Abstract

Gamut mapping is an important part of the color reproduction pipeline. A color’s appearance depends on the gamut achievable by the reproduction device (e.g., display, printer, etc.) or the reproduction material (e.g., plastics, paints, textiles, etc.). In the surface color industry, often a single color is managed such that, if it lies outside of the reproduction gamut, it would be mapped to a visually similar color on the boundary of the reproduction gamut using a gamut mapping algorithm. The algorithm’s performance mainly depends on the uniformity of the working color space and/or selection of a focal point, inside the reproduction gamut, towards which the mapping line should be directed. Hitherto, the CIE standard color difference formula CIEDE2000 is the best known perceptual color difference metric for the standard dynamic range. In this paper, a method is proposed with the aim to achieve perceptually uniform mapping of a source color to the reproduction gamut using the CIEDE2000 as reference for uniformity. The proposed method, named UNIMAP00, is independent of the uniformity of the working color space, and no focal points are needed. The current results closely agreed with the experimental findings previously reported by other researchers.

© 2020 Optical Society of America

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References

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2019 (1)

G. Wu, “Charamer mismatch-based spectral gamut mapping,” Laser Phys. Lett. 16, 095206 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (2)

2017 (5)

S. W. Zamir, J. Vazquez-Corral, and M. Bertalmo, “Gamut extension for cinema,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 26, 1595–1606 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Gatta and I. Farup, “Gamut mapping in RGB colour spaces with the iterative ratios diffusion algorithm,” Electron. Imaging 2017, 12–20 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Safdar, G. Cui, Y. J. Kim, and M. R. Luo, “Perceptually uniform color space for image signals including high dynamic range and wide gamut,” Opt. Express 25, 15131–15151 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Li, Z. Li, Z. Wang, Y. Xu, M. R. Luo, G. Cui, M. Melgosa, M. H. Brill, and M. Pointer, “Comprehensive color solutions: CAM16, CAT16, and CAM16-UCS,” Color Res. Appl. 42, 703–718 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Melgosa, G. Cui, C. Oleari, P. J. Pardo, M. Huang, C. Li, and M. R. Luo, “Revisiting the weighting function for lightness in the CIEDE 2000 colour-difference formula,” Color. Technol. 133, 273–282 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

S. Bektas, “Intersection of an ellipsoid and a plane,” Int. J. Res. Eng. Appl. Sci. 6, 273–283 (2016).

2014 (1)

S. W. Zamir, J. Vazquez-Corral, and M. Bertalm, “Gamut mapping in cinematography through perceptually-based contrast modification,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Signal Process. 8, 490–503 (2014).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

I. Lissner and P. Urban, “Toward a unified color space for perception-based image processing,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 21, 1153–1168 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

S. Srivastava, T. Ha, E. Delp, and J. Allebach, “Color management using optimal three-dimensional look-up tables,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 54, 30402 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

H. Zeng, “Color characterization for inkjet copiers,” Proc. SPIE 6807, 68070X (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

J.-B. Huang, Y.-C. Tseng, S.-I. Wu, and S.-J. Wang, “Information preserving color transformation for protanopia and deuteranopia,” IEEE Signal Process. Lett. 14, 711–714 (2007).
[Crossref]

P. Urban, M. R. Rosen, R. S. Berns, and D. Schleicher, “Embedding non-Euclidean color spaces into Euclidean color spaces with minimal isometric disagreement,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1516–1528 (2007).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

Y.-H. Cho, Y.-T. Kim, H.-K. Lee, and Y.-H. Ha, “Color image enhancement technique using gamut mapping based on color space division,” Proc. SPIE 5008, 81–91 (2003).
[Crossref]

B.-H. Kang, J. Morovič, M. R. Luo, and M.-S. Cho, “Gamut compression and extension algorithms based on observer experimental data,” ETRI J. 25, 156–170 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (3)

L. MacDonald, J. Morovič, and K. Xiao, “A topographic gamut compression algorithm,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 46, 228–236 (2002).

G. Cui, M. Luo, B. Rigg, G. Roesler, and K. Witt, “Uniform colour spaces based on the DIN99 colour-difference formula,” Color Res. Appl. 27, 282–290 (2002).
[Crossref]

C. Li, M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, and R. W. Hunt, “CMC 2000 chromatic adaptation transform: CMCCAT2000,” Color Res. Appl. 27, 49–58 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

J. Morovič and M. R. Luo, “Evaluating gamut mapping algorithms for universal applicability,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 85–102 (2001).
[Crossref]

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and B. Rigg, “The development of the CIE 2000 colour-difference formula: CIEDE2000,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 340–350 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (3)

J. Morovič and M. R. Luo, “Calculating medium and image gamut boundaries for gamut mapping,” Color Res. Appl. 25, 394–401 (2000).
[Crossref]

G. Finlayson and S. Hordley, “Improving gamut mapping color constancy,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 9, 1774–1783 (2000).
[Crossref]

C.-S. Lee, C.-H. Lee, and Y.-H. Ha, “Parametric gamut mapping algorithms using variable anchor points,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 44, 68–73 (2000).

