stephenson and 0. Braddick, "Discrimination of relative spatial phase in fovea and periphery," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 24, 146 (1983).

G. Westheimer, "Temporal order detection for foveal and peripheral visual stimuli," Vision Res. 23, 759–763 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Rovamo, "Cortical magnification factor and contrast sensitivity to luminance-modulated chromatic gratings," Acta Physiol. Scand. 119, 365–371 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Noorlander, J. J. Koenderink, R. J. den Ouden, and B. W. Edens, "Sensitivity to spatiotemporal colour contrast in the peripheral visual field," Vision Res. 23, 1–11 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. A. van de Grind, A. J. van Doorn, and J. J. Koenderink, "Detection of coherent movement in peripherally viewed random-dot patterns," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 73, 1674–1683 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982 (6)

G. G. Celesia and J. T. Meredith, "Visual evoked responses and retinal eccentricity," Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 388, 648–650 (1982).
[CrossRef]

V. Virsu, J. Rovamo, P. Laurinen, and R. Nasanen, "Temporal contrast sensitivity and cortical magnification," Vision Res. 22, 1211–1217 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. W. Snyder, "Hyperacuity and interpolation by the visual pathways," Vision Res. 22, 1219–1220 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. P. Scobey, "Human visual orientation discrimination," J. Neurophysiol. 48, 18–26 (1982).
[PubMed]

J. O'Kusky and M. Colonnier, "Postnatal changes in the number of neurons and synapses in the visual cortex (area 17) of the macaque monkey: a stereological analysis in normal and monocularly deprived animals," J. Comp. Neurol. 210, 291–306 (1982).
[CrossRef]

G. Westheimer, "The spatial grain of the perifoveal visual field," Vision Res. 22, 157–162 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981 (6)

B. B. Lee, A. Elepfandt, and V. Virsu, "Phase of responses to moving sinusoidal gratings in cells of cat retina and lateral geniculate nucleus," J. Neurophysiol. 45, 807–817 (1981).
[PubMed]

B. B. Lee, A. Elepfandt, and V. Virsu, "Phase of responses to sinusoidal gratings of simple cells in cat striate cortex," J. Neurophysiol. 45, 818–828 (1981).

V. Virsu, P. Lehtiö, and J. Rovamo, "Contrast sensitivity in normal and pathological vision," Doc. Ophthalmol. Proc. Ser. 30, 263–272 (1981).

B. M. Dow, A. Z. Snyder, R. G. Vautin, and R. Bauer, "Magnification factor and receptive field size in foveal striate cortex of the monkey," Exp. Brain Res. 44, 213–228 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. H. Foster, "Changes in field spectral sensitivities of red-, green-, and blue-sensitive colour mechanisms obtained on small background fields," Vision Res. 21, 1433–1455 (1981).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Foster, J. Thorson, J. T. Mcllwain, and M. Biederman Thorson, "The fine-grain movement illusion: a perceptual probe of neuronal connectivity in the human visual system," Vision Res. 21, 1123–1128 (1981),
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1979 (3)

J. Rovamo and V. Virsu, "An estimation and application of the human cortical magnification factor," Exp. Brain Res. 37, 495–510 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Virsu and J. Rovamo, "Visual resolution, contrast sensitivity, and the cortical magnification factor," Exp. Brain Res. 37, 475–494 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Westheimer, "The spatial sense of the eye," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 18, 893–912 (1979).
[PubMed]

1978 (2)

1977 (1)

N. Drasdo, "The neural representation of visual space," Nature 266, 554–556 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1975 (1)

F. M. De Monasterio and P. Gouras, "Functional properties of ganglion cells of the rhesus monkey retina," J. Physiol. (London) 251, 167–195 (1975).

1974 (2)

D. H. Hubel and T. N. Wiesel, "Uniformity of monkey striate cortex: parallel relationship between field size, scatter, and magnification factor," J. Comp. Neurol. 158, 295–305 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Cowey and E. T. Rolls, "Human cortical magnification factor and its relation to visual acuity," Exp. Brain Res. 21, 447–454 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1968 (1)

J. Pokorny, "The effect of target area on grating acuity," Vision Res. 8, 543–554 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1967 (1)

D. P. Andrews, "Perception of contour orientation in the central fovea. Part II. Spatial integration," Vision Res. 7, 999–1013 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1965 (1)

G. B. Wetherill and H. Levitt, "Sequential estimation of points on a psychometric function," Br. J. Math. Stat. Psychol. 18, 1–10 (1965).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1958 (1)

F. W. Weymouth, "Visual sensory units and the minimal angle of resolution," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 46, 102–113 (1958).
[PubMed]

de Mesquita, A. E. Bueno

De Monasterio, F. M.

