Abstract

The manner in which the spatial characteristics of simple discrimination tasks change with time after the onset of a stimulus were examined. The experiments measured the improvements in sensitivity to the length, orientation, curvature, and stereoscopic depth of short lines that accrue with increased exposure durations. These improvements can be consistently interpreted in terms of a change of the spatial scale of analysis from coarse to fine over a period of at least 1000 msec. Variations in visual resolution acuity over the same period are negligible, and it is concluded that the changes in spatial characteristics concern the range of spatial filters in operation. This range progressively shrinks after stimulus presentation.

© 1987 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. J. Watt, M. J. Morgan, “A theory of the primitive spatial code in human vision,” Vision Res. 25, 1661–1674 (1985).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. H. R. Wilson, J. R. Bergen, “A four mechanism model for threshold spatial vision,” Vision Res. 19, 19–32 (1979).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. B. Breitmeyer, Visual Masking: An Integrative Approach, Oxford Psychological Series No. 4 (Clarendon, Oxford, 1984).
  4. D. P. Andrews, “Perception of contour orientation in the central fovea. Part I: Short lines,” Vision Res. 7, 975–997 (1967).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. A. Vassilev, M. Zlatkova, “Temporal summation and orientation acuity,” Acta Physiol. Pharmacol. Bulgaria, 8, 23–28 (1982).
  6. U. T. Keesey, “Effects of involuntary eye-movements on visual acuity,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 769–774 (1960).
    [Crossref]
  7. G. Westheimer, S. P. McKee, “Integration regions for visual hyperacuity,” Vision Res. 17, 89–93 (1977).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. I. Hadani, A. Z. Meiri, M. Guri, “The effects of exposure duration and luminance on the 3-dot hyperacuity task,” Vision Res. 34, 871–874 (1984).
    [Crossref]
  9. G. Westheimer, G. Hauske, “Temporal and spatial interference with Vernier acuity,” Vision Res. 15, 1137–1141 (1975).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. G. Westheimer, K. Shimamura, S. P. McKee, “Interference with line-orientation sensitivity,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 332–338 (1976).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. T. W. Butler, G. Westheimer, “Interference with stereoscopic acuity: spatial, temporal and disparity tuning,” Vision Res. 18, 1387–1392 (1978).
    [Crossref]
  12. D. H. Foster, “A spatial perturbation technique for the investigation of discrete internal representations of visual patterns,” Biol. Cybern. 38, 159–169 (1980).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. D. H. Foster, “Visual discrimination, categorical identification, and categorical rating in brief displays of curved lines: implications for discrete encoding processes,”J. Exp. Psychol. Hum. Percept. Perf. 9, 785–806 (1983).
    [Crossref]
  14. M. Ferraro, D. H. Foster, “Discrete and continuous modes of curved-line discrimination controlled by effective stimulus duration,” Spatial Vision 1, 219–230 (1986).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. J. G. Robson, “Spatial and temporal contrast sensitivity function of the visual system,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1141–1142 (1966).
    [Crossref]
  16. B. Breitmeyer, B. Julesz, “The role of on and off transients in determining the psychophysical spatial frequency response,” Vision Res. 15, 411–415 (1975).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. L. E. Arend, “Response of the human eye to spatially sinusoidual gratings at various exposure durations,” Vision Res. 16, 1311–1315 (1976).
    [Crossref]
  18. G. E. Legge, “Sustained and transient mechanisms in human vision: temporal and spatial properties,” Vision Res. 18, 69–81 (1978).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. L. E. Arend, R. V. Lange, “Influence of exposure duration on the tuning of spatial channels,” Vision Res. 19, 195–199 (1979).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. J. J. Kulikowski, D. J. Tolhurst, “Psychophysical evidence for sustained and transient detectors in human vision,”J. Physiol. 232, 149–162 (1973).
    [PubMed]
  21. A. B. Watson, J. G. Robson, “Discrimination at threshold: labeled detectors in human vision,” Vision Res. 21, 1115–1122 (1981).
    [Crossref]
  22. J. A. J. Roufs, F. J. J. Blommaert, “Temporal impulse and step responses of the human eye obtained psychophysically by means of a drift-correcting perturbation technique,” Vision Res. 21, 1203–1221 (1981).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. B. Moulden, J. Renshaw, G. Mather, “Two channels for flicker in the human visual system,” Perception 13, 387–400 (1984).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. D. C. Marr, T. Poggio, “A computational theory of human stereo vision,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 204, 301–328 (1979).
    [Crossref]
  25. J. J. Koenderink, “The structure of images,” Biol. Cybern. 50, 363–370 (1984).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. R. J. Watt, “An outline of the primal sketch in human vision,” Pattern Recogn. Lett. (to be published).
  27. R. J. Watt, “Towards a general theory of the visual acuities for shape and spatial arrangement,” Vision Res. 24, 1377–1386 (1984).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. R. J. Watt, D. P. Andrews, “APE: adaptive probit estimation of psychometric functions,” Curr. Psychol. Rev. 1, 205–214 (1981).
    [Crossref]
  29. D. J. Finney, Probit Analysis, 3rd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1971).
  30. D. P. Andrews, A. K. Butcher, B. R. Buckely, “Acuities for spatial arrangement in line figures: human and ideal observers compared,” Vision Res. 13, 599–620 (1973).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  31. R. J. Watt, M. J. Morgan, R. M. Ward, “The use of different cues in Vernier acuities,” Vision Res. 23, 991–995 (1983).
    [Crossref]
  32. R. J. Watt, R. M. Ward, C. Casco, “The detection of deviation from straightness in lines,” submitted to Vision Res.
  33. R. J. Watt, M. J. Morgan, “Spatial filters and the localization of luminance changes in human vision,” Vision Res. 24, 1387–1397 (1984).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  34. R. J. Watt, M. J. Morgan, “Mechanisms responsible for the assessment of visual location: theory and evidence,” Vision Res. 23, 97–109 (1983).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  35. H. R. Wilson, “Psychophysical evidence for spatial channels,” in Physical and Biological Processing of Images, O. J. Braddick, A. C. Sleigh, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1983).
    [Crossref]
  36. M. J. Morgan, R. J. Watt, “Mechanisms of interpretation in human spatial vision,” Nature 299, 553–555 (1982).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

