Abstract

The intrinsic melanopsin photoresponse may initiate visual signals that differ in spatiotemporal characteristics from the cone-opsin- and rhodopsin-mediated signals. Applying the CIE standard observer functions in silent-substitution methods can require individual differences in photoreceptor spectral sensitivities and pre-receptoral filtering to be corrected; failure to do so can lead to the intrusion of more sensitive cone processes with putative melanopsin-directed stimuli. Here we evaluate heterochromatic flicker photometry (HFP) and photoreceptor-directed temporal white noise as techniques to limit the effect of these individual differences. Individualized luminous efficiency functions (${{V}}(\lambda)$) were compared to the CIE standard observer functions. We show that adapting chromaticities used in silent-substitution methods can deviate by up to 54% in luminance when estimated with the individual and standard observer functions. These deviations lead to inadvertent cone intrusions in the visual functions measured with melanopsin-directed stimuli. To eliminate the intrusions, individual HFP corrections are sufficient at low frequencies (${\sim}{{1}}\;{\rm{Hz}}$) but temporal white noise is also required at higher frequencies to desensitize penumbral cones. We therefore recommend the selective application of individualized observer calibration and/or temporal white noise in silent-substitution paradigms when studying melanopsin-directed photoresponses.

© 2021 Optical Society of America

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Supplementary Material (1)

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» Supplement 1       5-primary spectra.

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