Abstract

Patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) manifest visual losses. However, it is not known whether these losses are equivalent in both early-onset (EOPD) and late-onset (LOPD) patients. We evaluated contrast sensitivity and color vision in EOPD and LOPD patients and in age-matched controls. Losses occurred in both patient groups but were more pronounced in EOPD, consistent with the notion that non-motor symptoms are affected by age of symptom onset. More studies of visual function in EOPD and LOPD patients are needed to understand how aging is related to the pathophysiology of non-motor PD symptomatology. This would permit earlier diagnosis and, perhaps, better management of the disease.

© 2020 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Visual acuity and color discrimination in patients with cataracts

Z. Langina-Jansone, R. Truksa, and M. Ozolinsh
J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 37(4) A212-A216 (2020)

Chromatic visual evoked potentials in young patients with demyelinating disease

Manca Tekavčič Pompe, Jelka Brecelj, and Branka Stirn Kranjc
J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 31(4) A82-A86 (2014)

Color discrimination assessment in patients with hypothyroidism using the Farnsworth–Munsell 100 hue test

Kalina Racheva, Tsvetalin Totev, Emil Natchev, Nadejda Bocheva, Raymond Beirne, and Margarita Zlatkova
J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 37(4) A18-A25 (2020)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. Savitt and M. Mathews, “Treatment of visual disorders in Parkinson disease,” Curr. Treat. Options Neurol. 20, 30 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  2. S. G. Reich and J. M. Savitt, “Parkinson’s disease,” Med. Clin. North Am. 103, 337–350 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  3. V. Polo, M. Satue, M. J. Rodrigo, S. Otin, R. Alarcia, M. P. Bambo, M. I. Fuertes, J. M. Larrosa, L. E. Pablo, and E. Garcia-Martin, “Visual dysfunction and its correlation with retinal changes in patients with Parkinson’s disease: an observational cross-sectional study,” BMJ Open 6, e009658 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  4. I. Bodis-Wollner, “Foveal vision is impaired in Parkinson’s disease,” Park. Relat. Disord. 19, 1–14 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  5. W. Ming, D. J. Palidis, M. Spering, and M. J. McKeown, “Visual contrast sensitivity in early-stage Parkinson’s disease,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57, 5696–5704 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  6. I. Bodis-Wollner, “Retinopathy in Parkinson disease,” J. Neural Transm. 116, 1493–1501 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  7. G. Hipp, N. J. Diederich, V. Pieria, and M. Vaillant, “Primary vision and facial emotion recognition in early Parkinson’s disease,” J. Neurol. Sci. 338, 178–182 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  8. O. Veselá, E. Růžička, R. Jech, J. Roth, K. Štěpánkova, P. Mečíř, Z. Solano, and E. Preclíková, “Colour discrimination impairment is not a reliable early marker of Parkinson’s disease,” J. Neurol. 248, 975–978 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  9. N. J. Diederich, C. G. Goetz, and G. T. Stebbins, “Repeated visual hallucinations in Parkinson’s disease as disturbed external/internal perceptions: focused review and a new integrative model,” Mov. Disord. 20, 130–140 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  10. H. Botha and J. Carr, “Attention and visual dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease,” Park. Relat. Disord. 18, 742–747 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  11. J. R. Lukos, J. Snider, M. E. Hernandez, E. Tunik, S. Hillyard, and H. Poizner, “Parkinson’s disease patients show impaired corrective grasp control and eye–hand coupling when reaching to grasp virtual objects,” Neuroscience 254, 205–221 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  12. C. Marras, “Subtypes of Parkinson’s disease: state of the field and future directions,” Curr. Opin. Neurol. 28, 382–386 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  13. L. W. Ferguson, A. H. Rajput, and A. Rajput, “Early-onset vs. late-onset Parkinson’s disease: a clinical-pathological study,” Can. J. Neurol. Sci. 43, 113–119 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  14. L. T. Chylack, J. K. Wolfe, D. M. Singer, M. C. Leske, M. A. Bullimore, I. L. Bailey, J. Friend, D. McCarthy, and S. Y. Wu, “The lens opacities classification system III,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 111, 831–836 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  15. M. T. S. Barboni, B. V. Nagy, A. L. de Araújo Moura, F. M. Damico, M. F. da Costa, J. Kremers, and D. F. Ventura, “ON and OFF electroretinography and contrast sensitivity in Duchenne muscular dystrophy,” Invest. Opthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54, 3195–3204 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  16. L. H. M. Canto-Pereira, M. Lago, M. F. Costa, A. R. Rodrigues, C. A. Saito, L. C. L. Silveira, and D. F. Ventura, “Visual impairment on dentists related to occupational mercury exposure,” Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 19, 517–522 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  17. T. Müller, D. Woitalla, S. Peters, K. Kohla, and H. Przuntek, “Progress of visual dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease,” Acta Neurol. Scand. 105, 256–260 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  18. M. F. Silva, P. Faria, F. S. Regateiro, V. Forjaz, C. Januário, A. Freire, and M. Castelo-Branco, “Independent patterns of damage within magno-, parvo- and koniocellular pathways in Parkinson’s disease,” Brain 128, 2260–2271 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  19. A. Leonova, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Spatial frequency processing in inferred PC- and MC-pathways,” Vision Res. 43, 2133–2139 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  20. C. La Morgia, L. di Vito, V. Carelli, and M. Carbonelli, “Patterns of retinal ganglion cell damage in neurodegenerative disorders: parvocellular vs magnocellular degeneration in optical coherence tomography studies,” Front. Neurol. 8, 710 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  21. B. C. Skottun, “A few words on differentiating magno- and parvocellular contributions to vision on the basis of temporal frequency,” Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 71, 756–760 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  22. B. C. Skottun, “On the use of spatial frequency to isolate contributions from the magnocellular and parvocellular systems and the dorsal and ventral cortical streams,” Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 56, 266–275 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  23. J. Walraven and J. S. Werner, “The invariance of unique white; a possible implication for normalizing cone action spectra,” Vision Res. 31, 2185–2193 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  24. B. B. Lee, “Paths to colour in the retina,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 87, 239–248 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  25. G. Pagano, N. Ferrara, D. J. Brooks, and N. Pavese, “Age at onset and Parkinson disease phenotype,” Neurology 86, 1400–1407 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  26. O. S. Gershanik, “Early onset parkinsonism,” Front. Biosci. 8, s568–s578 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  27. T. J. Collier, N. M. Kanaan, and J. H. Kordower, “Aging and Parkinson’s disease: different sides of the same coin?” Mov. Disord. 32, 983–990 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  28. N. J. Diederich, R. Raman, S. Leurgans, and C. G. Goetz, “Progressive worsening of spatial and chromatic processing deficits in Parkinson disease,” Arch. Neurol. 59, 1249–1252 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  29. C. J. Worringham, J. M. Wood, G. K. Kerr, and P. A. Silburn, “Predictors of driving assessment outcome in Parkinson’s disease,” Mov. Disord. 21, 230–235 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  30. W. G. J. Reid, G. A. Broe, M. A. Hely, J. G. L. Morris, P. M. Williamson, D. J. O’Sullivan, D. Rail, S. Genge, and N. G. Moss, “The neuropsychology of de novo patients with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease: the effects of age of onset,” Int. J. Neurosci. 48, 205–217 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  31. J. T. Hutton, J. L. Morris, and J. W. Elias, “Visual contrast sensitivity in Parkinson’s disease is worsened with cabergoline treatment,” Parkinsonism Relat. Disord. 5, 87–91 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  32. L. Barbato, S. Rinalduzzi, M. Laurenti, S. Ruggieri, and N. Accornero, “Color VEPs in Parkinson’s disease,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. Evoked Potentials 92, 169–172 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  33. R. D. Jones, I. M. Donaldson, and P. L. Timmings, “Impairment of high-contrast visual acuity in Parkinson’s disease,” Mov. Disord. 7, 232–238 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  34. A. Peppe, P. Stanzione, F. Pierelli, E. Stefano, P. A. Rizzo, M. Tagliati, and C. Morocutti, “Low contrast stimuli enhance PERG sensitivity to the visual dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 82, 453–457 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  35. M. Tagliati, I. Bodis-Wollner, and M. D. Yahr, “The pattern electroretinogram in Parkinson’s disease reveals lack of retinal spatial tuning,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol.–Evoked Potentials 100, 1–11 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  36. J. T. Hutton, J. L. Morris, and J. W. Elias, “Levodopa improves spatial contrast sensitivity in Parkinson’s disease,” Arch. Neurol. 50, 721–724 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  37. T. Büttner, W. Kuhn, T. Patzold, and H. Przuntek, “L-dopa improves colour vision in Parkinson’s disease,” J. Neural Transm. Park. Dis. Dement. Sect. 7, 13–19 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  38. T. Buttner, W. Kuhn, T. Muller, T. Patzold, and H. Przuntek, “Color vision in Parkinson’s disease: missing influence of amantadine sulphate,” Clin. Neuropharmacol. 18, 458–463 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  39. T. Büttner, W. Kuhn, T. Müller, U. McMonagle, and H. Przuntek, “Pharmacological effects of dopaminergics and amantadine on color discrimination in Parkinson’s disease,” Neuro-Ophthalmology 15, 135–141 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  40. S. Kubo, A. Iwatake, N. Ebihara, A. Murakami, and N. Hattori, “Visual impairment in Parkinson’s disease treated with amantadine: case report and review of the literature,” Parkinsonism Relat. Disord. 14, 166–169 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  41. V. Pieri, N. J. Diederich, R. Raman, and C. G. Goetz, “Decreased color discrimination and contrast sensitivity in Parkinson’s disease,” J. Neurol. Sci. 172, 7–11 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  42. T. Langheinrich, L. Tebartz Van Elst, W. A. Lagrèze, M. Bach, C. H. Lücking, and M. W. Greenlee, “Visual contrast response functions in Parkinson’s disease: evidence from electroretinograms, visually evoked potentials and psychophysics,” Clin. Neurophysiol. 111, 66–74 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  43. C. S. Ming, L. A. F. De Andrade, E. Amaro, A. C. Felicio, H. B. Ferraz, J. Wagner, M. Q. Hoexter, F. L. Li, K. F. Ying, J. J. Mari, S. Tufik, and R. A. Bressan, “Higher nigrostriatal dopamine neuron loss in early than late onset Parkinson’s disease?—A [99mTc]-TRODAT-1 SPECT study,” Mov. Disord. 22, 863–866 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  44. C. R. Adam, E. Shrier, Y. Ding, S. Glazman, and I. Bodis-Wollner, “Correlation of inner retinal thickness evaluated by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and contrast sensitivity in Parkinson disease,” J. Neuro-Ophthalmology 33, 137–142 (2013).
    [Crossref]

