Abstract

We studied temporal processing of chromatic and luminance perturbations of a 600-nm field, measuring both modulation sensitivity (sinusoidal frequencies from 0.25 to 40 Hz) and pulse-detection thresholds (pulse durations from 5 to 2560 msec) for mean luminances of 0.9 to 900 Td and field sizes of 0.5° to 8°. Chromatic stimuli were produced by antiphase modulation of lights matched by heterochromatic flicker photometry. Both mean luminance and field size affected sensitivity, and the magnitude of field-size effects increased with mean luminance. We derived both luminance and chromatic impulse response functions for each set of experimental conditions, using the modulation-sensitivity data. At high mean luminances and large field sizes the chromatic impulse response functions are complex, suggesting contributions from both chromatic and luminance mechanisms. Pulse-detection data were fitted by a peak detector model based on these impulse response functions.

© 1987 Optical Society of America

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Corrections

William H. Swanson, Takehiro Ueno, Vivianne C. Smith, and Joel Pokorny, "Temporal modulation sensitivity and pulse-detection thresholds for chromatic and luminance perturbations: errata," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 1525-1525 (1988)
https://www.osapublishing.org/josaa/abstract.cfm?uri=josaa-5-9-1525

References

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  1. Reviewed by A. B. Watson, “Temporal sensitivity,” in Sensory Processes and Perception, Vol. I of Handbook of Perception and Human Performance, K. R. Boff, L. Kaufman, J. P. Thomas, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1986), Chap. 6.
  2. Reviewed by M. Ikeda, “Temporal impulse response,” Vision Res. 26, 1431–1440 (1986).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. H. deLange, “Research into the dynamic nature of the human fovea-cortex systems with intermittent and modulated light. I. Attenuation characteristics with white and colored light.” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 777–784 (1958).
    [Crossref]
  4. P. L. Walraven, H. J. Leebeek, M. A. Bouman, “Some measurements about the fusion frequency of colors,” Opt. Acta 5, 50–54 (1958).
  5. D. Regan, C. W. Tyler, “Some dynamic features of colour vision,” Vision Res. 11, 1307–1324 (1971).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. D. H. Kelly, D. van Norren, “Two-band model of heterochromatic flicker,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1081–1091 (1977).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. J. J. Wisowaty, “Estimates for the temporal response characteristics of chromatic pathways,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 970–977 (1981).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. V. C. Smith, R. W. Bowen, J. Pokorny, “Threshold temporal integration of chromatic stimuli,” Vision Res. 24, 653–659 (1984).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. Early-literature reviewed by J. L. Brown, “Flicker and intermittent stimulation,” in Vision and Visual Perception, C. H. Graham, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1965), Chap. 10.
  10. A. Gorea, C. W. Tyler, “New look at Bloch’s law for contrast,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 52–61 (1986).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. G. J. C. van der Horst, “Chromatic flicker,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 1213–1217 (1969).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. C. Noorlander, M. J. G. Heuts, J. J. Koenderink, “Influence of the target size on the detection of threshold for luminance and chromaticity contrast,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 1116–1121 (1980).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. C. F. Stromeyer, G. R. Cole, R. E. Kronauer, “Second-site adaptation in the red-green chromatic pathways,” Vision Res. 25, 219–237 (1985).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science (Wiley, New York, 1982).
  15. R. W. Nygaard, T. E. Frumkes, “Calibration of the retinal luminance provided by Maxwellian views,” Vision Res. 22, 433–434 (1982).
    [Crossref]
  16. Heterochromatic flicker photometry was performed at the highest available frequency for which the subject could detect flicker, and modulation was set to a value that allowed the subject to make a precise setting. In general, these frequencies varied with mean luminance: 20 – 27 Hz at 900 Td, 10 – 13 Hz at 90 Td, 8– 10 Hz at 9 Td, and 8 Hz at 0.9 Td. For the 0.5° field, the 900–Td settings were made at 13 – 16 Hz, and for the 8° field, the 9-Td settings were made at 10 – 16 Hz.
  17. D. G. Stork, D. S. Falk, “Visual temporal impulse responses from flicker sensitivities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 1130–1135 (1987). The computer program was kindly provided by David Stork.
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. A. B. Watson, J. Nachmias, “Patterns of temporal interaction in the detection of gratings,” Vision Res. 17, 893–902 (1977).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. J. J. Wisowaty, R. M. Boynton, “Temporal modulation sensitivity of the blue mechanism: measurements made without chromatic adaptation,” Vision Res. 20, 895–909 (1980).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. D. H. Kelly, “Visual responses to time-dependent stimuli: I. Amplitude sensitivity measurements,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 422–429 (1961).