F. M. De Monasterio and P. Gouras, "Functional properties of ganglion cells of the rhesus monkey retina," J. Physiol. (London) 251, 167–195 (1975).

van de Grind, W. A.

van Doom, A. J.

van Doorn, A. J.

van Esch, J. A.

Van Essen, D. C.

P. T. Fox, M. A. Mintun, M. E. Raichle, F. M. Miezin, J. M. Allman, and D. C. Van Essen, "Mapping human visual cortex with positron emission tomography," Nature 323, 806–809 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Van Essen, W. T. Newsome, and J. H. R. Maunsell, "The visual field representation in striate cortex of the macaque monkey: asymmetries, anisotropics, and individual variability," Vision Res. 24, 429–448 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aitsebaomo, A. P.

D. M. Levi, S. A. Klein, and A. P. Aitsebaomo, "Vernier acuity, crowding and cortical magnification," Vision Res. 25, 963–977 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Allman, J. M.

P. T. Fox, M. A. Mintun, M. E. Raichle, F. M. Miezin, J. M. Allman, and D. C. Van Essen, "Mapping human visual cortex with positron emission tomography," Nature 323, 806–809 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andrews, D. P.

D. P. Andrews, "Perception of contour orientation in the central fovea. Part II. Spatial integration," Vision Res. 7, 999–1013 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baker, C. L.

C. L. Baker and O. J. Braddick, "Eccentricity-dependent scaling of the limits for short-range apparent motion perception," Vision Res. 25, 803–812 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bauer, R.

B. M. Dow, A. Z. Snyder, R. G. Vautin, and R. Bauer, "Magnification factor and receptive field size in foveal striate cortex of the monkey," Exp. Brain Res. 44, 213–228 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bazzeo, A.

D. Spinelli, A. Bazzeo, and G. B. Vicario, "Orientation sensitivity in the peripheral visual field," Perception 13, 41–47 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouman, M. A.

Braddick, 0.

C. Stephenson and 0. Braddick, "Discrimination of relative spatial phase in fovea and periphery," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 24, 146 (1983).

Braddick, O. J.

C. L. Baker and O. J. Braddick, "Eccentricity-dependent scaling of the limits for short-range apparent motion perception," Vision Res. 25, 803–812 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Calvert, J. E.

J. E. Calvert and J. P. Harris, "Cortical magnification and tilt after-effect," J. Physiol. (London) 364, 36 (1985).

Celesia, G. G.

G. G. Celesia and J. T. Meredith, "Visual evoked responses and retinal eccentricity," Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 388, 648–650 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Colonnier, M.

J. O'Kusky and M. Colonnier, "Postnatal changes in the number of neurons and synapses in the visual cortex (area 17) of the macaque monkey: a stereological analysis in normal and monocularly deprived animals," J. Comp. Neurol. 210, 291–306 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Cowey, A.

V. H. Perry and A. Cowey, The ganglion cell and cone distributions in the monkey's retina: implications for central magnification factors," Vision Res. 25, 1795–1810 (1985).
[CrossRef]

A. Cowey and E. T. Rolls, "Human cortical magnification factor and its relation to visual acuity," Exp. Brain Res. 21, 447–454 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cynader, M. S.

N. W. Swindale and M. S. Cynader, "Vernier acuity of neurones in cat visual cortex," Nature 319, 591–593 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dow, B. M.

B. M. Dow, A. Z. Snyder, R. G. Vautin, and R. Bauer, "Magnification factor and receptive field size in foveal striate cortex of the monkey," Exp. Brain Res. 44, 213–228 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drasdo, N.

N. Drasdo, "The neural representation of visual space," Nature 266, 554–556 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Edens, B. W.