2019 (1)

S. G. Reich and J. M. Savitt, “Parkinson’s disease,” Med. Clin. North Am. 103, 337–350 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (1)

J. Savitt and M. Mathews, “Treatment of visual disorders in Parkinson disease,” Curr. Treat. Options Neurol. 20, 30 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

C. La Morgia, L. di Vito, V. Carelli, and M. Carbonelli, “Patterns of retinal ganglion cell damage in neurodegenerative disorders: parvocellular vs magnocellular degeneration in optical coherence tomography studies,” Front. Neurol. 8, 710 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. J. Collier, N. M. Kanaan, and J. H. Kordower, “Aging and Parkinson’s disease: different sides of the same coin?” Mov. Disord. 32, 983–990 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (4)

G. Pagano, N. Ferrara, D. J. Brooks, and N. Pavese, “Age at onset and Parkinson disease phenotype,” Neurology 86, 1400–1407 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. C. Skottun, “A few words on differentiating magno- and parvocellular contributions to vision on the basis of temporal frequency,” Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 71, 756–760 (2016).
[Crossref]

V. Polo, M. Satue, M. J. Rodrigo, S. Otin, R. Alarcia, M. P. Bambo, M. I. Fuertes, J. M. Larrosa, L. E. Pablo, and E. Garcia-Martin, “Visual dysfunction and its correlation with retinal changes in patients with Parkinson’s disease: an observational cross-sectional study,” BMJ Open 6, e009658 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Ming, D. J. Palidis, M. Spering, and M. J. McKeown, “Visual contrast sensitivity in early-stage Parkinson’s disease,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57, 5696–5704 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

C. Marras, “Subtypes of Parkinson’s disease: state of the field and future directions,” Curr. Opin. Neurol. 28, 382–386 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. W. Ferguson, A. H. Rajput, and A. Rajput, “Early-onset vs. late-onset Parkinson’s disease: a clinical-pathological study,” Can. J. Neurol. Sci. 43, 113–119 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. C. Skottun, “On the use of spatial frequency to isolate contributions from the magnocellular and parvocellular systems and the dorsal and ventral cortical streams,” Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 56, 266–275 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

G. Hipp, N. J. Diederich, V. Pieria, and M. Vaillant, “Primary vision and facial emotion recognition in early Parkinson’s disease,” J. Neurol. Sci. 338, 178–182 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

I. Bodis-Wollner, “Foveal vision is impaired in Parkinson’s disease,” Park. Relat. Disord. 19, 1–14 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. R. Lukos, J. Snider, M. E. Hernandez, E. Tunik, S. Hillyard, and H. Poizner, “Parkinson’s disease patients show impaired corrective grasp control and eye–hand coupling when reaching to grasp virtual objects,” Neuroscience 254, 205–221 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. T. S. Barboni, B. V. Nagy, A. L. de Araújo Moura, F. M. Damico, M. F. da Costa, J. Kremers, and D. F. Ventura, “ON and OFF electroretinography and contrast sensitivity in Duchenne muscular dystrophy,” Invest. Opthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54, 3195–3204 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. R. Adam, E. Shrier, Y. Ding, S. Glazman, and I. Bodis-Wollner, “Correlation of inner retinal thickness evaluated by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and contrast sensitivity in Parkinson disease,” J. Neuro-Ophthalmology 33, 137–142 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

H. Botha and J. Carr, “Attention and visual dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease,” Park. Relat. Disord. 18, 742–747 (2012).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

I. Bodis-Wollner, “Retinopathy in Parkinson disease,” J. Neural Transm. 116, 1493–1501 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

S. Kubo, A. Iwatake, N. Ebihara, A. Murakami, and N. Hattori, “Visual impairment in Parkinson’s disease treated with amantadine: case report and review of the literature,” Parkinsonism Relat. Disord. 14, 166–169 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

C. S. Ming, L. A. F. De Andrade, E. Amaro, A. C. Felicio, H. B. Ferraz, J. Wagner, M. Q. Hoexter, F. L. Li, K. F. Ying, J. J. Mari, S. Tufik, and R. A. Bressan, “Higher nigrostriatal dopamine neuron loss in early than late onset Parkinson’s disease?—A [99mTc]-TRODAT-1 SPECT study,” Mov. Disord. 22, 863–866 (2007).
[Crossref]

O. S. Gershanik, “Early onset parkinsonism,” Front. Biosci. 8, s568–s578 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

C. J. Worringham, J. M. Wood, G. K. Kerr, and P. A. Silburn, “Predictors of driving assessment outcome in Parkinson’s disease,” Mov. Disord. 21, 230–235 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (3)