1999 (2)

R. G. Kuehni, “Towards an improved uniform color space,” Color Res. Appl. 24, 253–265 (1999).
[Crossref]

G. J. Braun and M. D. Fairchild, “Image lightness rescaling using sigmoidal contrast enhancement functions,” J. Electron. Imaging 8, 380–393 (1999).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

M. R. Luo, M.-C. Lo, and W.-G. Kuo, “The LLAB (l: c) colour model,” Color Res. Appl. 21, 412–429 (1996).
[Crossref]

1980 (1)

M. Pointer, “The gamut of real surface colours,” Color Res. Appl. 5, 145–155 (1980).
[Crossref]

Allebach, J.

S. Srivastava, T. Ha, E. Delp, and J. Allebach, “Color management using optimal three-dimensional look-up tables,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 54, 30402 (2010).
[Crossref]

Alsam, A.

A. Alsam and I. Farup, “Spatial colour gamut mapping by orthogonal projection of gradients onto constant hue lines,” in International Symposium on Visual Computing (Springer, 2012), pp. 556–565.

Arnabat, J.

J. Morovič, J. Arnabat, and J. Vilar, “Visually closest cross-gamut matches between surface colors,” in Color and Imaging Conference (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2007), Vol. 2007, pp. 273–277.

Bektas, S.

S. Bektas, “Intersection of an ellipsoid and a plane,” Int. J. Res. Eng. Appl. Sci. 6, 273–283 (2016).

Berns, R. S.

Bertalm, M.

S. W. Zamir, J. Vazquez-Corral, and M. Bertalm, “Gamut mapping in cinematography through perceptually-based contrast modification,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Signal Process. 8, 490–503 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bertalmo, M.

S. W. Zamir, J. Vazquez-Corral, and M. Bertalmo, “Gamut extension for cinema,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 26, 1595–1606 (2017).
[Crossref]

Boust, C.

M. Dubail, C. Boust, and C. Dazord, “Study of contemporary art preservation with digitization,” in Archiving Conference (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2009), Vol. 2009, pp. 47–52.

Braun, G. J.

G. J. Braun and M. D. Fairchild, “Image lightness rescaling using sigmoidal contrast enhancement functions,” J. Electron. Imaging 8, 380–393 (1999).
[Crossref]

Brill, M. H.

C. Li, Z. Li, Z. Wang, Y. Xu, M. R. Luo, G. Cui, M. Melgosa, M. H. Brill, and M. Pointer, “Comprehensive color solutions: CAM16, CAT16, and CAM16-UCS,” Color Res. Appl. 42, 703–718 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cho, M.-S.

B.-H. Kang, J. Morovič, M. R. Luo, and M.-S. Cho, “Gamut compression and extension algorithms based on observer experimental data,” ETRI J. 25, 156–170 (2003).
[Crossref]

Cho, Y.-H.

Y.-H. Cho, Y.-T. Kim, H.-K. Lee, and Y.-H. Ha, “Color image enhancement technique using gamut mapping based on color space division,” Proc. SPIE 5008, 81–91 (2003).
[Crossref]

Cui, G.

M. Safdar, G. Cui, Y. J. Kim, and M. R. Luo, “Perceptually uniform color space for image signals including high dynamic range and wide gamut,” Opt. Express 25, 15131–15151 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Li, Z. Li, Z. Wang, Y. Xu, M. R. Luo, G. Cui, M. Melgosa, M. H. Brill, and M. Pointer, “Comprehensive color solutions: CAM16, CAT16, and CAM16-UCS,” Color Res. Appl. 42, 703–718 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Melgosa, G. Cui, C. Oleari, P. J. Pardo, M. Huang, C. Li, and M. R. Luo, “Revisiting the weighting function for lightness in the CIEDE 2000 colour-difference formula,” Color. Technol. 133, 273–282 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Cui, M. Luo, B. Rigg, G. Roesler, and K. Witt, “Uniform colour spaces based on the DIN99 colour-difference formula,” Color Res. Appl. 27, 282–290 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and B. Rigg, “The development of the CIE 2000 colour-difference formula: CIEDE2000,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 340–350 (2001).
[Crossref]

M. Safdar, M. R. Luo, and G. Cui, “Investigating performance of uniform color spaces for high dynamic range and wide gamut color difference applications,” in Color and Imaging Conference (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2016), Vol. 2016, pp. 88–93.