M. Ferraro, D. H. Foster, “Discrete and continuous modes of curved-line discrimination controlled by effective stimulus duration,” Spatial Vision 1, 219–230 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

R. J. Watt, M. J. Morgan, “A theory of the primitive spatial code in human vision,” Vision Res. 25, 1661–1674 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1984 (5)

I. Hadani, A. Z. Meiri, M. Guri, “The effects of exposure duration and luminance on the 3-dot hyperacuity task,” Vision Res. 34, 871–874 (1984).
[Crossref]

J. J. Koenderink, “The structure of images,” Biol. Cybern. 50, 363–370 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. J. Watt, “Towards a general theory of the visual acuities for shape and spatial arrangement,” Vision Res. 24, 1377–1386 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Moulden, J. Renshaw, G. Mather, “Two channels for flicker in the human visual system,” Perception 13, 387–400 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. J. Watt, M. J. Morgan, “Spatial filters and the localization of luminance changes in human vision,” Vision Res. 24, 1387–1397 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1983 (3)

R. J. Watt, M. J. Morgan, “Mechanisms responsible for the assessment of visual location: theory and evidence,” Vision Res. 23, 97–109 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. J. Watt, M. J. Morgan, R. M. Ward, “The use of different cues in Vernier acuities,” Vision Res. 23, 991–995 (1983).
[Crossref]

D. H. Foster, “Visual discrimination, categorical identification, and categorical rating in brief displays of curved lines: implications for discrete encoding processes,”J. Exp. Psychol. Hum. Percept. Perf. 9, 785–806 (1983).
[Crossref]

1982 (2)

A. Vassilev, M. Zlatkova, “Temporal summation and orientation acuity,” Acta Physiol. Pharmacol. Bulgaria, 8, 23–28 (1982).