    [Crossref]
  21. K. Uchikawa, M. Ikeda, “Temporal integration of chromatic double pulses for detection of equal-luminance wavelength changes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 2109–2115 (1986).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. The Stork–Falk17 impulse-response functions are computed for minimal phase filters. Watson and Nachmias18 derived their impulse response function model by considering only the amplitude spectrum, not the phase spectrum. For a few parameter conditions our modified Watson–Nachmias model produces sharp irregularities in the temporal contrast-sensitivity functions because of phase interactions of the component filters. The temporal contrast-sensitivity function data do not show local minima; therefore we smoothed the predictions by taking the envelope of predictions with parameter t0varying by ±5 msec. This procedure was used for the following temporal contrast-sensitivity functions: in series I, the 90-Td luminance temporal contrast-sensitivity function and the 900-Td chromatic temporal contrast sensitivity function; in series II, the 0.5° and 8° temporal contrast-sensitivity functions for luminance modulation at 9 and 900 Td.
  23. Reviewed by D. T. Lindsey, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “Phase-dependent sensitivity to heterochromatic flicker,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 921–927 (1986).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. J. A. J. Roufs, “Dynamic properties of vision. IV. Thresholds of decremental flashes, incremental flashes and doublets in relation to flicker fusion,” Vision Res. 14, 831–851 (1974).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. D. H. Kelly, R. E. Savoie, “Theory of flicker and transient responses. III. An essential nonlinearity,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 1481–1490 (1978).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. J. Krauskopf, “Discrimination and detection of changes in luminance,” Vision Res. 20, 671–677 (1980).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. T. D. Lamb, “Properties of cone photoreceptors in relation to color vision,” in Central and Peripheral Mechanisms of Color Vision, D. Ottoson, S. Zeki, eds. (Macmillan, London, 1985), pp. 151–164.
  28. S. J. Daly, R. A. Normann, “Temporal information processing in cones: effects of light adaptation on temporal summation and modulation,” Vision Res. 25, 1197–1206 (1985).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. J. R. Bergen, H. R. Wilson, “Prediction of flicker sensitivities from temporal three-pulse data,” Vision Res. 25, 577–582 (1985).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. D. A. Baylor, A. L. Hodgkin, “Reconstruction of the electrical responses of turtle cones to flashes and steps of light,”J. Physiol. (London) 242, 759–791 (1974).
  31. D. H. Kelly, “Spatiotemporal variation of chromatic and achromatic contrast thresholds,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 73, 742–750 (1983).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  32. W. B. Cushman, J. Z. Levinson, “Phase shift in red and green counterphase flicker at high frequencies,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 73, 1557–1561 (1983).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  33. P. K. Kaiser, M. Ayama, R. L. P. Vimal, “Flicker photometry: residual minimum flicker,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 1989–1993 (1986).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  34. We [W. H. Swanson, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, R. L. P. Vimal, “Phase shifts for heterochromatic flicker at intermediate frequencies,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2(13), P40 (1985)] extended the study of Lindsey et al.23 and found that phase shifts at 900 Td are larger than those at 90 Td.
  35. C. F. Stromeyer, G. R. Cole, R. E. Kronauer, “Chromatic suppression of cone inputs to the luminance flicker mechanism,” Vision Res. 27, 1113–1137 (1987).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  36. Kelly’s mean luminance of 68 cd/m2 results in an estimated effective retinal luminance of 466 Td. See Y. Le Grand, Light, Colour and Vision, 2nd ed., translated by R. W. G. Hunt, J. W. T. Walsh, F. R. W. Hunt (Chapman and Hall, London, 1968). Given the difference in mean luminance, field size, spatial structure, and subjects, the similarity between our 90-Td data and Kelly’s 466-Td data does not imply any contradiction between our calibration and Kelly’s.
  37. C. W. Tyler, “Analysis of visual modulation sensitivity. II. Peripheral retina and the role of photoreceptor dimensions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2, 393–398 (1985).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  38. J. Rovamo, A. Raninen, “Critical flicker frequency and M-scaling of stimulus size and retinal illuminance,” Vision Res. 24, 1127–1131 (1984).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  39. J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, S. Starr, “Variability of color mixture data—II. The effect of viewing field size on the unit coordinates,” Vision Res. 16, 1095–1098 (1976).
    [Crossref]
  40. J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “Effect of field size on red–green color mixture equations,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 705–708 (1976).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