Dazord, C.

M. Dubail, C. Boust, and C. Dazord, “Study of contemporary art preservation with digitization,” in Archiving Conference (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2009), Vol. 2009, pp. 47–52.

Delp, E.

S. Srivastava, T. Ha, E. Delp, and J. Allebach, “Color management using optimal three-dimensional look-up tables,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 54, 30402 (2010).
[Crossref]

Dubail, M.

M. Dubail, C. Boust, and C. Dazord, “Study of contemporary art preservation with digitization,” in Archiving Conference (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2009), Vol. 2009, pp. 47–52.

Ebner, F.

F. Ebner and M. D. Fairchild, “Development and testing of a color space (IPT) with improved hue uniformity,” in Color and Imaging Conference (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 1998), Vol. 1998, pp. 8–13.

Fairchild, M. D.

G. J. Braun and M. D. Fairchild, “Image lightness rescaling using sigmoidal contrast enhancement functions,” J. Electron. Imaging 8, 380–393 (1999).
[Crossref]

F. Ebner and M. D. Fairchild, “Development and testing of a color space (IPT) with improved hue uniformity,” in Color and Imaging Conference (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 1998), Vol. 1998, pp. 8–13.

Farup, I.

C. Gatta and I. Farup, “Gamut mapping in RGB colour spaces with the iterative ratios diffusion algorithm,” Electron. Imaging 2017, 12–20 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Alsam and I. Farup, “Spatial colour gamut mapping by orthogonal projection of gradients onto constant hue lines,” in International Symposium on Visual Computing (Springer, 2012), pp. 556–565.

Finlayson, G.

G. Finlayson and S. Hordley, “Improving gamut mapping color constancy,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 9, 1774–1783 (2000).
[Crossref]

Gatta, C.

C. Gatta and I. Farup, “Gamut mapping in RGB colour spaces with the iterative ratios diffusion algorithm,” Electron. Imaging 2017, 12–20 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ha, T.

S. Srivastava, T. Ha, E. Delp, and J. Allebach, “Color management using optimal three-dimensional look-up tables,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 54, 30402 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ha, Y.-H.

Y.-H. Cho, Y.-T. Kim, H.-K. Lee, and Y.-H. Ha, “Color image enhancement technique using gamut mapping based on color space division,” Proc. SPIE 5008, 81–91 (2003).
[Crossref]

C.-S. Lee, C.-H. Lee, and Y.-H. Ha, “Parametric gamut mapping algorithms using variable anchor points,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 44, 68–73 (2000).

Hordley, S.

G. Finlayson and S. Hordley, “Improving gamut mapping color constancy,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 9, 1774–1783 (2000).
[Crossref]

Huang, J.-B.

J.-B. Huang, Y.-C. Tseng, S.-I. Wu, and S.-J. Wang, “Information preserving color transformation for protanopia and deuteranopia,” IEEE Signal Process. Lett. 14, 711–714 (2007).
[Crossref]

Huang, M.

M. Melgosa, G. Cui, C. Oleari, P. J. Pardo, M. Huang, C. Li, and M. R. Luo, “Revisiting the weighting function for lightness in the CIEDE 2000 colour-difference formula,” Color. Technol. 133, 273–282 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hunt, R. W.

C. Li, M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, and R. W. Hunt, “CMC 2000 chromatic adaptation transform: CMCCAT2000,” Color Res. Appl. 27, 49–58 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kang, B.-H.

B.-H. Kang, J. Morovič, M. R. Luo, and M.-S. Cho, “Gamut compression and extension algorithms based on observer experimental data,” ETRI J. 25, 156–170 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y. J.

Kim, Y.-T.

Y.-H. Cho, Y.-T. Kim, H.-K. Lee, and Y.-H. Ha, “Color image enhancement technique using gamut mapping based on color space division,” Proc. SPIE 5008, 81–91 (2003).
[Crossref]

Klein, G. A.

G. A. Klein and T. Meyrath, Industrial Color Physics (Springer, 2010), Vol. 154.

Kuehni, R. G.

R. G. Kuehni, “Towards an improved uniform color space,” Color Res. Appl. 24, 253–265 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kuo, W.-G.

M. R. Luo, M.-C. Lo, and W.-G. Kuo, “The LLAB (l: c) colour model,” Color Res. Appl. 21, 412–429 (1996).
[Crossref]

Lee, C.-H.