M. J. Morgan, R. J. Watt, “Mechanisms of interpretation in human spatial vision,” Nature 299, 553–555 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1981 (3)

R. J. Watt, D. P. Andrews, “APE: adaptive probit estimation of psychometric functions,” Curr. Psychol. Rev. 1, 205–214 (1981).
[Crossref]

A. B. Watson, J. G. Robson, “Discrimination at threshold: labeled detectors in human vision,” Vision Res. 21, 1115–1122 (1981).
[Crossref]

J. A. J. Roufs, F. J. J. Blommaert, “Temporal impulse and step responses of the human eye obtained psychophysically by means of a drift-correcting perturbation technique,” Vision Res. 21, 1203–1221 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1980 (1)

D. H. Foster, “A spatial perturbation technique for the investigation of discrete internal representations of visual patterns,” Biol. Cybern. 38, 159–169 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1979 (3)

H. R. Wilson, J. R. Bergen, “A four mechanism model for threshold spatial vision,” Vision Res. 19, 19–32 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. E. Arend, R. V. Lange, “Influence of exposure duration on the tuning of spatial channels,” Vision Res. 19, 195–199 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. C. Marr, T. Poggio, “A computational theory of human stereo vision,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 204, 301–328 (1979).
[Crossref]

1978 (2)

T. W. Butler, G. Westheimer, “Interference with stereoscopic acuity: spatial, temporal and disparity tuning,” Vision Res. 18, 1387–1392 (1978).
[Crossref]

G. E. Legge, “Sustained and transient mechanisms in human vision: temporal and spatial properties,” Vision Res. 18, 69–81 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1977 (1)

G. Westheimer, S. P. McKee, “Integration regions for visual hyperacuity,” Vision Res. 17, 89–93 (1977).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1976 (2)

G. Westheimer, K. Shimamura, S. P. McKee, “Interference with line-orientation sensitivity,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 332–338 (1976).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. E. Arend, “Response of the human eye to spatially sinusoidual gratings at various exposure durations,” Vision Res. 16, 1311–1315 (1976).
[Crossref]

1975 (2)

B. Breitmeyer, B. Julesz, “The role of on and off transients in determining the psychophysical spatial frequency response,” Vision Res. 15, 411–415 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Westheimer, G. Hauske, “Temporal and spatial interference with Vernier acuity,” Vision Res. 15, 1137–1141 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1973 (2)

J. J. Kulikowski, D. J. Tolhurst, “Psychophysical evidence for sustained and transient detectors in human vision,”J. Physiol. 232, 149–162 (1973).
[PubMed]

D. P. Andrews, A. K. Butcher, B. R. Buckely, “Acuities for spatial arrangement in line figures: human and ideal observers compared,” Vision Res. 13, 599–620 (1973).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1967 (1)

D. P. Andrews, “Perception of contour orientation in the central fovea. Part I: Short lines,” Vision Res. 7, 975–997 (1967).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1966 (1)

1960 (1)

Andrews, D. P.

R. J. Watt, D. P. Andrews, “APE: adaptive probit estimation of psychometric functions,” Curr. Psychol. Rev. 1, 205–214 (1981).
[Crossref]

D. P. Andrews, A. K. Butcher, B. R. Buckely, “Acuities for spatial arrangement in line figures: human and ideal observers compared,” Vision Res. 13, 599–620 (1973).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. P. Andrews, “Perception of contour orientation in the central fovea. Part I: Short lines,” Vision Res. 7, 975–997 (1967).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arend, L. E.

L. E. Arend, R. V. Lange, “Influence of exposure duration on the tuning of spatial channels,” Vision Res. 19, 195–199 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. E. Arend, “Response of the human eye to spatially sinusoidual gratings at various exposure durations,” Vision Res. 16, 1311–1315 (1976).
[Crossref]

Bergen, J. R.

H. R. Wilson, J. R. Bergen, “A four mechanism model for threshold spatial vision,” Vision Res. 19, 19–32 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blommaert, F. J. J.

J. A. J. Roufs, F. J. J. Blommaert, “Temporal impulse and step responses of the human eye obtained psychophysically by means of a drift-correcting perturbation technique,” Vision Res. 21, 1203–1221 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Breitmeyer, B.

B. Breitmeyer, B. Julesz, “The role of on and off transients in determining the psychophysical spatial frequency response,” Vision Res. 15, 411–415 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Breitmeyer, Visual Masking: An Integrative Approach, Oxford Psychological Series No. 4 (Clarendon, Oxford, 1984).

Buckely, B. R.

D. P. Andrews, A. K. Butcher, B. R. Buckely, “Acuities for spatial arrangement in line figures: human and ideal observers compared,” Vision Res. 13, 599–620 (1973).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Butcher, A. K.