1987 (2)

D. G. Stork, D. S. Falk, “Visual temporal impulse responses from flicker sensitivities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 1130–1135 (1987). The computer program was kindly provided by David Stork.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. F. Stromeyer, G. R. Cole, R. E. Kronauer, “Chromatic suppression of cone inputs to the luminance flicker mechanism,” Vision Res. 27, 1113–1137 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1986 (5)

1985 (5)

C. F. Stromeyer, G. R. Cole, R. E. Kronauer, “Second-site adaptation in the red-green chromatic pathways,” Vision Res. 25, 219–237 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

We [W. H. Swanson, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, R. L. P. Vimal, “Phase shifts for heterochromatic flicker at intermediate frequencies,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2(13), P40 (1985)] extended the study of Lindsey et al.23 and found that phase shifts at 900 Td are larger than those at 90 Td.

S. J. Daly, R. A. Normann, “Temporal information processing in cones: effects of light adaptation on temporal summation and modulation,” Vision Res. 25, 1197–1206 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. R. Bergen, H. R. Wilson, “Prediction of flicker sensitivities from temporal three-pulse data,” Vision Res. 25, 577–582 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Tyler, “Analysis of visual modulation sensitivity. II. Peripheral retina and the role of photoreceptor dimensions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2, 393–398 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1984 (2)

J. Rovamo, A. Raninen, “Critical flicker frequency and M-scaling of stimulus size and retinal illuminance,” Vision Res. 24, 1127–1131 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. C. Smith, R. W. Bowen, J. Pokorny, “Threshold temporal integration of chromatic stimuli,” Vision Res. 24, 653–659 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1983 (2)

1982 (1)

R. W. Nygaard, T. E. Frumkes, “Calibration of the retinal luminance provided by Maxwellian views,” Vision Res. 22, 433–434 (1982).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

1980 (3)

J. J. Wisowaty, R. M. Boynton, “Temporal modulation sensitivity of the blue mechanism: measurements made without chromatic adaptation,” Vision Res. 20, 895–909 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Noorlander, M. J. G. Heuts, J. J. Koenderink, “Influence of the target size on the detection of threshold for luminance and chromaticity contrast,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 1116–1121 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Krauskopf, “Discrimination and detection of changes in luminance,” Vision Res. 20, 671–677 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1978 (1)

1977 (2)

A. B. Watson, J. Nachmias, “Patterns of temporal interaction in the detection of gratings,” Vision Res. 17, 893–902 (1977).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. H. Kelly, D. van Norren, “Two-band model of heterochromatic flicker,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1081–1091 (1977).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1976 (2)

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, S. Starr, “Variability of color mixture data—II. The effect of viewing field size on the unit coordinates,” Vision Res. 16, 1095–1098 (1976).
[Crossref]

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “Effect of field size on red–green color mixture equations,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 705–708 (1976).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1974 (2)

D. A. Baylor, A. L. Hodgkin, “Reconstruction of the electrical responses of turtle cones to flashes and steps of light,”J. Physiol. (London) 242, 759–791 (1974).

J. A. J. Roufs, “Dynamic properties of vision. IV. Thresholds of decremental flashes, incremental flashes and doublets in relation to flicker fusion,” Vision Res. 14, 831–851 (1974).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1971 (1)

D. Regan, C. W. Tyler, “Some dynamic features of colour vision,” Vision Res. 11, 1307–1324 (1971).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1969 (1)

1961 (1)

1958 (2)

Ayama, M.

Baylor, D. A.

D. A. Baylor, A. L. Hodgkin, “Reconstruction of the electrical responses of turtle cones to flashes and steps of light,”J. Physiol. (London) 242, 759–791 (1974).

Bergen, J. R.

J. R. Bergen, H. R. Wilson, “Prediction of flicker sensitivities from temporal three-pulse data,” Vision Res. 25, 577–582 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bouman, M. A.