C.-S. Lee, C.-H. Lee, and Y.-H. Ha, “Parametric gamut mapping algorithms using variable anchor points,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 44, 68–73 (2000).

Lee, C.-S.

C.-S. Lee, C.-H. Lee, and Y.-H. Ha, “Parametric gamut mapping algorithms using variable anchor points,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 44, 68–73 (2000).

Lee, H.-K.

Y.-H. Cho, Y.-T. Kim, H.-K. Lee, and Y.-H. Ha, “Color image enhancement technique using gamut mapping based on color space division,” Proc. SPIE 5008, 81–91 (2003).
[Crossref]

Li, C.

C. Li, Z. Li, Z. Wang, Y. Xu, M. R. Luo, G. Cui, M. Melgosa, M. H. Brill, and M. Pointer, “Comprehensive color solutions: CAM16, CAT16, and CAM16-UCS,” Color Res. Appl. 42, 703–718 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Melgosa, G. Cui, C. Oleari, P. J. Pardo, M. Huang, C. Li, and M. R. Luo, “Revisiting the weighting function for lightness in the CIEDE 2000 colour-difference formula,” Color. Technol. 133, 273–282 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Li, M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, and R. W. Hunt, “CMC 2000 chromatic adaptation transform: CMCCAT2000,” Color Res. Appl. 27, 49–58 (2002).
[Crossref]

Li, Z.

C. Li, Z. Li, Z. Wang, Y. Xu, M. R. Luo, G. Cui, M. Melgosa, M. H. Brill, and M. Pointer, “Comprehensive color solutions: CAM16, CAT16, and CAM16-UCS,” Color Res. Appl. 42, 703–718 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lissner, I.

I. Lissner and P. Urban, “Toward a unified color space for perception-based image processing,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 21, 1153–1168 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lo, M.-C.

M. R. Luo, M.-C. Lo, and W.-G. Kuo, “The LLAB (l: c) colour model,” Color Res. Appl. 21, 412–429 (1996).
[Crossref]

Luo, M.

G. Cui, M. Luo, B. Rigg, G. Roesler, and K. Witt, “Uniform colour spaces based on the DIN99 colour-difference formula,” Color Res. Appl. 27, 282–290 (2002).
[Crossref]

Luo, M. R.

L. Xu, B. Zhao, and M. R. Luo, “Colour gamut mapping between small and large colour gamuts: Part I. Gamut compression,” Opt. Express 26, 11481–11495 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Xu, B. Zhao, and M. R. Luo, “Color gamut mapping between small and large color gamuts: Part II. Gamut extension,” Opt. Express 26, 17335–17349 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Safdar, G. Cui, Y. J. Kim, and M. R. Luo, “Perceptually uniform color space for image signals including high dynamic range and wide gamut,” Opt. Express 25, 15131–15151 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Li, Z. Li, Z. Wang, Y. Xu, M. R. Luo, G. Cui, M. Melgosa, M. H. Brill, and M. Pointer, “Comprehensive color solutions: CAM16, CAT16, and CAM16-UCS,” Color Res. Appl. 42, 703–718 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Melgosa, G. Cui, C. Oleari, P. J. Pardo, M. Huang, C. Li, and M. R. Luo, “Revisiting the weighting function for lightness in the CIEDE 2000 colour-difference formula,” Color. Technol. 133, 273–282 (2017).
[Crossref]

B.-H. Kang, J. Morovič, M. R. Luo, and M.-S. Cho, “Gamut compression and extension algorithms based on observer experimental data,” ETRI J. 25, 156–170 (2003).
[Crossref]

C. Li, M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, and R. W. Hunt, “CMC 2000 chromatic adaptation transform: CMCCAT2000,” Color Res. Appl. 27, 49–58 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Morovič and M. R. Luo, “Evaluating gamut mapping algorithms for universal applicability,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 85–102 (2001).
[Crossref]

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and B. Rigg, “The development of the CIE 2000 colour-difference formula: CIEDE2000,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 340–350 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Morovič and M. R. Luo, “Calculating medium and image gamut boundaries for gamut mapping,” Color Res. Appl. 25, 394–401 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. R. Luo, M.-C. Lo, and W.-G. Kuo, “The LLAB (l: c) colour model,” Color Res. Appl. 21, 412–429 (1996).
[Crossref]

M. Safdar, M. R. Luo, and G. Cui, “Investigating performance of uniform color spaces for high dynamic range and wide gamut color difference applications,” in Color and Imaging Conference (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2016), Vol. 2016, pp. 88–93.