N. J. Diederich, C. G. Goetz, and G. T. Stebbins, “Repeated visual hallucinations in Parkinson’s disease as disturbed external/internal perceptions: focused review and a new integrative model,” Mov. Disord. 20, 130–140 (2005).
[Crossref]

L. H. M. Canto-Pereira, M. Lago, M. F. Costa, A. R. Rodrigues, C. A. Saito, L. C. L. Silveira, and D. F. Ventura, “Visual impairment on dentists related to occupational mercury exposure,” Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 19, 517–522 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. F. Silva, P. Faria, F. S. Regateiro, V. Forjaz, C. Januário, A. Freire, and M. Castelo-Branco, “Independent patterns of damage within magno-, parvo- and koniocellular pathways in Parkinson’s disease,” Brain 128, 2260–2271 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

B. B. Lee, “Paths to colour in the retina,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 87, 239–248 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

A. Leonova, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Spatial frequency processing in inferred PC- and MC-pathways,” Vision Res. 43, 2133–2139 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

T. Müller, D. Woitalla, S. Peters, K. Kohla, and H. Przuntek, “Progress of visual dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease,” Acta Neurol. Scand. 105, 256–260 (2002).
[Crossref]

N. J. Diederich, R. Raman, S. Leurgans, and C. G. Goetz, “Progressive worsening of spatial and chromatic processing deficits in Parkinson disease,” Arch. Neurol. 59, 1249–1252 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

O. Veselá, E. Růžička, R. Jech, J. Roth, K. Štěpánkova, P. Mečíř, Z. Solano, and E. Preclíková, “Colour discrimination impairment is not a reliable early marker of Parkinson’s disease,” J. Neurol. 248, 975–978 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

V. Pieri, N. J. Diederich, R. Raman, and C. G. Goetz, “Decreased color discrimination and contrast sensitivity in Parkinson’s disease,” J. Neurol. Sci. 172, 7–11 (2000).
[Crossref]

T. Langheinrich, L. Tebartz Van Elst, W. A. Lagrèze, M. Bach, C. H. Lücking, and M. W. Greenlee, “Visual contrast response functions in Parkinson’s disease: evidence from electroretinograms, visually evoked potentials and psychophysics,” Clin. Neurophysiol. 111, 66–74 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

J. T. Hutton, J. L. Morris, and J. W. Elias, “Visual contrast sensitivity in Parkinson’s disease is worsened with cabergoline treatment,” Parkinsonism Relat. Disord. 5, 87–91 (1999).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

M. Tagliati, I. Bodis-Wollner, and M. D. Yahr, “The pattern electroretinogram in Parkinson’s disease reveals lack of retinal spatial tuning,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol.–Evoked Potentials 100, 1–11 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (2)

T. Buttner, W. Kuhn, T. Muller, T. Patzold, and H. Przuntek, “Color vision in Parkinson’s disease: missing influence of amantadine sulphate,” Clin. Neuropharmacol. 18, 458–463 (1995).
[Crossref]

T. Büttner, W. Kuhn, T. Müller, U. McMonagle, and H. Przuntek, “Pharmacological effects of dopaminergics and amantadine on color discrimination in Parkinson’s disease,” Neuro-Ophthalmology 15, 135–141 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (2)

T. Büttner, W. Kuhn, T. Patzold, and H. Przuntek, “L-dopa improves colour vision in Parkinson’s disease,” J. Neural Transm. Park. Dis. Dement. Sect. 7, 13–19 (1994).
[Crossref]

L. Barbato, S. Rinalduzzi, M. Laurenti, S. Ruggieri, and N. Accornero, “Color VEPs in Parkinson’s disease,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. Evoked Potentials 92, 169–172 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (2)

J. T. Hutton, J. L. Morris, and J. W. Elias, “Levodopa improves spatial contrast sensitivity in Parkinson’s disease,” Arch. Neurol. 50, 721–724 (1993).
[Crossref]

L. T. Chylack, J. K. Wolfe, D. M. Singer, M. C. Leske, M. A. Bullimore, I. L. Bailey, J. Friend, D. McCarthy, and S. Y. Wu, “The lens opacities classification system III,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 111, 831–836 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (2)

R. D. Jones, I. M. Donaldson, and P. L. Timmings, “Impairment of high-contrast visual acuity in Parkinson’s disease,” Mov. Disord. 7, 232–238 (1992).
[Crossref]

A. Peppe, P. Stanzione, F. Pierelli, E. Stefano, P. A. Rizzo, M. Tagliati, and C. Morocutti, “Low contrast stimuli enhance PERG sensitivity to the visual dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 82, 453–457 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

J. Walraven and J. S. Werner, “The invariance of unique white; a possible implication for normalizing cone action spectra,” Vision Res. 31, 2185–2193 (1991).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

W. G. J. Reid, G. A. Broe, M. A. Hely, J. G. L. Morris, P. M. Williamson, D. J. O’Sullivan, D. Rail, S. Genge, and N. G. Moss, “The neuropsychology of de novo patients with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease: the effects of age of onset,” Int. J. Neurosci. 48, 205–217 (1989).
[Crossref]

Accornero, N.

L. Barbato, S. Rinalduzzi, M. Laurenti, S. Ruggieri, and N. Accornero, “Color VEPs in Parkinson’s disease,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. Evoked Potentials 92, 169–172 (1994).
[Crossref]

Adam, C. R.

C. R. Adam, E. Shrier, Y. Ding, S. Glazman, and I. Bodis-Wollner, “Correlation of inner retinal thickness evaluated by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and contrast sensitivity in Parkinson disease,” J. Neuro-Ophthalmology 33, 137–142 (2013).
[Crossref]

Alarcia, R.

V. Polo, M. Satue, M. J. Rodrigo, S. Otin, R. Alarcia, M. P. Bambo, M. I. Fuertes, J. M. Larrosa, L. E. Pablo, and E. Garcia-Martin, “Visual dysfunction and its correlation with retinal changes in patients with Parkinson’s disease: an observational cross-sectional study,” BMJ Open 6, e009658 (2016).
[Crossref]

Amaro, E.

C. S. Ming, L. A. F. De Andrade, E. Amaro, A. C. Felicio, H. B. Ferraz, J. Wagner, M. Q. Hoexter, F. L. Li, K. F. Ying, J. J. Mari, S. Tufik, and R. A. Bressan, “Higher nigrostriatal dopamine neuron loss in early than late onset Parkinson’s disease?—A [99mTc]-TRODAT-1 SPECT study,” Mov. Disord. 22, 863–866 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bach, M.

T. Langheinrich, L. Tebartz Van Elst, W. A. Lagrèze, M. Bach, C. H. Lücking, and M. W. Greenlee, “Visual contrast response functions in Parkinson’s disease: evidence from electroretinograms, visually evoked potentials and psychophysics,” Clin. Neurophysiol. 111, 66–74 (2000).
[Crossref]

Bailey, I. L.

L. T. Chylack, J. K. Wolfe, D. M. Singer, M. C. Leske, M. A. Bullimore, I. L. Bailey, J. Friend, D. McCarthy, and S. Y. Wu, “The lens opacities classification system III,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 111, 831–836 (1993).
[Crossref]

Bambo, M. P.

V. Polo, M. Satue, M. J. Rodrigo, S. Otin, R. Alarcia, M. P. Bambo, M. I. Fuertes, J. M. Larrosa, L. E. Pablo, and E. Garcia-Martin, “Visual dysfunction and its correlation with retinal changes in patients with Parkinson’s disease: an observational cross-sectional study,” BMJ Open 6, e009658 (2016).
[Crossref]

Barbato, L.

L. Barbato, S. Rinalduzzi, M. Laurenti, S. Ruggieri, and N. Accornero, “Color VEPs in Parkinson’s disease,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. Evoked Potentials 92, 169–172 (1994).
[Crossref]

Barboni, M. T. S.