P. L. Walraven, H. J. Leebeek, M. A. Bouman, “Some measurements about the fusion frequency of colors,” Opt. Acta 5, 50–54 (1958).

Bowen, R. W.

V. C. Smith, R. W. Bowen, J. Pokorny, “Threshold temporal integration of chromatic stimuli,” Vision Res. 24, 653–659 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boynton, R. M.

J. J. Wisowaty, R. M. Boynton, “Temporal modulation sensitivity of the blue mechanism: measurements made without chromatic adaptation,” Vision Res. 20, 895–909 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brown, J. L.

Early-literature reviewed by J. L. Brown, “Flicker and intermittent stimulation,” in Vision and Visual Perception, C. H. Graham, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1965), Chap. 10.

Cole, G. R.

C. F. Stromeyer, G. R. Cole, R. E. Kronauer, “Chromatic suppression of cone inputs to the luminance flicker mechanism,” Vision Res. 27, 1113–1137 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. F. Stromeyer, G. R. Cole, R. E. Kronauer, “Second-site adaptation in the red-green chromatic pathways,” Vision Res. 25, 219–237 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cushman, W. B.

Daly, S. J.

S. J. Daly, R. A. Normann, “Temporal information processing in cones: effects of light adaptation on temporal summation and modulation,” Vision Res. 25, 1197–1206 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

deLange, H.

Falk, D. S.

Frumkes, T. E.

R. W. Nygaard, T. E. Frumkes, “Calibration of the retinal luminance provided by Maxwellian views,” Vision Res. 22, 433–434 (1982).
[Crossref]

Gorea, A.

Heuts, M. J. G.

Hodgkin, A. L.

D. A. Baylor, A. L. Hodgkin, “Reconstruction of the electrical responses of turtle cones to flashes and steps of light,”J. Physiol. (London) 242, 759–791 (1974).

Ikeda, M.

Kaiser, P. K.

Kelly, D. H.

Koenderink, J. J.

Krauskopf, J.

J. Krauskopf, “Discrimination and detection of changes in luminance,” Vision Res. 20, 671–677 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kronauer, R. E.

C. F. Stromeyer, G. R. Cole, R. E. Kronauer, “Chromatic suppression of cone inputs to the luminance flicker mechanism,” Vision Res. 27, 1113–1137 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. F. Stromeyer, G. R. Cole, R. E. Kronauer, “Second-site adaptation in the red-green chromatic pathways,” Vision Res. 25, 219–237 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lamb, T. D.

T. D. Lamb, “Properties of cone photoreceptors in relation to color vision,” in Central and Peripheral Mechanisms of Color Vision, D. Ottoson, S. Zeki, eds. (Macmillan, London, 1985), pp. 151–164.

Le Grand, Y.

Kelly’s mean luminance of 68 cd/m2 results in an estimated effective retinal luminance of 466 Td. See Y. Le Grand, Light, Colour and Vision, 2nd ed., translated by R. W. G. Hunt, J. W. T. Walsh, F. R. W. Hunt (Chapman and Hall, London, 1968). Given the difference in mean luminance, field size, spatial structure, and subjects, the similarity between our 90-Td data and Kelly’s 466-Td data does not imply any contradiction between our calibration and Kelly’s.

Leebeek, H. J.

P. L. Walraven, H. J. Leebeek, M. A. Bouman, “Some measurements about the fusion frequency of colors,” Opt. Acta 5, 50–54 (1958).

Levinson, J. Z.

Lindsey, D. T.

Nachmias, J.

A. B. Watson, J. Nachmias, “Patterns of temporal interaction in the detection of gratings,” Vision Res. 17, 893–902 (1977).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Noorlander, C.

Normann, R. A.

S. J. Daly, R. A. Normann, “Temporal information processing in cones: effects of light adaptation on temporal summation and modulation,” Vision Res. 25, 1197–1206 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nygaard, R. W.

R. W. Nygaard, T. E. Frumkes, “Calibration of the retinal luminance provided by Maxwellian views,” Vision Res. 22, 433–434 (1982).
[Crossref]

Pokorny, J.

Reviewed by D. T. Lindsey, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “Phase-dependent sensitivity to heterochromatic flicker,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 921–927 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

We [W. H. Swanson, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, R. L. P. Vimal, “Phase shifts for heterochromatic flicker at intermediate frequencies,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2(13), P40 (1985)] extended the study of Lindsey et al.23 and found that phase shifts at 900 Td are larger than those at 90 Td.