D. P. Andrews, A. K. Butcher, B. R. Buckely, “Acuities for spatial arrangement in line figures: human and ideal observers compared,” Vision Res. 13, 599–620 (1973).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Butler, T. W.

T. W. Butler, G. Westheimer, “Interference with stereoscopic acuity: spatial, temporal and disparity tuning,” Vision Res. 18, 1387–1392 (1978).
[Crossref]

Casco, C.

R. J. Watt, R. M. Ward, C. Casco, “The detection of deviation from straightness in lines,” submitted to Vision Res.

Ferraro, M.

M. Ferraro, D. H. Foster, “Discrete and continuous modes of curved-line discrimination controlled by effective stimulus duration,” Spatial Vision 1, 219–230 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Finney, D. J.

D. J. Finney, Probit Analysis, 3rd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1971).

Foster, D. H.

M. Ferraro, D. H. Foster, “Discrete and continuous modes of curved-line discrimination controlled by effective stimulus duration,” Spatial Vision 1, 219–230 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. H. Foster, “Visual discrimination, categorical identification, and categorical rating in brief displays of curved lines: implications for discrete encoding processes,”J. Exp. Psychol. Hum. Percept. Perf. 9, 785–806 (1983).
[Crossref]

D. H. Foster, “A spatial perturbation technique for the investigation of discrete internal representations of visual patterns,” Biol. Cybern. 38, 159–169 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guri, M.

I. Hadani, A. Z. Meiri, M. Guri, “The effects of exposure duration and luminance on the 3-dot hyperacuity task,” Vision Res. 34, 871–874 (1984).
[Crossref]

Hadani, I.

I. Hadani, A. Z. Meiri, M. Guri, “The effects of exposure duration and luminance on the 3-dot hyperacuity task,” Vision Res. 34, 871–874 (1984).
[Crossref]

Hauske, G.

G. Westheimer, G. Hauske, “Temporal and spatial interference with Vernier acuity,” Vision Res. 15, 1137–1141 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Julesz, B.

B. Breitmeyer, B. Julesz, “The role of on and off transients in determining the psychophysical spatial frequency response,” Vision Res. 15, 411–415 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Keesey, U. T.

Koenderink, J. J.

J. J. Koenderink, “The structure of images,” Biol. Cybern. 50, 363–370 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kulikowski, J. J.

J. J. Kulikowski, D. J. Tolhurst, “Psychophysical evidence for sustained and transient detectors in human vision,”J. Physiol. 232, 149–162 (1973).
[PubMed]

Lange, R. V.

L. E. Arend, R. V. Lange, “Influence of exposure duration on the tuning of spatial channels,” Vision Res. 19, 195–199 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Legge, G. E.

G. E. Legge, “Sustained and transient mechanisms in human vision: temporal and spatial properties,” Vision Res. 18, 69–81 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marr, D. C.

D. C. Marr, T. Poggio, “A computational theory of human stereo vision,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 204, 301–328 (1979).
[Crossref]

Mather, G.

B. Moulden, J. Renshaw, G. Mather, “Two channels for flicker in the human visual system,” Perception 13, 387–400 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McKee, S. P.

Meiri, A. Z.

I. Hadani, A. Z. Meiri, M. Guri, “The effects of exposure duration and luminance on the 3-dot hyperacuity task,” Vision Res. 34, 871–874 (1984).
[Crossref]

Morgan, M. J.

R. J. Watt, M. J. Morgan, “A theory of the primitive spatial code in human vision,” Vision Res. 25, 1661–1674 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. J. Watt, M. J. Morgan, “Spatial filters and the localization of luminance changes in human vision,” Vision Res. 24, 1387–1397 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. J. Watt, M. J. Morgan, R. M. Ward, “The use of different cues in Vernier acuities,” Vision Res. 23, 991–995 (1983).
[Crossref]

R. J. Watt, M. J. Morgan, “Mechanisms responsible for the assessment of visual location: theory and evidence,” Vision Res. 23, 97–109 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Morgan, R. J. Watt, “Mechanisms of interpretation in human spatial vision,” Nature 299, 553–555 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moulden, B.