MacDonald, L.

L. MacDonald, J. Morovič, and K. Xiao, “A topographic gamut compression algorithm,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 46, 228–236 (2002).

Melgosa, M.

M. Melgosa, G. Cui, C. Oleari, P. J. Pardo, M. Huang, C. Li, and M. R. Luo, “Revisiting the weighting function for lightness in the CIEDE 2000 colour-difference formula,” Color. Technol. 133, 273–282 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Li, Z. Li, Z. Wang, Y. Xu, M. R. Luo, G. Cui, M. Melgosa, M. H. Brill, and M. Pointer, “Comprehensive color solutions: CAM16, CAT16, and CAM16-UCS,” Color Res. Appl. 42, 703–718 (2017).
[Crossref]

Meyrath, T.

G. A. Klein and T. Meyrath, Industrial Color Physics (Springer, 2010), Vol. 154.

Morovic, J.

B.-H. Kang, J. Morovič, M. R. Luo, and M.-S. Cho, “Gamut compression and extension algorithms based on observer experimental data,” ETRI J. 25, 156–170 (2003).
[Crossref]

L. MacDonald, J. Morovič, and K. Xiao, “A topographic gamut compression algorithm,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 46, 228–236 (2002).

J. Morovič and M. R. Luo, “Evaluating gamut mapping algorithms for universal applicability,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 85–102 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Morovič and M. R. Luo, “Calculating medium and image gamut boundaries for gamut mapping,” Color Res. Appl. 25, 394–401 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Morovič and P.-L. Sun, “Non–iterative minimum ΔE gamut clipping,” in Color and Imaging Conference (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2001), Vol. 2001, pp. 251–256.

J. Morovič, Guidelines for the Evaluation of Gamut Mapping Algorithms (Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage (CIE), 2003), Vol. 153, paper D8-6.

J. Morovič, J. Arnabat, and J. Vilar, “Visually closest cross-gamut matches between surface colors,” in Color and Imaging Conference (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2007), Vol. 2007, pp. 273–277.

J. Morovič, Color Gamut Mapping (Wiley, 2008), Vol. 10.

Oleari, C.

M. Melgosa, G. Cui, C. Oleari, P. J. Pardo, M. Huang, C. Li, and M. R. Luo, “Revisiting the weighting function for lightness in the CIEDE 2000 colour-difference formula,” Color. Technol. 133, 273–282 (2017).
[Crossref]

Pardo, P. J.

M. Melgosa, G. Cui, C. Oleari, P. J. Pardo, M. Huang, C. Li, and M. R. Luo, “Revisiting the weighting function for lightness in the CIEDE 2000 colour-difference formula,” Color. Technol. 133, 273–282 (2017).
[Crossref]

Pointer, M.

C. Li, Z. Li, Z. Wang, Y. Xu, M. R. Luo, G. Cui, M. Melgosa, M. H. Brill, and M. Pointer, “Comprehensive color solutions: CAM16, CAT16, and CAM16-UCS,” Color Res. Appl. 42, 703–718 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Pointer, “The gamut of real surface colours,” Color Res. Appl. 5, 145–155 (1980).
[Crossref]

Rigg, B.

C. Li, M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, and R. W. Hunt, “CMC 2000 chromatic adaptation transform: CMCCAT2000,” Color Res. Appl. 27, 49–58 (2002).
[Crossref]

G. Cui, M. Luo, B. Rigg, G. Roesler, and K. Witt, “Uniform colour spaces based on the DIN99 colour-difference formula,” Color Res. Appl. 27, 282–290 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and B. Rigg, “The development of the CIE 2000 colour-difference formula: CIEDE2000,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 340–350 (2001).
[Crossref]

Roesler, G.

G. Cui, M. Luo, B. Rigg, G. Roesler, and K. Witt, “Uniform colour spaces based on the DIN99 colour-difference formula,” Color Res. Appl. 27, 282–290 (2002).
[Crossref]

Rosen, M. R.

Safdar, M.

M. Safdar, G. Cui, Y. J. Kim, and M. R. Luo, “Perceptually uniform color space for image signals including high dynamic range and wide gamut,” Opt. Express 25, 15131–15151 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Safdar, M. R. Luo, and G. Cui, “Investigating performance of uniform color spaces for high dynamic range and wide gamut color difference applications,” in Color and Imaging Conference (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2016), Vol. 2016, pp. 88–93.

Schleicher, D.

Srivastava, S.

S. Srivastava, T. Ha, E. Delp, and J. Allebach, “Color management using optimal three-dimensional look-up tables,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 54, 30402 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sun, P.-L.