V. C. Smith, R. W. Bowen, J. Pokorny, “Threshold temporal integration of chromatic stimuli,” Vision Res. 24, 653–659 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “Effect of field size on red–green color mixture equations,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 705–708 (1976).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, S. Starr, “Variability of color mixture data—II. The effect of viewing field size on the unit coordinates,” Vision Res. 16, 1095–1098 (1976).
[Crossref]

Raninen, A.

J. Rovamo, A. Raninen, “Critical flicker frequency and M-scaling of stimulus size and retinal illuminance,” Vision Res. 24, 1127–1131 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Regan, D.

D. Regan, C. W. Tyler, “Some dynamic features of colour vision,” Vision Res. 11, 1307–1324 (1971).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roufs, J. A. J.

J. A. J. Roufs, “Dynamic properties of vision. IV. Thresholds of decremental flashes, incremental flashes and doublets in relation to flicker fusion,” Vision Res. 14, 831–851 (1974).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rovamo, J.

J. Rovamo, A. Raninen, “Critical flicker frequency and M-scaling of stimulus size and retinal illuminance,” Vision Res. 24, 1127–1131 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Savoie, R. E.

Smith, V. C.

Reviewed by D. T. Lindsey, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “Phase-dependent sensitivity to heterochromatic flicker,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 921–927 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

We [W. H. Swanson, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, R. L. P. Vimal, “Phase shifts for heterochromatic flicker at intermediate frequencies,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2(13), P40 (1985)] extended the study of Lindsey et al.23 and found that phase shifts at 900 Td are larger than those at 90 Td.

V. C. Smith, R. W. Bowen, J. Pokorny, “Threshold temporal integration of chromatic stimuli,” Vision Res. 24, 653–659 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “Effect of field size on red–green color mixture equations,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 705–708 (1976).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, S. Starr, “Variability of color mixture data—II. The effect of viewing field size on the unit coordinates,” Vision Res. 16, 1095–1098 (1976).
[Crossref]

Starr, S.

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, S. Starr, “Variability of color mixture data—II. The effect of viewing field size on the unit coordinates,” Vision Res. 16, 1095–1098 (1976).
[Crossref]

Stiles, W. S.

G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science (Wiley, New York, 1982).

Stork, D. G.

Stromeyer, C. F.

C. F. Stromeyer, G. R. Cole, R. E. Kronauer, “Chromatic suppression of cone inputs to the luminance flicker mechanism,” Vision Res. 27, 1113–1137 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. F. Stromeyer, G. R. Cole, R. E. Kronauer, “Second-site adaptation in the red-green chromatic pathways,” Vision Res. 25, 219–237 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Swanson, W. H.

We [W. H. Swanson, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, R. L. P. Vimal, “Phase shifts for heterochromatic flicker at intermediate frequencies,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2(13), P40 (1985)] extended the study of Lindsey et al.23 and found that phase shifts at 900 Td are larger than those at 90 Td.

Tyler, C. W.

Uchikawa, K.

van der Horst, G. J. C.

van Norren, D.

Vimal, R. L. P.

P. K. Kaiser, M. Ayama, R. L. P. Vimal, “Flicker photometry: residual minimum flicker,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 1989–1993 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

We [W. H. Swanson, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, R. L. P. Vimal, “Phase shifts for heterochromatic flicker at intermediate frequencies,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2(13), P40 (1985)] extended the study of Lindsey et al.23 and found that phase shifts at 900 Td are larger than those at 90 Td.

Walraven, P. L.

P. L. Walraven, H. J. Leebeek, M. A. Bouman, “Some measurements about the fusion frequency of colors,” Opt. Acta 5, 50–54 (1958).

Watson, A. B.

A. B. Watson, J. Nachmias, “Patterns of temporal interaction in the detection of gratings,” Vision Res. 17, 893–902 (1977).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reviewed by A. B. Watson, “Temporal sensitivity,” in Sensory Processes and Perception, Vol. I of Handbook of Perception and Human Performance, K. R. Boff, L. Kaufman, J. P. Thomas, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1986), Chap. 6.

Wilson, H. R.

J. R. Bergen, H. R. Wilson, “Prediction of flicker sensitivities from temporal three-pulse data,” Vision Res. 25, 577–582 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wisowaty, J. J.