M. T. S. Barboni, B. V. Nagy, A. L. de Araújo Moura, F. M. Damico, M. F. da Costa, J. Kremers, and D. F. Ventura, “ON and OFF electroretinography and contrast sensitivity in Duchenne muscular dystrophy,” Invest. Opthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54, 3195–3204 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bodis-Wollner, I.

C. R. Adam, E. Shrier, Y. Ding, S. Glazman, and I. Bodis-Wollner, “Correlation of inner retinal thickness evaluated by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and contrast sensitivity in Parkinson disease,” J. Neuro-Ophthalmology 33, 137–142 (2013).
[Crossref]

I. Bodis-Wollner, “Foveal vision is impaired in Parkinson’s disease,” Park. Relat. Disord. 19, 1–14 (2013).
[Crossref]

I. Bodis-Wollner, “Retinopathy in Parkinson disease,” J. Neural Transm. 116, 1493–1501 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Tagliati, I. Bodis-Wollner, and M. D. Yahr, “The pattern electroretinogram in Parkinson’s disease reveals lack of retinal spatial tuning,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol.–Evoked Potentials 100, 1–11 (1996).
[Crossref]

Botha, H.

H. Botha and J. Carr, “Attention and visual dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease,” Park. Relat. Disord. 18, 742–747 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bressan, R. A.

C. S. Ming, L. A. F. De Andrade, E. Amaro, A. C. Felicio, H. B. Ferraz, J. Wagner, M. Q. Hoexter, F. L. Li, K. F. Ying, J. J. Mari, S. Tufik, and R. A. Bressan, “Higher nigrostriatal dopamine neuron loss in early than late onset Parkinson’s disease?—A [99mTc]-TRODAT-1 SPECT study,” Mov. Disord. 22, 863–866 (2007).
[Crossref]

Broe, G. A.

W. G. J. Reid, G. A. Broe, M. A. Hely, J. G. L. Morris, P. M. Williamson, D. J. O’Sullivan, D. Rail, S. Genge, and N. G. Moss, “The neuropsychology of de novo patients with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease: the effects of age of onset,” Int. J. Neurosci. 48, 205–217 (1989).
[Crossref]

Brooks, D. J.

G. Pagano, N. Ferrara, D. J. Brooks, and N. Pavese, “Age at onset and Parkinson disease phenotype,” Neurology 86, 1400–1407 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bullimore, M. A.

L. T. Chylack, J. K. Wolfe, D. M. Singer, M. C. Leske, M. A. Bullimore, I. L. Bailey, J. Friend, D. McCarthy, and S. Y. Wu, “The lens opacities classification system III,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 111, 831–836 (1993).
[Crossref]

Buttner, T.

T. Buttner, W. Kuhn, T. Muller, T. Patzold, and H. Przuntek, “Color vision in Parkinson’s disease: missing influence of amantadine sulphate,” Clin. Neuropharmacol. 18, 458–463 (1995).
[Crossref]

Büttner, T.

T. Büttner, W. Kuhn, T. Müller, U. McMonagle, and H. Przuntek, “Pharmacological effects of dopaminergics and amantadine on color discrimination in Parkinson’s disease,” Neuro-Ophthalmology 15, 135–141 (1995).
[Crossref]

T. Büttner, W. Kuhn, T. Patzold, and H. Przuntek, “L-dopa improves colour vision in Parkinson’s disease,” J. Neural Transm. Park. Dis. Dement. Sect. 7, 13–19 (1994).
[Crossref]

Canto-Pereira, L. H. M.

L. H. M. Canto-Pereira, M. Lago, M. F. Costa, A. R. Rodrigues, C. A. Saito, L. C. L. Silveira, and D. F. Ventura, “Visual impairment on dentists related to occupational mercury exposure,” Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 19, 517–522 (2005).
[Crossref]

Carbonelli, M.

C. La Morgia, L. di Vito, V. Carelli, and M. Carbonelli, “Patterns of retinal ganglion cell damage in neurodegenerative disorders: parvocellular vs magnocellular degeneration in optical coherence tomography studies,” Front. Neurol. 8, 710 (2017).
[Crossref]

Carelli, V.

C. La Morgia, L. di Vito, V. Carelli, and M. Carbonelli, “Patterns of retinal ganglion cell damage in neurodegenerative disorders: parvocellular vs magnocellular degeneration in optical coherence tomography studies,” Front. Neurol. 8, 710 (2017).
[Crossref]

Carr, J.

H. Botha and J. Carr, “Attention and visual dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease,” Park. Relat. Disord. 18, 742–747 (2012).
[Crossref]

Castelo-Branco, M.

M. F. Silva, P. Faria, F. S. Regateiro, V. Forjaz, C. Januário, A. Freire, and M. Castelo-Branco, “Independent patterns of damage within magno-, parvo- and koniocellular pathways in Parkinson’s disease,” Brain 128, 2260–2271 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chylack, L. T.

L. T. Chylack, J. K. Wolfe, D. M. Singer, M. C. Leske, M. A. Bullimore, I. L. Bailey, J. Friend, D. McCarthy, and S. Y. Wu, “The lens opacities classification system III,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 111, 831–836 (1993).
[Crossref]

Collier, T. J.

T. J. Collier, N. M. Kanaan, and J. H. Kordower, “Aging and Parkinson’s disease: different sides of the same coin?” Mov. Disord. 32, 983–990 (2017).
[Crossref]

Costa, M. F.

L. H. M. Canto-Pereira, M. Lago, M. F. Costa, A. R. Rodrigues, C. A. Saito, L. C. L. Silveira, and D. F. Ventura, “Visual impairment on dentists related to occupational mercury exposure,” Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 19, 517–522 (2005).
[Crossref]

da Costa, M. F.

M. T. S. Barboni, B. V. Nagy, A. L. de Araújo Moura, F. M. Damico, M. F. da Costa, J. Kremers, and D. F. Ventura, “ON and OFF electroretinography and contrast sensitivity in Duchenne muscular dystrophy,” Invest. Opthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54, 3195–3204 (2013).
[Crossref]

Damico, F. M.

M. T. S. Barboni, B. V. Nagy, A. L. de Araújo Moura, F. M. Damico, M. F. da Costa, J. Kremers, and D. F. Ventura, “ON and OFF electroretinography and contrast sensitivity in Duchenne muscular dystrophy,” Invest. Opthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54, 3195–3204 (2013).
[Crossref]

De Andrade, L. A. F.

C. S. Ming, L. A. F. De Andrade, E. Amaro, A. C. Felicio, H. B. Ferraz, J. Wagner, M. Q. Hoexter, F. L. Li, K. F. Ying, J. J. Mari, S. Tufik, and R. A. Bressan, “Higher nigrostriatal dopamine neuron loss in early than late onset Parkinson’s disease?—A [99mTc]-TRODAT-1 SPECT study,” Mov. Disord. 22, 863–866 (2007).
[Crossref]

de Araújo Moura, A. L.

M. T. S. Barboni, B. V. Nagy, A. L. de Araújo Moura, F. M. Damico, M. F. da Costa, J. Kremers, and D. F. Ventura, “ON and OFF electroretinography and contrast sensitivity in Duchenne muscular dystrophy,” Invest. Opthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54, 3195–3204 (2013).
[Crossref]

di Vito, L.

C. La Morgia, L. di Vito, V. Carelli, and M. Carbonelli, “Patterns of retinal ganglion cell damage in neurodegenerative disorders: parvocellular vs magnocellular degeneration in optical coherence tomography studies,” Front. Neurol. 8, 710 (2017).
[Crossref]

Diederich, N. J.