B. Moulden, J. Renshaw, G. Mather, “Two channels for flicker in the human visual system,” Perception 13, 387–400 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Poggio, T.

D. C. Marr, T. Poggio, “A computational theory of human stereo vision,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 204, 301–328 (1979).
[Crossref]

Renshaw, J.

B. Moulden, J. Renshaw, G. Mather, “Two channels for flicker in the human visual system,” Perception 13, 387–400 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Robson, J. G.

A. B. Watson, J. G. Robson, “Discrimination at threshold: labeled detectors in human vision,” Vision Res. 21, 1115–1122 (1981).
[Crossref]

J. G. Robson, “Spatial and temporal contrast sensitivity function of the visual system,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1141–1142 (1966).
[Crossref]

Roufs, J. A. J.

J. A. J. Roufs, F. J. J. Blommaert, “Temporal impulse and step responses of the human eye obtained psychophysically by means of a drift-correcting perturbation technique,” Vision Res. 21, 1203–1221 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shimamura, K.

Tolhurst, D. J.

J. J. Kulikowski, D. J. Tolhurst, “Psychophysical evidence for sustained and transient detectors in human vision,”J. Physiol. 232, 149–162 (1973).
[PubMed]

Vassilev, A.

A. Vassilev, M. Zlatkova, “Temporal summation and orientation acuity,” Acta Physiol. Pharmacol. Bulgaria, 8, 23–28 (1982).

Ward, R. M.

R. J. Watt, M. J. Morgan, R. M. Ward, “The use of different cues in Vernier acuities,” Vision Res. 23, 991–995 (1983).
[Crossref]

R. J. Watt, R. M. Ward, C. Casco, “The detection of deviation from straightness in lines,” submitted to Vision Res.

Watson, A. B.

A. B. Watson, J. G. Robson, “Discrimination at threshold: labeled detectors in human vision,” Vision Res. 21, 1115–1122 (1981).
[Crossref]

Watt, R. J.

R. J. Watt, M. J. Morgan, “A theory of the primitive spatial code in human vision,” Vision Res. 25, 1661–1674 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. J. Watt, M. J. Morgan, “Spatial filters and the localization of luminance changes in human vision,” Vision Res. 24, 1387–1397 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. J. Watt, “Towards a general theory of the visual acuities for shape and spatial arrangement,” Vision Res. 24, 1377–1386 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. J. Watt, M. J. Morgan, R. M. Ward, “The use of different cues in Vernier acuities,” Vision Res. 23, 991–995 (1983).
[Crossref]

R. J. Watt, M. J. Morgan, “Mechanisms responsible for the assessment of visual location: theory and evidence,” Vision Res. 23, 97–109 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Morgan, R. J. Watt, “Mechanisms of interpretation in human spatial vision,” Nature 299, 553–555 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. J. Watt, D. P. Andrews, “APE: adaptive probit estimation of psychometric functions,” Curr. Psychol. Rev. 1, 205–214 (1981).
[Crossref]

R. J. Watt, R. M. Ward, C. Casco, “The detection of deviation from straightness in lines,” submitted to Vision Res.

R. J. Watt, “An outline of the primal sketch in human vision,” Pattern Recogn. Lett. (to be published).

Westheimer, G.

T. W. Butler, G. Westheimer, “Interference with stereoscopic acuity: spatial, temporal and disparity tuning,” Vision Res. 18, 1387–1392 (1978).
[Crossref]

G. Westheimer, S. P. McKee, “Integration regions for visual hyperacuity,” Vision Res. 17, 89–93 (1977).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Westheimer, K. Shimamura, S. P. McKee, “Interference with line-orientation sensitivity,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 332–338 (1976).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Westheimer, G. Hauske, “Temporal and spatial interference with Vernier acuity,” Vision Res. 15, 1137–1141 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wilson, H. R.

H. R. Wilson, J. R. Bergen, “A four mechanism model for threshold spatial vision,” Vision Res. 19, 19–32 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. R. Wilson, “Psychophysical evidence for spatial channels,” in Physical and Biological Processing of Images, O. J. Braddick, A. C. Sleigh, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1983).
[Crossref]

Zlatkova, M.

A. Vassilev, M. Zlatkova, “Temporal summation and orientation acuity,” Acta Physiol. Pharmacol. Bulgaria, 8, 23–28 (1982).