J. J. Wisowaty, “Estimates for the temporal response characteristics of chromatic pathways,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 970–977 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. J. Wisowaty, R. M. Boynton, “Temporal modulation sensitivity of the blue mechanism: measurements made without chromatic adaptation,” Vision Res. 20, 895–909 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wyszecki, G.

G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science (Wiley, New York, 1982).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (10)

G. J. C. van der Horst, “Chromatic flicker,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 1213–1217 (1969).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “Effect of field size on red–green color mixture equations,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 705–708 (1976).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. H. Kelly, D. van Norren, “Two-band model of heterochromatic flicker,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1081–1091 (1977).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. H. Kelly, R. E. Savoie, “Theory of flicker and transient responses. III. An essential nonlinearity,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 1481–1490 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Noorlander, M. J. G. Heuts, J. J. Koenderink, “Influence of the target size on the detection of threshold for luminance and chromaticity contrast,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 1116–1121 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. J. Wisowaty, “Estimates for the temporal response characteristics of chromatic pathways,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 970–977 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. H. Kelly, “Spatiotemporal variation of chromatic and achromatic contrast thresholds,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 73, 742–750 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. B. Cushman, J. Z. Levinson, “Phase shift in red and green counterphase flicker at high frequencies,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 73, 1557–1561 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. H. Kelly, “Visual responses to time-dependent stimuli: I. Amplitude sensitivity measurements,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 422–429 (1961).
[Crossref]

H. deLange, “Research into the dynamic nature of the human fovea-cortex systems with intermittent and modulated light. I. Attenuation characteristics with white and colored light.” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 777–784 (1958).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (7)

J. Physiol. (London) (1)

D. A. Baylor, A. L. Hodgkin, “Reconstruction of the electrical responses of turtle cones to flashes and steps of light,”J. Physiol. (London) 242, 759–791 (1974).

Opt. Acta (1)

P. L. Walraven, H. J. Leebeek, M. A. Bouman, “Some measurements about the fusion frequency of colors,” Opt. Acta 5, 50–54 (1958).

Vision Res. (14)

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref]

Reviewed by M. Ikeda, “Temporal impulse response,” Vision Res. 26, 1431–1440 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. B. Watson, J. Nachmias, “Patterns of temporal interaction in the detection of gratings,” Vision Res. 17, 893–902 (1977).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref]

Other (7)

Kelly’s mean luminance of 68 cd/m2 results in an estimated effective retinal luminance of 466 Td. See Y. Le Grand, Light, Colour and Vision, 2nd ed., translated by R. W. G. Hunt, J. W. T. Walsh, F. R. W. Hunt (Chapman and Hall, London, 1968). Given the difference in mean luminance, field size, spatial structure, and subjects, the similarity between our 90-Td data and Kelly’s 466-Td data does not imply any contradiction between our calibration and Kelly’s.

T. D. Lamb, “Properties of cone photoreceptors in relation to color vision,” in Central and Peripheral Mechanisms of Color Vision, D. Ottoson, S. Zeki, eds. (Macmillan, London, 1985), pp. 151–164.

The Stork–Falk17 impulse-response functions are computed for minimal phase filters. Watson and Nachmias18 derived their impulse response function model by considering only the amplitude spectrum, not the phase spectrum. For a few parameter conditions our modified Watson–Nachmias model produces sharp irregularities in the temporal contrast-sensitivity functions because of phase interactions of the component filters. The temporal contrast-sensitivity function data do not show local minima; therefore we smoothed the predictions by taking the envelope of predictions with parameter t0varying by ±5 msec. This procedure was used for the following temporal contrast-sensitivity functions: in series I, the 90-Td luminance temporal contrast-sensitivity function and the 900-Td chromatic temporal contrast sensitivity function; in series II, the 0.5° and 8° temporal contrast-sensitivity functions for luminance modulation at 9 and 900 Td.

Heterochromatic flicker photometry was performed at the highest available frequency for which the subject could detect flicker, and modulation was set to a value that allowed the subject to make a precise setting. In general, these frequencies varied with mean luminance: 20 – 27 Hz at 900 Td, 10 – 13 Hz at 90 Td, 8– 10 Hz at 9 Td, and 8 Hz at 0.9 Td. For the 0.5° field, the 900–Td settings were made at 13 – 16 Hz, and for the 8° field, the 9-Td settings were made at 10 – 16 Hz.