G. Hipp, N. J. Diederich, V. Pieria, and M. Vaillant, “Primary vision and facial emotion recognition in early Parkinson’s disease,” J. Neurol. Sci. 338, 178–182 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. J. Diederich, C. G. Goetz, and G. T. Stebbins, “Repeated visual hallucinations in Parkinson’s disease as disturbed external/internal perceptions: focused review and a new integrative model,” Mov. Disord. 20, 130–140 (2005).
[Crossref]

N. J. Diederich, R. Raman, S. Leurgans, and C. G. Goetz, “Progressive worsening of spatial and chromatic processing deficits in Parkinson disease,” Arch. Neurol. 59, 1249–1252 (2002).
[Crossref]

V. Pieri, N. J. Diederich, R. Raman, and C. G. Goetz, “Decreased color discrimination and contrast sensitivity in Parkinson’s disease,” J. Neurol. Sci. 172, 7–11 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ding, Y.

C. R. Adam, E. Shrier, Y. Ding, S. Glazman, and I. Bodis-Wollner, “Correlation of inner retinal thickness evaluated by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and contrast sensitivity in Parkinson disease,” J. Neuro-Ophthalmology 33, 137–142 (2013).
[Crossref]

Donaldson, I. M.

R. D. Jones, I. M. Donaldson, and P. L. Timmings, “Impairment of high-contrast visual acuity in Parkinson’s disease,” Mov. Disord. 7, 232–238 (1992).
[Crossref]

Ebihara, N.

S. Kubo, A. Iwatake, N. Ebihara, A. Murakami, and N. Hattori, “Visual impairment in Parkinson’s disease treated with amantadine: case report and review of the literature,” Parkinsonism Relat. Disord. 14, 166–169 (2008).
[Crossref]

Elias, J. W.

J. T. Hutton, J. L. Morris, and J. W. Elias, “Visual contrast sensitivity in Parkinson’s disease is worsened with cabergoline treatment,” Parkinsonism Relat. Disord. 5, 87–91 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. T. Hutton, J. L. Morris, and J. W. Elias, “Levodopa improves spatial contrast sensitivity in Parkinson’s disease,” Arch. Neurol. 50, 721–724 (1993).
[Crossref]

Faria, P.

M. F. Silva, P. Faria, F. S. Regateiro, V. Forjaz, C. Januário, A. Freire, and M. Castelo-Branco, “Independent patterns of damage within magno-, parvo- and koniocellular pathways in Parkinson’s disease,” Brain 128, 2260–2271 (2005).
[Crossref]

Felicio, A. C.

C. S. Ming, L. A. F. De Andrade, E. Amaro, A. C. Felicio, H. B. Ferraz, J. Wagner, M. Q. Hoexter, F. L. Li, K. F. Ying, J. J. Mari, S. Tufik, and R. A. Bressan, “Higher nigrostriatal dopamine neuron loss in early than late onset Parkinson’s disease?—A [99mTc]-TRODAT-1 SPECT study,” Mov. Disord. 22, 863–866 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ferguson, L. W.

L. W. Ferguson, A. H. Rajput, and A. Rajput, “Early-onset vs. late-onset Parkinson’s disease: a clinical-pathological study,” Can. J. Neurol. Sci. 43, 113–119 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ferrara, N.

G. Pagano, N. Ferrara, D. J. Brooks, and N. Pavese, “Age at onset and Parkinson disease phenotype,” Neurology 86, 1400–1407 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ferraz, H. B.

C. S. Ming, L. A. F. De Andrade, E. Amaro, A. C. Felicio, H. B. Ferraz, J. Wagner, M. Q. Hoexter, F. L. Li, K. F. Ying, J. J. Mari, S. Tufik, and R. A. Bressan, “Higher nigrostriatal dopamine neuron loss in early than late onset Parkinson’s disease?—A [99mTc]-TRODAT-1 SPECT study,” Mov. Disord. 22, 863–866 (2007).
[Crossref]

Forjaz, V.

M. F. Silva, P. Faria, F. S. Regateiro, V. Forjaz, C. Januário, A. Freire, and M. Castelo-Branco, “Independent patterns of damage within magno-, parvo- and koniocellular pathways in Parkinson’s disease,” Brain 128, 2260–2271 (2005).
[Crossref]

Freire, A.

M. F. Silva, P. Faria, F. S. Regateiro, V. Forjaz, C. Januário, A. Freire, and M. Castelo-Branco, “Independent patterns of damage within magno-, parvo- and koniocellular pathways in Parkinson’s disease,” Brain 128, 2260–2271 (2005).
[Crossref]

Friend, J.

L. T. Chylack, J. K. Wolfe, D. M. Singer, M. C. Leske, M. A. Bullimore, I. L. Bailey, J. Friend, D. McCarthy, and S. Y. Wu, “The lens opacities classification system III,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 111, 831–836 (1993).
[Crossref]

Fuertes, M. I.

V. Polo, M. Satue, M. J. Rodrigo, S. Otin, R. Alarcia, M. P. Bambo, M. I. Fuertes, J. M. Larrosa, L. E. Pablo, and E. Garcia-Martin, “Visual dysfunction and its correlation with retinal changes in patients with Parkinson’s disease: an observational cross-sectional study,” BMJ Open 6, e009658 (2016).
[Crossref]

Garcia-Martin, E.

V. Polo, M. Satue, M. J. Rodrigo, S. Otin, R. Alarcia, M. P. Bambo, M. I. Fuertes, J. M. Larrosa, L. E. Pablo, and E. Garcia-Martin, “Visual dysfunction and its correlation with retinal changes in patients with Parkinson’s disease: an observational cross-sectional study,” BMJ Open 6, e009658 (2016).
[Crossref]

Genge, S.

W. G. J. Reid, G. A. Broe, M. A. Hely, J. G. L. Morris, P. M. Williamson, D. J. O’Sullivan, D. Rail, S. Genge, and N. G. Moss, “The neuropsychology of de novo patients with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease: the effects of age of onset,” Int. J. Neurosci. 48, 205–217 (1989).
[Crossref]

Gershanik, O. S.

O. S. Gershanik, “Early onset parkinsonism,” Front. Biosci. 8, s568–s578 (2007).
[Crossref]

Glazman, S.

C. R. Adam, E. Shrier, Y. Ding, S. Glazman, and I. Bodis-Wollner, “Correlation of inner retinal thickness evaluated by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and contrast sensitivity in Parkinson disease,” J. Neuro-Ophthalmology 33, 137–142 (2013).
[Crossref]

Goetz, C. G.

N. J. Diederich, C. G. Goetz, and G. T. Stebbins, “Repeated visual hallucinations in Parkinson’s disease as disturbed external/internal perceptions: focused review and a new integrative model,” Mov. Disord. 20, 130–140 (2005).
[Crossref]

N. J. Diederich, R. Raman, S. Leurgans, and C. G. Goetz, “Progressive worsening of spatial and chromatic processing deficits in Parkinson disease,” Arch. Neurol. 59, 1249–1252 (2002).
[Crossref]

V. Pieri, N. J. Diederich, R. Raman, and C. G. Goetz, “Decreased color discrimination and contrast sensitivity in Parkinson’s disease,” J. Neurol. Sci. 172, 7–11 (2000).
[Crossref]

Greenlee, M. W.

T. Langheinrich, L. Tebartz Van Elst, W. A. Lagrèze, M. Bach, C. H. Lücking, and M. W. Greenlee, “Visual contrast response functions in Parkinson’s disease: evidence from electroretinograms, visually evoked potentials and psychophysics,” Clin. Neurophysiol. 111, 66–74 (2000).
[Crossref]

Hattori, N.