Acta Physiol. Pharmacol. Bulgaria (1)

A. Vassilev, M. Zlatkova, “Temporal summation and orientation acuity,” Acta Physiol. Pharmacol. Bulgaria, 8, 23–28 (1982).

Biol. Cybern. (2)

D. H. Foster, “A spatial perturbation technique for the investigation of discrete internal representations of visual patterns,” Biol. Cybern. 38, 159–169 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. J. Koenderink, “The structure of images,” Biol. Cybern. 50, 363–370 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Curr. Psychol. Rev. (1)

R. J. Watt, D. P. Andrews, “APE: adaptive probit estimation of psychometric functions,” Curr. Psychol. Rev. 1, 205–214 (1981).
[Crossref]

J. Exp. Psychol. Hum. Percept. Perf. (1)

D. H. Foster, “Visual discrimination, categorical identification, and categorical rating in brief displays of curved lines: implications for discrete encoding processes,”J. Exp. Psychol. Hum. Percept. Perf. 9, 785–806 (1983).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (3)

J. Physiol. (1)

J. J. Kulikowski, D. J. Tolhurst, “Psychophysical evidence for sustained and transient detectors in human vision,”J. Physiol. 232, 149–162 (1973).
[PubMed]

Nature (1)

M. J. Morgan, R. J. Watt, “Mechanisms of interpretation in human spatial vision,” Nature 299, 553–555 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Perception (1)

B. Moulden, J. Renshaw, G. Mather, “Two channels for flicker in the human visual system,” Perception 13, 387–400 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B (1)

D. C. Marr, T. Poggio, “A computational theory of human stereo vision,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 204, 301–328 (1979).
[Crossref]

Spatial Vision (1)

M. Ferraro, D. H. Foster, “Discrete and continuous modes of curved-line discrimination controlled by effective stimulus duration,” Spatial Vision 1, 219–230 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vision Res. (18)

A. B. Watson, J. G. Robson, “Discrimination at threshold: labeled detectors in human vision,” Vision Res. 21, 1115–1122 (1981).
[Crossref]

J. A. J. Roufs, F. J. J. Blommaert, “Temporal impulse and step responses of the human eye obtained psychophysically by means of a drift-correcting perturbation technique,” Vision Res. 21, 1203–1221 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Breitmeyer, B. Julesz, “The role of on and off transients in determining the psychophysical spatial frequency response,” Vision Res. 15, 411–415 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. E. Arend, “Response of the human eye to spatially sinusoidual gratings at various exposure durations,” Vision Res. 16, 1311–1315 (1976).
[Crossref]

G. E. Legge, “Sustained and transient mechanisms in human vision: temporal and spatial properties,” Vision Res. 18, 69–81 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. E. Arend, R. V. Lange, “Influence of exposure duration on the tuning of spatial channels,” Vision Res. 19, 195–199 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. W. Butler, G. Westheimer, “Interference with stereoscopic acuity: spatial, temporal and disparity tuning,” Vision Res. 18, 1387–1392 (1978).
[Crossref]

R. J. Watt, M. J. Morgan, “A theory of the primitive spatial code in human vision,” Vision Res. 25, 1661–1674 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. R. Wilson, J. R. Bergen, “A four mechanism model for threshold spatial vision,” Vision Res. 19, 19–32 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Westheimer, S. P. McKee, “Integration regions for visual hyperacuity,” Vision Res. 17, 89–93 (1977).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Hadani, A. Z. Meiri, M. Guri, “The effects of exposure duration and luminance on the 3-dot hyperacuity task,” Vision Res. 34, 871–874 (1984).
[Crossref]

G. Westheimer, G. Hauske, “Temporal and spatial interference with Vernier acuity,” Vision Res. 15, 1137–1141 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. P. Andrews, “Perception of contour orientation in the central fovea. Part I: Short lines,” Vision Res. 7, 975–997 (1967).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. J. Watt, “Towards a general theory of the visual acuities for shape and spatial arrangement,” Vision Res. 24, 1377–1386 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. P. Andrews, A. K. Butcher, B. R. Buckely, “Acuities for spatial arrangement in line figures: human and ideal observers compared,” Vision Res. 13, 599–620 (1973).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. J. Watt, M. J. Morgan, R. M. Ward, “The use of different cues in Vernier acuities,” Vision Res. 23, 991–995 (1983).
[Crossref]