C. Noorlander, J. J. Koenderink, R. J. den Ouden, and B. W. Edens, "Sensitivity to spatiotemporal colour contrast in the peripheral visual field," Vision Res. 23, 1–11 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elepfandt, A.

B. B. Lee, A. Elepfandt, and V. Virsu, "Phase of responses to moving sinusoidal gratings in cells of cat retina and lateral geniculate nucleus," J. Neurophysiol. 45, 807–817 (1981).
[PubMed]

B. B. Lee, A. Elepfandt, and V. Virsu, "Phase of responses to sinusoidal gratings of simple cells in cat striate cortex," J. Neurophysiol. 45, 818–828 (1981).

Fendick, M.

M. Fendick and G. Westheimer, "Effects of practice and the separation of test targets on foveal and peripheral stereoacuity," Vision Res. 23, 145–150 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Foster, D. H.

D. H. Foster, J. Thorson, J. T. Mcllwain, and M. Biederman Thorson, "The fine-grain movement illusion: a perceptual probe of neuronal connectivity in the human visual system," Vision Res. 21, 1123–1128 (1981),
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. H. Foster, "Changes in field spectral sensitivities of red-, green-, and blue-sensitive colour mechanisms obtained on small background fields," Vision Res. 21, 1433–1455 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Fox, P. T.

P. T. Fox, M. A. Mintun, M. E. Raichle, F. M. Miezin, J. M. Allman, and D. C. Van Essen, "Mapping human visual cortex with positron emission tomography," Nature 323, 806–809 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gouras, P.

F. M. De Monasterio and P. Gouras, "Functional properties of ganglion cells of the rhesus monkey retina," J. Physiol. (London) 251, 167–195 (1975).

Hampton, D. R.

D. R. Hampton and A. E. Kertesz, "The extent of Panum's area and the human cortical magnification factor," Perception 12, 161–165 (1983).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Hampton and A. E. Kertesz, "Fusional response to local peripheral stimulation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 73, 7–10 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harris, J. P.

J. E. Calvert and J. P. Harris, "Cortical magnification and tilt after-effect," J. Physiol. (London) 364, 36 (1985).

Hawken, M.

Hedley-Whyte, E. T.

J. C. Horton and E. T. Hedley-Whyte, "Mapping of cytochrome oxidase patches and ocular dominance columns in human visual cortex," Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. Ser. B 304, 255–272 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Horton, J. C.

J. C. Horton and E. T. Hedley-Whyte, "Mapping of cytochrome oxidase patches and ocular dominance columns in human visual cortex," Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. Ser. B 304, 255–272 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Hubel, D. H.

D. H. Hubel and T. N. Wiesel, "Uniformity of monkey striate cortex: parallel relationship between field size, scatter, and magnification factor," J. Comp. Neurol. 158, 295–305 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jamar, J. H. T.

J. H. T. Jamar, L. F. T. Kwakman, and J. J. Koenderink, "The sensitivity of the peripheral visual system to amplitude-modulation and frequency-modulation of sine-wave patterns," Vision Res. 24, 243–249 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnston, A.

M. J. Wright and A. Johnston, "The relationship of displacement thresholds for oscillating gratings to cortical magnification, spatiotemporal frequency and contrast," Vision Res. 25, 187–193 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Wright and A. Johnston, "Invariant tuning of motion aftereffect," Vision Res. 25, 1947–1955 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Johnston and M. J. Wright, "Lower thresholds of motion for gratings as a function of eccentricity and contrast," Vision Res. 25, 179–185 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kelly, D. H.

Kertesz, A. E.

D. R. Hampton and A. E. Kertesz, "Fusional response to local peripheral stimulation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 73, 7–10 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Hampton and A. E. Kertesz, "The extent of Panum's area and the human cortical magnification factor," Perception 12, 161–165 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Klein, S. A.

D. M. Levi and S. A. Klein, "Sampling in spatial vision," Nature 320, 360–362 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. Levi, S. A. Klein, and A. P. Aitsebaomo, "Vernier acuity, crowding and cortical magnification," Vision Res. 25, 963–977 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. Levi and S. A. Klein, "Vernier acuity, crowding and amblyopia," Vision Res. 25, 979–991 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koenderink, J. J.

Koldenhof, E. E.

Kwakman, L. F. T.