S. Kubo, A. Iwatake, N. Ebihara, A. Murakami, and N. Hattori, “Visual impairment in Parkinson’s disease treated with amantadine: case report and review of the literature,” Parkinsonism Relat. Disord. 14, 166–169 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hely, M. A.

W. G. J. Reid, G. A. Broe, M. A. Hely, J. G. L. Morris, P. M. Williamson, D. J. O’Sullivan, D. Rail, S. Genge, and N. G. Moss, “The neuropsychology of de novo patients with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease: the effects of age of onset,” Int. J. Neurosci. 48, 205–217 (1989).
[Crossref]

Hernandez, M. E.

J. R. Lukos, J. Snider, M. E. Hernandez, E. Tunik, S. Hillyard, and H. Poizner, “Parkinson’s disease patients show impaired corrective grasp control and eye–hand coupling when reaching to grasp virtual objects,” Neuroscience 254, 205–221 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hillyard, S.

J. R. Lukos, J. Snider, M. E. Hernandez, E. Tunik, S. Hillyard, and H. Poizner, “Parkinson’s disease patients show impaired corrective grasp control and eye–hand coupling when reaching to grasp virtual objects,” Neuroscience 254, 205–221 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hipp, G.

G. Hipp, N. J. Diederich, V. Pieria, and M. Vaillant, “Primary vision and facial emotion recognition in early Parkinson’s disease,” J. Neurol. Sci. 338, 178–182 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hoexter, M. Q.

C. S. Ming, L. A. F. De Andrade, E. Amaro, A. C. Felicio, H. B. Ferraz, J. Wagner, M. Q. Hoexter, F. L. Li, K. F. Ying, J. J. Mari, S. Tufik, and R. A. Bressan, “Higher nigrostriatal dopamine neuron loss in early than late onset Parkinson’s disease?—A [99mTc]-TRODAT-1 SPECT study,” Mov. Disord. 22, 863–866 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hutton, J. T.

J. T. Hutton, J. L. Morris, and J. W. Elias, “Visual contrast sensitivity in Parkinson’s disease is worsened with cabergoline treatment,” Parkinsonism Relat. Disord. 5, 87–91 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. T. Hutton, J. L. Morris, and J. W. Elias, “Levodopa improves spatial contrast sensitivity in Parkinson’s disease,” Arch. Neurol. 50, 721–724 (1993).
[Crossref]

Iwatake, A.

S. Kubo, A. Iwatake, N. Ebihara, A. Murakami, and N. Hattori, “Visual impairment in Parkinson’s disease treated with amantadine: case report and review of the literature,” Parkinsonism Relat. Disord. 14, 166–169 (2008).
[Crossref]

Januário, C.

M. F. Silva, P. Faria, F. S. Regateiro, V. Forjaz, C. Januário, A. Freire, and M. Castelo-Branco, “Independent patterns of damage within magno-, parvo- and koniocellular pathways in Parkinson’s disease,” Brain 128, 2260–2271 (2005).
[Crossref]

Jech, R.

O. Veselá, E. Růžička, R. Jech, J. Roth, K. Štěpánkova, P. Mečíř, Z. Solano, and E. Preclíková, “Colour discrimination impairment is not a reliable early marker of Parkinson’s disease,” J. Neurol. 248, 975–978 (2001).
[Crossref]

Jones, R. D.

R. D. Jones, I. M. Donaldson, and P. L. Timmings, “Impairment of high-contrast visual acuity in Parkinson’s disease,” Mov. Disord. 7, 232–238 (1992).
[Crossref]

Kanaan, N. M.

T. J. Collier, N. M. Kanaan, and J. H. Kordower, “Aging and Parkinson’s disease: different sides of the same coin?” Mov. Disord. 32, 983–990 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kerr, G. K.

C. J. Worringham, J. M. Wood, G. K. Kerr, and P. A. Silburn, “Predictors of driving assessment outcome in Parkinson’s disease,” Mov. Disord. 21, 230–235 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kohla, K.

T. Müller, D. Woitalla, S. Peters, K. Kohla, and H. Przuntek, “Progress of visual dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease,” Acta Neurol. Scand. 105, 256–260 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kordower, J. H.

T. J. Collier, N. M. Kanaan, and J. H. Kordower, “Aging and Parkinson’s disease: different sides of the same coin?” Mov. Disord. 32, 983–990 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kremers, J.

M. T. S. Barboni, B. V. Nagy, A. L. de Araújo Moura, F. M. Damico, M. F. da Costa, J. Kremers, and D. F. Ventura, “ON and OFF electroretinography and contrast sensitivity in Duchenne muscular dystrophy,” Invest. Opthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54, 3195–3204 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kubo, S.

S. Kubo, A. Iwatake, N. Ebihara, A. Murakami, and N. Hattori, “Visual impairment in Parkinson’s disease treated with amantadine: case report and review of the literature,” Parkinsonism Relat. Disord. 14, 166–169 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kuhn, W.

T. Büttner, W. Kuhn, T. Müller, U. McMonagle, and H. Przuntek, “Pharmacological effects of dopaminergics and amantadine on color discrimination in Parkinson’s disease,” Neuro-Ophthalmology 15, 135–141 (1995).
[Crossref]

T. Buttner, W. Kuhn, T. Muller, T. Patzold, and H. Przuntek, “Color vision in Parkinson’s disease: missing influence of amantadine sulphate,” Clin. Neuropharmacol. 18, 458–463 (1995).
[Crossref]

T. Büttner, W. Kuhn, T. Patzold, and H. Przuntek, “L-dopa improves colour vision in Parkinson’s disease,” J. Neural Transm. Park. Dis. Dement. Sect. 7, 13–19 (1994).
[Crossref]

La Morgia, C.

C. La Morgia, L. di Vito, V. Carelli, and M. Carbonelli, “Patterns of retinal ganglion cell damage in neurodegenerative disorders: parvocellular vs magnocellular degeneration in optical coherence tomography studies,” Front. Neurol. 8, 710 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lago, M.

L. H. M. Canto-Pereira, M. Lago, M. F. Costa, A. R. Rodrigues, C. A. Saito, L. C. L. Silveira, and D. F. Ventura, “Visual impairment on dentists related to occupational mercury exposure,” Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 19, 517–522 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lagrèze, W. A.

T. Langheinrich, L. Tebartz Van Elst, W. A. Lagrèze, M. Bach, C. H. Lücking, and M. W. Greenlee, “Visual contrast response functions in Parkinson’s disease: evidence from electroretinograms, visually evoked potentials and psychophysics,” Clin. Neurophysiol. 111, 66–74 (2000).
[Crossref]

Langheinrich, T.

T. Langheinrich, L. Tebartz Van Elst, W. A. Lagrèze, M. Bach, C. H. Lücking, and M. W. Greenlee, “Visual contrast response functions in Parkinson’s disease: evidence from electroretinograms, visually evoked potentials and psychophysics,” Clin. Neurophysiol. 111, 66–74 (2000).
[Crossref]

Larrosa, J. M.

V. Polo, M. Satue, M. J. Rodrigo, S. Otin, R. Alarcia, M. P. Bambo, M. I. Fuertes, J. M. Larrosa, L. E. Pablo, and E. Garcia-Martin, “Visual dysfunction and its correlation with retinal changes in patients with Parkinson’s disease: an observational cross-sectional study,” BMJ Open 6, e009658 (2016).
[Crossref]

Laurenti, M.

L. Barbato, S. Rinalduzzi, M. Laurenti, S. Ruggieri, and N. Accornero, “Color VEPs in Parkinson’s disease,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. Evoked Potentials 92, 169–172 (1994).
[Crossref]

Lee, B. B.

B. B. Lee, “Paths to colour in the retina,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 87, 239–248 (2004).
[Crossref]

Leonova, A.