J. Morovič and P.-L. Sun, “Non–iterative minimum ΔE gamut clipping,” in Color and Imaging Conference (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2001), Vol. 2001, pp. 251–256.

Tseng, Y.-C.

J.-B. Huang, Y.-C. Tseng, S.-I. Wu, and S.-J. Wang, “Information preserving color transformation for protanopia and deuteranopia,” IEEE Signal Process. Lett. 14, 711–714 (2007).
[Crossref]

Urban, P.

I. Lissner and P. Urban, “Toward a unified color space for perception-based image processing,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 21, 1153–1168 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. Urban, M. R. Rosen, R. S. Berns, and D. Schleicher, “Embedding non-Euclidean color spaces into Euclidean color spaces with minimal isometric disagreement,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1516–1528 (2007).
[Crossref]

Vazquez-Corral, J.

S. W. Zamir, J. Vazquez-Corral, and M. Bertalmo, “Gamut extension for cinema,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 26, 1595–1606 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. W. Zamir, J. Vazquez-Corral, and M. Bertalm, “Gamut mapping in cinematography through perceptually-based contrast modification,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Signal Process. 8, 490–503 (2014).
[Crossref]

Vilar, J.

J. Morovič, J. Arnabat, and J. Vilar, “Visually closest cross-gamut matches between surface colors,” in Color and Imaging Conference (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2007), Vol. 2007, pp. 273–277.

Wang, S.-J.

J.-B. Huang, Y.-C. Tseng, S.-I. Wu, and S.-J. Wang, “Information preserving color transformation for protanopia and deuteranopia,” IEEE Signal Process. Lett. 14, 711–714 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z.

C. Li, Z. Li, Z. Wang, Y. Xu, M. R. Luo, G. Cui, M. Melgosa, M. H. Brill, and M. Pointer, “Comprehensive color solutions: CAM16, CAT16, and CAM16-UCS,” Color Res. Appl. 42, 703–718 (2017).
[Crossref]

Witt, K.

G. Cui, M. Luo, B. Rigg, G. Roesler, and K. Witt, “Uniform colour spaces based on the DIN99 colour-difference formula,” Color Res. Appl. 27, 282–290 (2002).
[Crossref]

Wu, G.

G. Wu, “Charamer mismatch-based spectral gamut mapping,” Laser Phys. Lett. 16, 095206 (2019).
[Crossref]

Wu, S.-I.

J.-B. Huang, Y.-C. Tseng, S.-I. Wu, and S.-J. Wang, “Information preserving color transformation for protanopia and deuteranopia,” IEEE Signal Process. Lett. 14, 711–714 (2007).
[Crossref]

Xiao, K.

L. MacDonald, J. Morovič, and K. Xiao, “A topographic gamut compression algorithm,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 46, 228–236 (2002).

Xu, L.

Xu, Y.

C. Li, Z. Li, Z. Wang, Y. Xu, M. R. Luo, G. Cui, M. Melgosa, M. H. Brill, and M. Pointer, “Comprehensive color solutions: CAM16, CAT16, and CAM16-UCS,” Color Res. Appl. 42, 703–718 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zamir, S. W.

S. W. Zamir, J. Vazquez-Corral, and M. Bertalmo, “Gamut extension for cinema,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 26, 1595–1606 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. W. Zamir, J. Vazquez-Corral, and M. Bertalm, “Gamut mapping in cinematography through perceptually-based contrast modification,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Signal Process. 8, 490–503 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zeng, H.

H. Zeng, “Color characterization for inkjet copiers,” Proc. SPIE 6807, 68070X (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhao, B.

Color Res. Appl. (9)

J. Morovič and M. R. Luo, “Evaluating gamut mapping algorithms for universal applicability,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 85–102 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Morovič and M. R. Luo, “Calculating medium and image gamut boundaries for gamut mapping,” Color Res. Appl. 25, 394–401 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and B. Rigg, “The development of the CIE 2000 colour-difference formula: CIEDE2000,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 340–350 (2001).
[Crossref]

M. R. Luo, M.-C. Lo, and W.-G. Kuo, “The LLAB (l: c) colour model,” Color Res. Appl. 21, 412–429 (1996).
[Crossref]

G. Cui, M. Luo, B. Rigg, G. Roesler, and K. Witt, “Uniform colour spaces based on the DIN99 colour-difference formula,” Color Res. Appl. 27, 282–290 (2002).
[Crossref]