J. H. T. Jamar, L. F. T. Kwakman, and J. J. Koenderink, "The sensitivity of the peripheral visual system to amplitude-modulation and frequency-modulation of sine-wave patterns," Vision Res. 24, 243–249 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laurinen, P.

V. Virsu, J. Rovamo, P. Laurinen, and R. Nasanen, "Temporal contrast sensitivity and cortical magnification," Vision Res. 22, 1211–1217 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, B. B.

V. Virsu and B. B. Lee, "Light adaptation in cells of macaque lateral geniculate nucleus and its relation to human light adaptation," J. Neurophysiol. 50, 864–878 (1983).
[PubMed]

B. B. Lee, A. Elepfandt, and V. Virsu, "Phase of responses to moving sinusoidal gratings in cells of cat retina and lateral geniculate nucleus," J. Neurophysiol. 45, 807–817 (1981).
[PubMed]

B. B. Lee, A. Elepfandt, and V. Virsu, "Phase of responses to sinusoidal gratings of simple cells in cat striate cortex," J. Neurophysiol. 45, 818–828 (1981).

Lehtiö, P.

V. Virsu, P. Lehtiö, and J. Rovamo, "Contrast sensitivity in normal and pathological vision," Doc. Ophthalmol. Proc. Ser. 30, 263–272 (1981).

Levi, D. M.

D. M. Levi and S. A. Klein, "Sampling in spatial vision," Nature 320, 360–362 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. Levi, S. A. Klein, and A. P. Aitsebaomo, "Vernier acuity, crowding and cortical magnification," Vision Res. 25, 963–977 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. Levi and S. A. Klein, "Vernier acuity, crowding and amblyopia," Vision Res. 25, 979–991 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levitt, H.

G. B. Wetherill and H. Levitt, "Sequential estimation of points on a psychometric function," Br. J. Math. Stat. Psychol. 18, 1–10 (1965).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maunsell, J. H. R.

D. C. Van Essen, W. T. Newsome, and J. H. R. Maunsell, "The visual field representation in striate cortex of the macaque monkey: asymmetries, anisotropics, and individual variability," Vision Res. 24, 429–448 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McKee, S. P.

S. P. McKee and K. Nakayama, "The detection of motion in the peripheral visual field," Vision Res. 24, 25–32 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mcllwain, J. T.

D. H. Foster, J. Thorson, J. T. Mcllwain, and M. Biederman Thorson, "The fine-grain movement illusion: a perceptual probe of neuronal connectivity in the human visual system," Vision Res. 21, 1123–1128 (1981),
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meredith, J. T.

G. G. Celesia and J. T. Meredith, "Visual evoked responses and retinal eccentricity," Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 388, 648–650 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Miezin, F. M.

P. T. Fox, M. A. Mintun, M. E. Raichle, F. M. Miezin, J. M. Allman, and D. C. Van Essen, "Mapping human visual cortex with positron emission tomography," Nature 323, 806–809 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mintun, M. A.

P. T. Fox, M. A. Mintun, M. E. Raichle, F. M. Miezin, J. M. Allman, and D. C. Van Essen, "Mapping human visual cortex with positron emission tomography," Nature 323, 806–809 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nakayama, K.

S. P. McKee and K. Nakayama, "The detection of motion in the peripheral visual field," Vision Res. 24, 25–32 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Näsänen, R.

V. Virsu, J. Rovamo, P. Laurinen, and R. Nasanen, "Temporal contrast sensitivity and cortical magnification," Vision Res. 22, 1211–1217 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Rovamo, V. Virsu, and R. Näsänen, "Cortical magnification factor predicts the photopic contrast sensitivity of peripheral vision," Nature 271, 54–56 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Newsome, W. T.

D. C. Van Essen, W. T. Newsome, and J. H. R. Maunsell, "The visual field representation in striate cortex of the macaque monkey: asymmetries, anisotropics, and individual variability," Vision Res. 24, 429–448 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Noorlander, C.

C. Noorlander, J. J. Koenderink, R. J. den Ouden, and B. W. Edens, "Sensitivity to spatiotemporal colour contrast in the peripheral visual field," Vision Res. 23, 1–11 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nothdurft, H. C.

H. C. Nothdurft, "Orientation sensitivity and texture segmentation in patterns with different line orientation," Vision Res. 25, 551–560 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O’Kusky, J.