A. Leonova, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Spatial frequency processing in inferred PC- and MC-pathways,” Vision Res. 43, 2133–2139 (2003).
[Crossref]

Leske, M. C.

L. T. Chylack, J. K. Wolfe, D. M. Singer, M. C. Leske, M. A. Bullimore, I. L. Bailey, J. Friend, D. McCarthy, and S. Y. Wu, “The lens opacities classification system III,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 111, 831–836 (1993).
[Crossref]

Leurgans, S.

N. J. Diederich, R. Raman, S. Leurgans, and C. G. Goetz, “Progressive worsening of spatial and chromatic processing deficits in Parkinson disease,” Arch. Neurol. 59, 1249–1252 (2002).
[Crossref]

Li, F. L.

C. S. Ming, L. A. F. De Andrade, E. Amaro, A. C. Felicio, H. B. Ferraz, J. Wagner, M. Q. Hoexter, F. L. Li, K. F. Ying, J. J. Mari, S. Tufik, and R. A. Bressan, “Higher nigrostriatal dopamine neuron loss in early than late onset Parkinson’s disease?—A [99mTc]-TRODAT-1 SPECT study,” Mov. Disord. 22, 863–866 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lücking, C. H.

T. Langheinrich, L. Tebartz Van Elst, W. A. Lagrèze, M. Bach, C. H. Lücking, and M. W. Greenlee, “Visual contrast response functions in Parkinson’s disease: evidence from electroretinograms, visually evoked potentials and psychophysics,” Clin. Neurophysiol. 111, 66–74 (2000).
[Crossref]

Lukos, J. R.

J. R. Lukos, J. Snider, M. E. Hernandez, E. Tunik, S. Hillyard, and H. Poizner, “Parkinson’s disease patients show impaired corrective grasp control and eye–hand coupling when reaching to grasp virtual objects,” Neuroscience 254, 205–221 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mari, J. J.

C. S. Ming, L. A. F. De Andrade, E. Amaro, A. C. Felicio, H. B. Ferraz, J. Wagner, M. Q. Hoexter, F. L. Li, K. F. Ying, J. J. Mari, S. Tufik, and R. A. Bressan, “Higher nigrostriatal dopamine neuron loss in early than late onset Parkinson’s disease?—A [99mTc]-TRODAT-1 SPECT study,” Mov. Disord. 22, 863–866 (2007).
[Crossref]

Marras, C.

C. Marras, “Subtypes of Parkinson’s disease: state of the field and future directions,” Curr. Opin. Neurol. 28, 382–386 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mathews, M.

J. Savitt and M. Mathews, “Treatment of visual disorders in Parkinson disease,” Curr. Treat. Options Neurol. 20, 30 (2018).
[Crossref]

McCarthy, D.

L. T. Chylack, J. K. Wolfe, D. M. Singer, M. C. Leske, M. A. Bullimore, I. L. Bailey, J. Friend, D. McCarthy, and S. Y. Wu, “The lens opacities classification system III,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 111, 831–836 (1993).
[Crossref]

McKeown, M. J.

W. Ming, D. J. Palidis, M. Spering, and M. J. McKeown, “Visual contrast sensitivity in early-stage Parkinson’s disease,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57, 5696–5704 (2016).
[Crossref]

McMonagle, U.

T. Büttner, W. Kuhn, T. Müller, U. McMonagle, and H. Przuntek, “Pharmacological effects of dopaminergics and amantadine on color discrimination in Parkinson’s disease,” Neuro-Ophthalmology 15, 135–141 (1995).
[Crossref]

Mecír, P.

O. Veselá, E. Růžička, R. Jech, J. Roth, K. Štěpánkova, P. Mečíř, Z. Solano, and E. Preclíková, “Colour discrimination impairment is not a reliable early marker of Parkinson’s disease,” J. Neurol. 248, 975–978 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ming, C. S.

C. S. Ming, L. A. F. De Andrade, E. Amaro, A. C. Felicio, H. B. Ferraz, J. Wagner, M. Q. Hoexter, F. L. Li, K. F. Ying, J. J. Mari, S. Tufik, and R. A. Bressan, “Higher nigrostriatal dopamine neuron loss in early than late onset Parkinson’s disease?—A [99mTc]-TRODAT-1 SPECT study,” Mov. Disord. 22, 863–866 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ming, W.

W. Ming, D. J. Palidis, M. Spering, and M. J. McKeown, “Visual contrast sensitivity in early-stage Parkinson’s disease,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57, 5696–5704 (2016).
[Crossref]

Morocutti, C.

A. Peppe, P. Stanzione, F. Pierelli, E. Stefano, P. A. Rizzo, M. Tagliati, and C. Morocutti, “Low contrast stimuli enhance PERG sensitivity to the visual dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 82, 453–457 (1992).
[Crossref]

Morris, J. G. L.

W. G. J. Reid, G. A. Broe, M. A. Hely, J. G. L. Morris, P. M. Williamson, D. J. O’Sullivan, D. Rail, S. Genge, and N. G. Moss, “The neuropsychology of de novo patients with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease: the effects of age of onset,” Int. J. Neurosci. 48, 205–217 (1989).
[Crossref]

Morris, J. L.

J. T. Hutton, J. L. Morris, and J. W. Elias, “Visual contrast sensitivity in Parkinson’s disease is worsened with cabergoline treatment,” Parkinsonism Relat. Disord. 5, 87–91 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. T. Hutton, J. L. Morris, and J. W. Elias, “Levodopa improves spatial contrast sensitivity in Parkinson’s disease,” Arch. Neurol. 50, 721–724 (1993).
[Crossref]

Moss, N. G.

W. G. J. Reid, G. A. Broe, M. A. Hely, J. G. L. Morris, P. M. Williamson, D. J. O’Sullivan, D. Rail, S. Genge, and N. G. Moss, “The neuropsychology of de novo patients with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease: the effects of age of onset,” Int. J. Neurosci. 48, 205–217 (1989).
[Crossref]

Muller, T.

T. Buttner, W. Kuhn, T. Muller, T. Patzold, and H. Przuntek, “Color vision in Parkinson’s disease: missing influence of amantadine sulphate,” Clin. Neuropharmacol. 18, 458–463 (1995).
[Crossref]

Müller, T.

T. Müller, D. Woitalla, S. Peters, K. Kohla, and H. Przuntek, “Progress of visual dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease,” Acta Neurol. Scand. 105, 256–260 (2002).
[Crossref]

T. Büttner, W. Kuhn, T. Müller, U. McMonagle, and H. Przuntek, “Pharmacological effects of dopaminergics and amantadine on color discrimination in Parkinson’s disease,” Neuro-Ophthalmology 15, 135–141 (1995).
[Crossref]

Murakami, A.

S. Kubo, A. Iwatake, N. Ebihara, A. Murakami, and N. Hattori, “Visual impairment in Parkinson’s disease treated with amantadine: case report and review of the literature,” Parkinsonism Relat. Disord. 14, 166–169 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nagy, B. V.

M. T. S. Barboni, B. V. Nagy, A. L. de Araújo Moura, F. M. Damico, M. F. da Costa, J. Kremers, and D. F. Ventura, “ON and OFF electroretinography and contrast sensitivity in Duchenne muscular dystrophy,” Invest. Opthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54, 3195–3204 (2013).
[Crossref]

O’Sullivan, D. J.

W. G. J. Reid, G. A. Broe, M. A. Hely, J. G. L. Morris, P. M. Williamson, D. J. O’Sullivan, D. Rail, S. Genge, and N. G. Moss, “The neuropsychology of de novo patients with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease: the effects of age of onset,” Int. J. Neurosci. 48, 205–217 (1989).
[Crossref]

Otin, S.