Reviewed by A. B. Watson, “Temporal sensitivity,” in Sensory Processes and Perception, Vol. I of Handbook of Perception and Human Performance, K. R. Boff, L. Kaufman, J. P. Thomas, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1986), Chap. 6.

G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science (Wiley, New York, 1982).

Early-literature reviewed by J. L. Brown, “Flicker and intermittent stimulation,” in Vision and Visual Perception, C. H. Graham, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1965), Chap. 10.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Temporal luminance profiles of stimuli: sinusoids shown on top, pulses shown on bottom. The solid lines represent the luminance profile of the 625-nm source; dashed lines represent the luminance profile of the 564-nm source. For luminance perturbations (left), the sources are modulated in the same phase, while for chromatic modulation (right) the sources are modulated in anti-phase.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Amplitude sensitivity (top) and modulation sensitivity (bottom) as a function of frequency (hertz) for luminance (left) and chromatic (right) modulation. Data for the two observers are shown in the amplitude plots as filled symbols; analytic temporal contrast-sensitivity functions derived from the average of the observers are shown as smooth curves in both amplitude and modulation plots. The uppermost curves in the two amplitude plots are for 0.9 Td, with luminance increasing downward. In the modulation plots the temporal contrast-sensitivity functions for different luminance conditions can be easily distinguished at high frequencies: modulation sensitivity increases with mean luminance.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Response amplitude as a function of time (in milliseconds) from response onset for the impulse response functions (IRF’s) derived from data in Fig. 3 for luminance (left) and chromatic (right) perturbations. The digital impulse response functions are shown as triangles, and the analytic impulse response functions are shown as smooth curves. Each panel is for a different luminance, with the highest luminance in the uppermost panels.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Threshold pulse-modulation depth as a function of stimulus duration (milliseconds) for luminance (left) and chromatic (right) perturbations at 900 Td (top) and 9 Td (bottom). Data are shown as filled symbols; predictions from the analytic impulse response functions are shown as smooth curves. Note that the data and predictions are plotted in terms of modulation threshold; if plotted in amplitude threshold the 9- and 900-Td plots would be separated by 2 log units.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Data and theoretical functions for detection of luminance perturbations by observer TU. Data were gathered at two mean luminances: 900 Td (left) and 9 Td (right). Predictions from the analytic impulse response functions are shown as smooth curves. Modulation sensitivity is shown in the top panels as a function of frequency (hertz) for field sizes of 8° (squares) and 0.5° (circles). Analytic impulse response functions derived from modulation-sensitivity data are shown in the middle panels, with response amplitude plotted as a function of time (in milliseconds) from response onset, for field sizes of 8° (dashed curves), 2° (solid curves), and 0.5° (dotted curves). Pulse-detection data and threshold-duration functions predicted by the impulse response functions are shown in the bottom panels; threshold pulse-modulation depth is plotted as a function of pulse duration (msec) for field sizes of 8° (squares), 2° (circles), and 0.5° (triangles). Threshold-duration functions from the analytic impulse response functions are shown as smooth curves for field sizes of 8° (dashed curves), 2° (solid curves), and 0.5° (dotted curves).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Data and theoretical functions for detection of luminance perturbations by observer WS. Data and predictions are as labeled in Fig. 5.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Data and theoretical functions for detection of chromatic perturbations by observer TU. Data and predictions are as labeled in Fig. 5.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Data and theoretical functions for detection of chromatic perturbations by observer WS. Data and predictions are as labeled in Fig. 5.

Tables (3)

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Table 1 Scale Factors (in log units) Used to Fit Pulse-Detection Dataa

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Table 2 Parameters for Analytic Impulse Response Functions as a Function of Mean Luminance for a 2° Fielda

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Table 3 Parameters for Analytic Impulse Response Function as a Function of Field Sizea

Equations (3)

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I ( c , t ) = ( t n - 1 e - 2 π c t ) / ( n - 1 ) ! ,
I R F ( t ) = A [ I ( c 1 , t ) / k 1 ] - B [ I ( c 2 , t - t 0 ) / k 2 ] ,
I R F ( t ) = A [ I ( c 1 , t - t 1 ) / k 1 ] - B [ I ( c 2 , t - t 0 ) / k 2 ] + C [ I ( c 3 , t ) / k 3 ] ,

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