J. O'Kusky and M. Colonnier, "Postnatal changes in the number of neurons and synapses in the visual cortex (area 17) of the macaque monkey: a stereological analysis in normal and monocularly deprived animals," J. Comp. Neurol. 210, 291–306 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Orban, G. A.

E. Vandebussche, R. Vogels, and G. A. Orban, "Human orientation discrimination: changes with eccentricity in normal and amblyopic vision," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 27, 237–245 (1986).

Ouden, R. J. den

C. Noorlander, J. J. Koenderink, R. J. den Ouden, and B. W. Edens, "Sensitivity to spatiotemporal colour contrast in the peripheral visual field," Vision Res. 23, 1–11 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parker, A.

Perry, V. H.

V. H. Perry and A. Cowey, The ganglion cell and cone distributions in the monkey's retina: implications for central magnification factors," Vision Res. 25, 1795–1810 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Pokorny, J.

J. Pokorny, "The effect of target area on grating acuity," Vision Res. 8, 543–554 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raichle, M. E.

P. T. Fox, M. A. Mintun, M. E. Raichle, F. M. Miezin, J. M. Allman, and D. C. Van Essen, "Mapping human visual cortex with positron emission tomography," Nature 323, 806–809 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raninen, A.

J. Rovamo and A. Raninen, "Critical flicker frequency and M-scaling of stimulus size and retinal illuminance," Vision Res. 24, 1127–1131 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rentschler, I.

I. Rentschler and B. Treutwein, "Loss of spatial phase relationships in extrafoveal vision," Nature 313, 308–310 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rolls, E. T.

A. Cowey and E. T. Rolls, "Human cortical magnification factor and its relation to visual acuity," Exp. Brain Res. 21, 447–454 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rovamo, J.

J. Rovamo and A. Raninen, "Critical flicker frequency and M-scaling of stimulus size and retinal illuminance," Vision Res. 24, 1127–1131 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Rovamo, "Cortical magnification factor and contrast sensitivity to luminance-modulated chromatic gratings," Acta Physiol. Scand. 119, 365–371 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Virsu, J. Rovamo, P. Laurinen, and R. Nasanen, "Temporal contrast sensitivity and cortical magnification," Vision Res. 22, 1211–1217 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Virsu, P. Lehtiö, and J. Rovamo, "Contrast sensitivity in normal and pathological vision," Doc. Ophthalmol. Proc. Ser. 30, 263–272 (1981).

J. Rovamo and V. Virsu, "An estimation and application of the human cortical magnification factor," Exp. Brain Res. 37, 495–510 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Virsu and J. Rovamo, "Visual resolution, contrast sensitivity, and the cortical magnification factor," Exp. Brain Res. 37, 475–494 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Rovamo, V. Virsu, and R. Näsänen, "Cortical magnification factor predicts the photopic contrast sensitivity of peripheral vision," Nature 271, 54–56 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scobey, R. P.

R. P. Scobey, "Human visual orientation discrimination," J. Neurophysiol. 48, 18–26 (1982).
[PubMed]

Shapley, R.

R. Shapley and J. Victor, "Hyperacuity in cat retinal ganglion cells," Science 231, 999–1002 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Slappendel, S.

Snyder, A. W.

A. W. Snyder, "Hyperacuity and interpolation by the visual pathways," Vision Res. 22, 1219–1220 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Snyder, A. Z.

B. M. Dow, A. Z. Snyder, R. G. Vautin, and R. Bauer, "Magnification factor and receptive field size in foveal striate cortex of the monkey," Exp. Brain Res. 44, 213–228 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spinelli, D.

D. Spinelli, A. Bazzeo, and G. B. Vicario, "Orientation sensitivity in the peripheral visual field," Perception 13, 41–47 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stephenson, C.

C. Stephenson and 0. Braddick, "Discrimination of relative spatial phase in fovea and periphery," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 24, 146 (1983).

Swanson, W. H.

W. H. Swanson and H. R. Wilson, "Eccentricity dependence of contrast matching and oblique masking," Vision Res. 25, 1285–1295 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swindale, N. W.

N. W. Swindale and M. S. Cynader, "Vernier acuity of neurones in cat visual cortex," Nature 319, 591–593 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thorson, J.