C. Li, Z. Li, Z. Wang, Y. Xu, M. R. Luo, G. Cui, M. Melgosa, M. H. Brill, and M. Pointer, “Comprehensive color solutions: CAM16, CAT16, and CAM16-UCS,” Color Res. Appl. 42, 703–718 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. G. Kuehni, “Towards an improved uniform color space,” Color Res. Appl. 24, 253–265 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. Pointer, “The gamut of real surface colours,” Color Res. Appl. 5, 145–155 (1980).
[Crossref]

C. Li, M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, and R. W. Hunt, “CMC 2000 chromatic adaptation transform: CMCCAT2000,” Color Res. Appl. 27, 49–58 (2002).
[Crossref]

Color. Technol. (1)

M. Melgosa, G. Cui, C. Oleari, P. J. Pardo, M. Huang, C. Li, and M. R. Luo, “Revisiting the weighting function for lightness in the CIEDE 2000 colour-difference formula,” Color. Technol. 133, 273–282 (2017).
[Crossref]

Electron. Imaging (1)

C. Gatta and I. Farup, “Gamut mapping in RGB colour spaces with the iterative ratios diffusion algorithm,” Electron. Imaging 2017, 12–20 (2017).
[Crossref]

ETRI J. (1)

B.-H. Kang, J. Morovič, M. R. Luo, and M.-S. Cho, “Gamut compression and extension algorithms based on observer experimental data,” ETRI J. 25, 156–170 (2003).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Signal Process. (1)

S. W. Zamir, J. Vazquez-Corral, and M. Bertalm, “Gamut mapping in cinematography through perceptually-based contrast modification,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Signal Process. 8, 490–503 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE Signal Process. Lett. (1)

J.-B. Huang, Y.-C. Tseng, S.-I. Wu, and S.-J. Wang, “Information preserving color transformation for protanopia and deuteranopia,” IEEE Signal Process. Lett. 14, 711–714 (2007).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Image Process. (3)

G. Finlayson and S. Hordley, “Improving gamut mapping color constancy,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 9, 1774–1783 (2000).
[Crossref]

S. W. Zamir, J. Vazquez-Corral, and M. Bertalmo, “Gamut extension for cinema,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 26, 1595–1606 (2017).
[Crossref]

I. Lissner and P. Urban, “Toward a unified color space for perception-based image processing,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 21, 1153–1168 (2011).
[Crossref]

Int. J. Res. Eng. Appl. Sci. (1)

S. Bektas, “Intersection of an ellipsoid and a plane,” Int. J. Res. Eng. Appl. Sci. 6, 273–283 (2016).

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C.-S. Lee, C.-H. Lee, and Y.-H. Ha, “Parametric gamut mapping algorithms using variable anchor points,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 44, 68–73 (2000).

L. MacDonald, J. Morovič, and K. Xiao, “A topographic gamut compression algorithm,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 46, 228–236 (2002).

S. Srivastava, T. Ha, E. Delp, and J. Allebach, “Color management using optimal three-dimensional look-up tables,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 54, 30402 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

G. Wu, “Charamer mismatch-based spectral gamut mapping,” Laser Phys. Lett. 16, 095206 (2019).
[Crossref]

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Proc. SPIE (2)

H. Zeng, “Color characterization for inkjet copiers,” Proc. SPIE 6807, 68070X (2008).
[Crossref]

Y.-H. Cho, Y.-T. Kim, H.-K. Lee, and Y.-H. Ha, “Color image enhancement technique using gamut mapping based on color space division,” Proc. SPIE 5008, 81–91 (2003).
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M. Dubail, C. Boust, and C. Dazord, “Study of contemporary art preservation with digitization,” in Archiving Conference (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2009), Vol. 2009, pp. 47–52.

A. Alsam and I. Farup, “Spatial colour gamut mapping by orthogonal projection of gradients onto constant hue lines,” in International Symposium on Visual Computing (Springer, 2012), pp. 556–565.

J. Morovič, J. Arnabat, and J. Vilar, “Visually closest cross-gamut matches between surface colors,” in Color and Imaging Conference (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2007), Vol. 2007, pp. 273–277.

J. Morovič, Guidelines for the Evaluation of Gamut Mapping Algorithms (Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage (CIE), 2003), Vol. 153, paper D8-6.

J. Morovič and P.-L. Sun, “Non–iterative minimum ΔE gamut clipping,” in Color and Imaging Conference (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2001), Vol. 2001, pp. 251–256.

CIE, “Colorimetry,” CIE 15:2004 (Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage (CIE), 2004).

Y. Petrov, “Ellipsoid fit (version 1.3.0.0),” MATLAB Central File Exchange, 2020, https://www.mathworks.com/matlabcentral/fileexchange/24693-ellipsoid-fit .