R. J. Watt, M. J. Morgan, “Spatial filters and the localization of luminance changes in human vision,” Vision Res. 24, 1387–1397 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. J. Watt, M. J. Morgan, “Mechanisms responsible for the assessment of visual location: theory and evidence,” Vision Res. 23, 97–109 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (5)

H. R. Wilson, “Psychophysical evidence for spatial channels,” in Physical and Biological Processing of Images, O. J. Braddick, A. C. Sleigh, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1983).
[Crossref]

R. J. Watt, R. M. Ward, C. Casco, “The detection of deviation from straightness in lines,” submitted to Vision Res.

D. J. Finney, Probit Analysis, 3rd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1971).

R. J. Watt, “An outline of the primal sketch in human vision,” Pattern Recogn. Lett. (to be published).

B. Breitmeyer, Visual Masking: An Integrative Approach, Oxford Psychological Series No. 4 (Clarendon, Oxford, 1984).

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Figures (19)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Effects of line length and filter size on the information available for judgments of line orientation, etc. The surface drawings show the two-dimensional convolutions between the Laplacian of a Gaussian and the lines. The two-dimensional drawings reduce these convolutions to their zero-crossing contour and the sign of the response. Notice that the response of the large filter to the short line is almost circular and so has very little orientation information compared with the response of the small filter. The difference between the responses of the two different-sized filters to the long line is much less marked. It is this interaction between line length and filter size that is the subject of the experiments.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Time sequence of a single trial in the experiments. The test target is displayed for a duration t concurrently with the reference stimulus. At the end of this duration, the test is replaced immediately by a field of random dots, which acts as an energy mask. This mask and the reference lines remain on display until the subject responds. The response initiates a fresh trial after a pause of 0.5 sec. The subject may request a repeat of the trial.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Predicted variations in the orientation threshold (expressed as rotation from the vertical) with line length and filter space constant. The predictions are derived from Eq. (2) in the text.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured variations in orientation threshold with line length and three different exposure durations for subjects (a) RW and (b) CG. The continuous lines drawn through the data are least-squares fits of Eq. (2) to the experimental results. The two parameters k and Sf are tabulated at the top of the figure. Notice that k, which is simply a multiplicative factor, does not vary markedly with exposure duration but that Sf, which is the spatial scale of analysis, increases with decreasing exposure duration.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Effect of exposure duration on the orientation threshold for a line 10 arcmin in length. (b) Calculated equivalent filter space constant, according to Eq. (3). This decreases over the whole 1-sec range from about 100 arcmin to about 2 arcmin.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Predicted variations in the Weber fraction for line length as a function of the comparison line length and the filter space constant. The predictions are derived from Eqs. (5) in the text.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Measured variations in the Weber fraction for line length as a function of comparison line length and at three exposure durations for subjects (a) RW and (b) PL. The continuous lines through the data points represent least-squares fits of Eqs. (5) to the data. The parameters k and Sf of the fits are tabulated at the top of the figure. Notice that k is not markedly affected by exposure duration, whereas Sf is. Notice also that the values of Sf obtained are in fair agreement with the orientation threshold estimates (Fig. 4).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Variation in the Weber fraction for line length as a function of exposure duration with a 10-arcmin-long line. (b) Variation in the estimated filter size as a function of exposure duration. The estimates were obtained from Eqs. (5) and are similar to the equivalent estimates in Fig. 6.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Predicted variations in the line curvature threshold with the degree of one-dimensional Gaussian blurring of the target and the filter space constant. The predictions are derived from Eq. (7) in the text.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Predicted variations in line curvature threshold with the degree of Gaussian spatial jitter and the filter space constant. The predictions are derived from Eq. (9) in the text.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Measured variations in the line curvature sensitivity with Gaussian blur at three exposure durations for subjects (a) RW and (b) SM. The continuous functions drawn through the data points represent least-squares fits of Eq. (7) to the data. The values for the parameters k and Sf are tabulated on the figure. As in Figs. 4 and 7, the parameter k does not vary markedly with exposure duration, but the parameter Sf increases with decreasing exposure duration. The values obtained at the three exposure durations are similar to those reported in Figs. 4 and 7.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Measured variations in line curvature sensitivity with Gaussian spatial jitter at three exposure durations for subjects (a) RW and (b) CG. The continuous functions are least-squares fits of Eq. (9) to the data points, and the parameters k and ev are tabulated on the figure. Both increase with decreasing duration.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