D. H. Foster, J. Thorson, J. T. Mcllwain, and M. Biederman Thorson, "The fine-grain movement illusion: a perceptual probe of neuronal connectivity in the human visual system," Vision Res. 21, 1123–1128 (1981),
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thorson, M. Biederman

D. H. Foster, J. Thorson, J. T. Mcllwain, and M. Biederman Thorson, "The fine-grain movement illusion: a perceptual probe of neuronal connectivity in the human visual system," Vision Res. 21, 1123–1128 (1981),
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Treutwein, B.

I. Rentschler and B. Treutwein, "Loss of spatial phase relationships in extrafoveal vision," Nature 313, 308–310 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vandebussche, E.

E. Vandebussche, R. Vogels, and G. A. Orban, "Human orientation discrimination: changes with eccentricity in normal and amblyopic vision," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 27, 237–245 (1986).

Vautin, R. G.

B. M. Dow, A. Z. Snyder, R. G. Vautin, and R. Bauer, "Magnification factor and receptive field size in foveal striate cortex of the monkey," Exp. Brain Res. 44, 213–228 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vicario, G. B.

D. Spinelli, A. Bazzeo, and G. B. Vicario, "Orientation sensitivity in the peripheral visual field," Perception 13, 41–47 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Victor, J.

R. Shapley and J. Victor, "Hyperacuity in cat retinal ganglion cells," Science 231, 999–1002 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Virsu, V.

V. Virsu and B. B. Lee, "Light adaptation in cells of macaque lateral geniculate nucleus and its relation to human light adaptation," J. Neurophysiol. 50, 864–878 (1983).
[PubMed]

V. Virsu, J. Rovamo, P. Laurinen, and R. Nasanen, "Temporal contrast sensitivity and cortical magnification," Vision Res. 22, 1211–1217 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Virsu, P. Lehtiö, and J. Rovamo, "Contrast sensitivity in normal and pathological vision," Doc. Ophthalmol. Proc. Ser. 30, 263–272 (1981).

B. B. Lee, A. Elepfandt, and V. Virsu, "Phase of responses to sinusoidal gratings of simple cells in cat striate cortex," J. Neurophysiol. 45, 818–828 (1981).

B. B. Lee, A. Elepfandt, and V. Virsu, "Phase of responses to moving sinusoidal gratings in cells of cat retina and lateral geniculate nucleus," J. Neurophysiol. 45, 807–817 (1981).
[PubMed]

V. Virsu and J. Rovamo, "Visual resolution, contrast sensitivity, and the cortical magnification factor," Exp. Brain Res. 37, 475–494 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Rovamo and V. Virsu, "An estimation and application of the human cortical magnification factor," Exp. Brain Res. 37, 495–510 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Rovamo, V. Virsu, and R. Näsänen, "Cortical magnification factor predicts the photopic contrast sensitivity of peripheral vision," Nature 271, 54–56 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vogels, R.

E. Vandebussche, R. Vogels, and G. A. Orban, "Human orientation discrimination: changes with eccentricity in normal and amblyopic vision," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 27, 237–245 (1986).

Watt, R. J.

R. J. Watt, "Towards a general theory of the visual acuities for shape and spatial arrangement," Vision Res. 24, 1377–1386 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Westheimer, G.

G. Westheimer, "The oscilloscopic view: retinal illuminance and contrast of point and line targets," Vision Res. 25, 1097–1103 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Fendick and G. Westheimer, "Effects of practice and the separation of test targets on foveal and peripheral stereoacuity," Vision Res. 23, 145–150 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Westheimer, "Temporal order detection for foveal and peripheral visual stimuli," Vision Res. 23, 759–763 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Westheimer, "The spatial grain of the perifoveal visual field," Vision Res. 22, 157–162 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Westheimer, "The spatial sense of the eye," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 18, 893–912 (1979).
[PubMed]

Wetherill, G. B.

G. B. Wetherill and H. Levitt, "Sequential estimation of points on a psychometric function," Br. J. Math. Stat. Psychol. 18, 1–10 (1965).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weymouth, F. W.

F. W. Weymouth, "Visual sensory units and the minimal angle of resolution," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 46, 102–113 (1958).
[PubMed]

Wiesel, T. N.