J. Morovič, Color Gamut Mapping (Wiley, 2008), Vol. 10.

M. Safdar, M. R. Luo, and G. Cui, “Investigating performance of uniform color spaces for high dynamic range and wide gamut color difference applications,” in Color and Imaging Conference (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2016), Vol. 2016, pp. 88–93.

CIE, “A colour appearance model for colour management systems: CIECAM02,” CIE 159:2004 (Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage (CIE), 2004).

F. Ebner and M. D. Fairchild, “Development and testing of a color space (IPT) with improved hue uniformity,” in Color and Imaging Conference (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 1998), Vol. 1998, pp. 8–13.

G. A. Klein and T. Meyrath, Industrial Color Physics (Springer, 2010), Vol. 154.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Arbitrary reproduction gamut, source point ${P_s}$ (${a^*} = 75$, ${b^*} = - 45$, ${L^*} = 65$), the $n$th triangle (blue dots and blue lines) on the boundary of the reproduction gamut, and a plane (cyan mesh) passing through three vertices of the $n$th triangle, are plotted in the CIELAB color space. The ${L^*}$ axis is shown from −50 to 150 (instead of 0 to 100) to have equal range along the three axis.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Points on a sphere (blue dots) of radius 5.9 centered at the source point ${P_s}$ in the CIELAB space, their approximate transformation to $\Delta {E_{00}}$ units (red dots), and best-fit (fitted to red dots) ellipsoid (yellow mesh), plotted in the CIELAB color space.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Three-dimensional view of the mapping of a point ${P_s}$ (${a^*} = 75$, ${b^*} = - 45$, ${L^*} = 65$) to an arbitrary reproduction gamut using UNIMAP00, shown using two different camera lines of sight. (a) Camera line of sight-1 depicts intersection between the plane (cyan surface) of the $n$th triangle (blue lines and blue dots) on the boundary of the reproduction gamut (gray surface) and the $\Delta {E_{00}}$ (best-fit) ellipsoid (yellow surface) centered at ${P_s}$ (red square dot) that results in an ellipse (green curve). It also depicts that the center ${P_r}$ (red circular dot) of the intersection ellipse lies inside the $n$th triangle and the $\Delta {E_{00}}$ ellipsoid. (b) Camera line of sight-2 shows that the $n$th triangle, the intersection ellipse, and the reproduction point (${P_r}$) are co-planar. The ${L^*}$ axis is shown from −50 to 150 (instead of 0 to 100) to have equal range along the three axes.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Three-dimensional view of the mapping of source point [${P_s}(a^* = 10, b^* = -80, L^* = 70)$] to the plastic gamut, using UNIMAP00. The $L^* $ axis is shown from −85 to 185 (instead of 0 to 100) to have equal range along the three axis. (b) Top view of the three-dimensional mapping shown in (a). The colors used in the surface plot do not necessarily correspond to the points in the CIELAB space.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Top view of the three-dimensional mapping of source points (subset-I) to the plastic gamut, shown in the ${a^*} - {b^*}$ plane. (b) Mapping of source points (subset-II) to the plastic gamut, shown in the ${C^*} - {L^*}$ plane. Red lines from ${P_s}$ to ${P_r}$ show the direction of mapping.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. (Left) Median $\Delta {\rm L}:\Delta {\rm C}:\Delta {\rm H}$ ratio and 50% of ratio range in CIELAB units. (Middle) Median $\Delta {\rm I}:\Delta {\rm C}:\Delta {\rm H}$ ratio and 50% of the ratio range in IPT units. (Right) Median $\Delta {\rm J}:\Delta {\rm C}:\Delta {\rm H}$ ratio and 50% of ratio range in ${{\rm J}_{\rm z}}{{\rm a}_{\rm z}}{{\rm b}_{\rm z}}$ units.

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

a n x + b n y + c n z + d n = 0 ,
( P n , 1 P n , 2 × P n , 1 P n , 3 ) . ( Q n P n , 1 ) = 0.
x = r x cos θ sin ϕ , y = r y sin θ sin ϕ , z = r z cos ϕ , }
A x 2 + B y 2 + C z 2 + 2 D x y + 2 E x z + 2 F y z + 2 G x + 2 H y + 2 I z = 1 ,
R n x 2 + S n x y + T n y 2 + U n x + V n y + W n = 0 ,
x n = ( S n V n 2 T n U n ) / ( 4 R n T n S n 2 ) ,
y n = ( S n U n 2 R n V n ) / ( 4 R n T n S n 2 ) ,
z n = ( a n x n + b n y n + d n ) / c n ,