(a) Variation in the line curvature threshold with increasing exposure duration. (b) Estimated filter space constants corresponding to these data points. The estimates were obtained by using Eq. (7) and are comparable to values in Figs. 5 and 8.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Variation in stereodisparity threshold with exposure duration. The values are all comparable with the data of Fig. 13, inviting the conclusion that the same range of filters is involved.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

(a) Variation in the dot-resolution threshold with exposure duration. There is little or no effect. (b) Equivalent estimates of the filter space constant according to Eq. (10).

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Composite of Figs. 5, 8, 13, and 15 for subjects (a) RW and (b) CG. It is clear how closely the data sets agree, except for the resolution data. It is argued that the two extreme sizes of filter are plotted in this figure. Resolution assesses the size of the smallest filter in use; the other tasks all reflect the actions of the largest active filter. c/deg, cycles per degree.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

The mirage model of Watt and Morgan.1 The top panel shows the luminance waveform of a sample stimulus. Beneath this are shown the convolutions of this stimulus with three different-sized filters. The positive portions of these responses are taken off to the left, and the negative portions are taken off to the right. Beneath the filter response are shown two T signals: T+ is formed by adding together all the positive responses, and T is formed by adding together all the negative responses. The bottom row shows the central moments of the zero-bounded distributions in the T signals, which are the measurements available to the system (see the text for definitions of A and B).

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

Example of the actions of the mirage algorithm in two dimensions. At the top is a pattern of randomly placed dots. Beneath this are the responses of four filters of different sizes, with the largest on the left. The third row shows the T+ and the T signals formed as in Fig. 17, by adding all the positive portions of the filter responses together and, separately, adding all the negative portions together. The fourth row shows the T signals that result when the largest filter is switched out of the addition step. In the fifth row, the two target filters are switched out, and in the sixth row only the smallest filter remains. It is suggested that the data of the experiments summarized in Fig. 16 reflect this zooming in spatial scale, in which case the third to sixth rows can be considered successive in time.

Fig. 19
Fig. 19

Same as Fig. 18, except that zero crossings and the sign of response are represented.

Equations (27)

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N = k ( n - 1 ) .
N m = k ( m - 1 ) .
N g = k ( n m - 1 ) .
N t = N m + N g = k ( m + n m - 2 ) .
k ( m + n m - 2 ) < k ( n - 1 ) ,
m 2 + n - 2 m < m n - m , m 2 - m n - m + n < 0 , ( m - n ) ( m - 1 ) < 0 , ( n - m ) ( m - 1 ) > 0 ,
n > m > 1 ,
ϕ 2 = k r 2 V L V s .
d ϕ 2 = k r 2 V L ( V L - V S ) .
V L = L 2 12 + S f 2 , V s = S f 2 .
d ϕ = k r ( L 2 / 12 + S f 2 ) 1 / 2 / ( L / 12 1 / 2 ) .
S f 2 = d ϕ 2 L 2 12 k r 2 - L 2 12 .
d L v = k L L v ,
L v = L + 2 ( 2 1 / 2 S f ) .
( L v + d L v ) = ( L + d L ) + 2 ( 2 1 / 2 S f ) .
d L = k L [ L + 2 ( 2 1 / 2 S f ) ] , d L L = k L ( 1 + 2 3 / 2 S f ) / L .
d L = e m 1 / 2 ,
e = ( B 2 + S f 2 ) 1 / 2
m = k c ( B 2 + S f 2 ) 1 / 2 .
d L = k c ( B 2 + S f 2 ) 0.75 .
d C = k c ( B 2 + S f 2 ) 0.75 .
d C = k s e .
e 2 = e t 2 + e v 2 ;
d C = k s ( e t 2 + e v 2 ) 1 / 2 .
T ( y ) = m ( 1 - y 2 / s 2 ) exp ( - y 2 / 2 s 2 ) ,
R = 2 ( 2 1 / 2 S f ) .
F f = 1 2 1 / 2 π S f .

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