D. H. Hubel and T. N. Wiesel, "Uniformity of monkey striate cortex: parallel relationship between field size, scatter, and magnification factor," J. Comp. Neurol. 158, 295–305 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, H. R.

W. H. Swanson and H. R. Wilson, "Eccentricity dependence of contrast matching and oblique masking," Vision Res. 25, 1285–1295 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wright, M. J.

A. Johnston and M. J. Wright, "Lower thresholds of motion for gratings as a function of eccentricity and contrast," Vision Res. 25, 179–185 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Wright and A. Johnston, "The relationship of displacement thresholds for oscillating gratings to cortical magnification, spatiotemporal frequency and contrast," Vision Res. 25, 187–193 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Wright and A. Johnston, "Invariant tuning of motion aftereffect," Vision Res. 25, 1947–1955 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Acta Physiol. Scand. (1)

J. Rovamo, "Cortical magnification factor and contrast sensitivity to luminance-modulated chromatic gratings," Acta Physiol. Scand. 119, 365–371 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

F. W. Weymouth, "Visual sensory units and the minimal angle of resolution," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 46, 102–113 (1958).
[PubMed]

Ann. NY Acad. Sci. (1)

G. G. Celesia and J. T. Meredith, "Visual evoked responses and retinal eccentricity," Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 388, 648–650 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Br. J. Math. Stat. Psychol. (1)

G. B. Wetherill and H. Levitt, "Sequential estimation of points on a psychometric function," Br. J. Math. Stat. Psychol. 18, 1–10 (1965).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Doc. Ophthalmol. Proc. Ser. (1)

V. Virsu, P. Lehtiö, and J. Rovamo, "Contrast sensitivity in normal and pathological vision," Doc. Ophthalmol. Proc. Ser. 30, 263–272 (1981).

Exp. Brain Res. (4)

V. Virsu and J. Rovamo, "Visual resolution, contrast sensitivity, and the cortical magnification factor," Exp. Brain Res. 37, 475–494 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Rovamo and V. Virsu, "An estimation and application of the human cortical magnification factor," Exp. Brain Res. 37, 495–510 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. M. Dow, A. Z. Snyder, R. G. Vautin, and R. Bauer, "Magnification factor and receptive field size in foveal striate cortex of the monkey," Exp. Brain Res. 44, 213–228 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Cowey and E. T. Rolls, "Human cortical magnification factor and its relation to visual acuity," Exp. Brain Res. 21, 447–454 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1)

G. Westheimer, "The spatial sense of the eye," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 18, 893–912 (1979).
[PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. (1)

C. Stephenson and 0. Braddick, "Discrimination of relative spatial phase in fovea and periphery," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 24, 146 (1983).

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. (1)

E. Vandebussche, R. Vogels, and G. A. Orban, "Human orientation discrimination: changes with eccentricity in normal and amblyopic vision," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 27, 237–245 (1986).

J. Comp. Neurol. (2)

J. O'Kusky and M. Colonnier, "Postnatal changes in the number of neurons and synapses in the visual cortex (area 17) of the macaque monkey: a stereological analysis in normal and monocularly deprived animals," J. Comp. Neurol. 210, 291–306 (1982).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Hubel and T. N. Wiesel, "Uniformity of monkey striate cortex: parallel relationship between field size, scatter, and magnification factor," J. Comp. Neurol. 158, 295–305 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Neurophysiol. (4)

R. P. Scobey, "Human visual orientation discrimination," J. Neurophysiol. 48, 18–26 (1982).
[PubMed]

B. B. Lee, A. Elepfandt, and V. Virsu, "Phase of responses to moving sinusoidal gratings in cells of cat retina and lateral geniculate nucleus," J. Neurophysiol. 45, 807–817 (1981).
[PubMed]

B. B. Lee, A. Elepfandt, and V. Virsu, "Phase of responses to sinusoidal gratings of simple cells in cat striate cortex," J. Neurophysiol. 45, 818–828 (1981).

V. Virsu and B. B. Lee, "Light adaptation in cells of macaque lateral geniculate nucleus and its relation to human light adaptation," J. Neurophysiol. 50, 864–878 (1983).
[PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (3)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (3)

J. Physiol. (2)

J. E. Calvert and J. P. Harris, "Cortical magnification and tilt after-effect," J. Physiol. (London) 364, 36 (1985).

F. M. De Monasterio and P. Gouras, "Functional properties of ganglion cells of the rhesus monkey retina," J. Physiol. (London) 251, 167–195 (1975).

Nature (6)

D. M. Levi and S. A. Klein, "Sampling in spatial vision," Nature 320, 360–362 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Drasdo, "The neural representation of visual space," Nature 266, 554–556 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. T. Fox, M. A. Mintun, M. E. Raichle, F. M. Miezin, J. M. Allman, and D. C. Van Essen, "Mapping human visual cortex with positron emission tomography," Nature 323, 806–809 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Rentschler and B. Treutwein, "Loss of spatial phase relationships in extrafoveal vision," Nature 313, 308–310 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Rovamo, V. Virsu, and R. Näsänen, "Cortical magnification factor predicts the photopic contrast sensitivity of peripheral vision," Nature 271, 54–56 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. W. Swindale and M. S. Cynader, "Vernier acuity of neurones in cat visual cortex," Nature 319, 591–593 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perception (2)

D. Spinelli, A. Bazzeo, and G. B. Vicario, "Orientation sensitivity in the peripheral visual field," Perception 13, 41–47 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Hampton and A. E. Kertesz, "The extent of Panum's area and the human cortical magnification factor," Perception 12, 161–165 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. Ser. B (1)

J. C. Horton and E. T. Hedley-Whyte, "Mapping of cytochrome oxidase patches and ocular dominance columns in human visual cortex," Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. Ser. B 304, 255–272 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

R. Shapley and J. Victor, "Hyperacuity in cat retinal ganglion cells," Science 231, 999–1002 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vision Res. (25)

D. P. Andrews, "Perception of contour orientation in the central fovea. Part II. Spatial integration," Vision Res. 7, 999–1013 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Pokorny, "The effect of target area on grating acuity," Vision Res. 8, 543–554 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Westheimer, "The spatial grain of the perifoveal visual field," Vision Res. 22, 157–162 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Watt, "Towards a general theory of the visual acuities for shape and spatial arrangement," Vision Res. 24, 1377–1386 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

MAR as a function of eccentricity on the horizontal meridian in five visual acuity tasks: grating acuity (filled circles), Snellen (E’s), Landolt (O’s), dot direction (squares), and dot separation (diamonds). Open symbols refer to measurement from the middle of dots in the dot tests, and filled symbols refer to measurement from the nearest edges of the dots. The Landolt and dot-direction results have been raised by a factor of 10 for clarity. Subject, RN.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

A, MAR data of Fig. 1 for dot separation (diamonds), dot direction (squares), Landolt (O’s), and Snellen (E’s) divided by the MAR of grating acuity at different eccentricities. B, Cortical distance in millimeters corresponding to grating MAR as calculated by means of Mr at different eccentricities for five subjects. The subjects of the present study are indicated by filled symbols: RN (circles), KO (squares), and JP (triangles). Open symbols indicate the corresponding grating acuities of Westheimer’s43 two subjects: GW (circles) and SR (squares).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Threshold displacement from subjective vertical in the two-dot vernier task as a function of vertical dot separation at different horizontal eccentricities. Dot separation was measured from the middle of the dots as projected to the vertical axis. Subject, RN.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Threshold orientation change from subjective vertical in the two-dot vernier task as a function of vertical dot separation at different horizontal eccentricities (E). Subject, KO.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The two-dot vernier orientation thresholds from Fig. 4 scaled by the grating MAR for vertical dot separation. The slope of the line segment is −1.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The results of Fig. 3 plotted as orientation thresholds with respect to calculated cortical vertical dot separation.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The smallest two-dot vernier thresholds of different eccentricities presented as cortical displacement thresholds calculated by means of Mr. Filled symbols refer to the three subjects of the present study, and open symbols refer to Westheimer’s43 two subjects as in Fig. 2B.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

The results of Fig. 3 presented in terms of calculated cortical distances on both axes.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

A, Bisection thresholds at different eccentricities on the inferior visual field meridian as a function of interdot interval. B, The same data as in A in terms of cortical distances calculated by means of Mr.

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