V. Polo, M. Satue, M. J. Rodrigo, S. Otin, R. Alarcia, M. P. Bambo, M. I. Fuertes, J. M. Larrosa, L. E. Pablo, and E. Garcia-Martin, “Visual dysfunction and its correlation with retinal changes in patients with Parkinson’s disease: an observational cross-sectional study,” BMJ Open 6, e009658 (2016).
[Crossref]

Pablo, L. E.

V. Polo, M. Satue, M. J. Rodrigo, S. Otin, R. Alarcia, M. P. Bambo, M. I. Fuertes, J. M. Larrosa, L. E. Pablo, and E. Garcia-Martin, “Visual dysfunction and its correlation with retinal changes in patients with Parkinson’s disease: an observational cross-sectional study,” BMJ Open 6, e009658 (2016).
[Crossref]

Pagano, G.

G. Pagano, N. Ferrara, D. J. Brooks, and N. Pavese, “Age at onset and Parkinson disease phenotype,” Neurology 86, 1400–1407 (2016).
[Crossref]

Palidis, D. J.

W. Ming, D. J. Palidis, M. Spering, and M. J. McKeown, “Visual contrast sensitivity in early-stage Parkinson’s disease,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57, 5696–5704 (2016).
[Crossref]

Patzold, T.

T. Buttner, W. Kuhn, T. Muller, T. Patzold, and H. Przuntek, “Color vision in Parkinson’s disease: missing influence of amantadine sulphate,” Clin. Neuropharmacol. 18, 458–463 (1995).
[Crossref]

T. Büttner, W. Kuhn, T. Patzold, and H. Przuntek, “L-dopa improves colour vision in Parkinson’s disease,” J. Neural Transm. Park. Dis. Dement. Sect. 7, 13–19 (1994).
[Crossref]

Pavese, N.

G. Pagano, N. Ferrara, D. J. Brooks, and N. Pavese, “Age at onset and Parkinson disease phenotype,” Neurology 86, 1400–1407 (2016).
[Crossref]

Peppe, A.

A. Peppe, P. Stanzione, F. Pierelli, E. Stefano, P. A. Rizzo, M. Tagliati, and C. Morocutti, “Low contrast stimuli enhance PERG sensitivity to the visual dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 82, 453–457 (1992).
[Crossref]

Peters, S.

T. Müller, D. Woitalla, S. Peters, K. Kohla, and H. Przuntek, “Progress of visual dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease,” Acta Neurol. Scand. 105, 256–260 (2002).
[Crossref]

Pierelli, F.

A. Peppe, P. Stanzione, F. Pierelli, E. Stefano, P. A. Rizzo, M. Tagliati, and C. Morocutti, “Low contrast stimuli enhance PERG sensitivity to the visual dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 82, 453–457 (1992).
[Crossref]

Pieri, V.

V. Pieri, N. J. Diederich, R. Raman, and C. G. Goetz, “Decreased color discrimination and contrast sensitivity in Parkinson’s disease,” J. Neurol. Sci. 172, 7–11 (2000).
[Crossref]

Pieria, V.

G. Hipp, N. J. Diederich, V. Pieria, and M. Vaillant, “Primary vision and facial emotion recognition in early Parkinson’s disease,” J. Neurol. Sci. 338, 178–182 (2014).
[Crossref]

Poizner, H.

J. R. Lukos, J. Snider, M. E. Hernandez, E. Tunik, S. Hillyard, and H. Poizner, “Parkinson’s disease patients show impaired corrective grasp control and eye–hand coupling when reaching to grasp virtual objects,” Neuroscience 254, 205–221 (2013).
[Crossref]

Pokorny, J.

A. Leonova, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Spatial frequency processing in inferred PC- and MC-pathways,” Vision Res. 43, 2133–2139 (2003).
[Crossref]

Polo, V.

V. Polo, M. Satue, M. J. Rodrigo, S. Otin, R. Alarcia, M. P. Bambo, M. I. Fuertes, J. M. Larrosa, L. E. Pablo, and E. Garcia-Martin, “Visual dysfunction and its correlation with retinal changes in patients with Parkinson’s disease: an observational cross-sectional study,” BMJ Open 6, e009658 (2016).
[Crossref]

Preclíková, E.

O. Veselá, E. Růžička, R. Jech, J. Roth, K. Štěpánkova, P. Mečíř, Z. Solano, and E. Preclíková, “Colour discrimination impairment is not a reliable early marker of Parkinson’s disease,” J. Neurol. 248, 975–978 (2001).
[Crossref]

Przuntek, H.

T. Müller, D. Woitalla, S. Peters, K. Kohla, and H. Przuntek, “Progress of visual dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease,” Acta Neurol. Scand. 105, 256–260 (2002).
[Crossref]

T. Büttner, W. Kuhn, T. Müller, U. McMonagle, and H. Przuntek, “Pharmacological effects of dopaminergics and amantadine on color discrimination in Parkinson’s disease,” Neuro-Ophthalmology 15, 135–141 (1995).
[Crossref]

T. Buttner, W. Kuhn, T. Muller, T. Patzold, and H. Przuntek, “Color vision in Parkinson’s disease: missing influence of amantadine sulphate,” Clin. Neuropharmacol. 18, 458–463 (1995).
[Crossref]

T. Büttner, W. Kuhn, T. Patzold, and H. Przuntek, “L-dopa improves colour vision in Parkinson’s disease,” J. Neural Transm. Park. Dis. Dement. Sect. 7, 13–19 (1994).
[Crossref]

Rail, D.

W. G. J. Reid, G. A. Broe, M. A. Hely, J. G. L. Morris, P. M. Williamson, D. J. O’Sullivan, D. Rail, S. Genge, and N. G. Moss, “The neuropsychology of de novo patients with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease: the effects of age of onset,” Int. J. Neurosci. 48, 205–217 (1989).
[Crossref]

Rajput, A.

L. W. Ferguson, A. H. Rajput, and A. Rajput, “Early-onset vs. late-onset Parkinson’s disease: a clinical-pathological study,” Can. J. Neurol. Sci. 43, 113–119 (2015).
[Crossref]

Rajput, A. H.

L. W. Ferguson, A. H. Rajput, and A. Rajput, “Early-onset vs. late-onset Parkinson’s disease: a clinical-pathological study,” Can. J. Neurol. Sci. 43, 113–119 (2015).
[Crossref]

Raman, R.

N. J. Diederich, R. Raman, S. Leurgans, and C. G. Goetz, “Progressive worsening of spatial and chromatic processing deficits in Parkinson disease,” Arch. Neurol. 59, 1249–1252 (2002).
[Crossref]

V. Pieri, N. J. Diederich, R. Raman, and C. G. Goetz, “Decreased color discrimination and contrast sensitivity in Parkinson’s disease,” J. Neurol. Sci. 172, 7–11 (2000).
[Crossref]

Regateiro, F. S.

M. F. Silva, P. Faria, F. S. Regateiro, V. Forjaz, C. Januário, A. Freire, and M. Castelo-Branco, “Independent patterns of damage within magno-, parvo- and koniocellular pathways in Parkinson’s disease,” Brain 128, 2260–2271 (2005).
[Crossref]

Reich, S. G.

S. G. Reich and J. M. Savitt, “Parkinson’s disease,” Med. Clin. North Am. 103, 337–350 (2019).
[Crossref]

Reid, W. G. J.

W. G. J. Reid, G. A. Broe, M. A. Hely, J. G. L. Morris, P. M. Williamson, D. J. O’Sullivan, D. Rail, S. Genge, and N. G. Moss, “The neuropsychology of de novo patients with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease: the effects of age of onset,” Int. J. Neurosci. 48, 205–217 (1989).
[Crossref]

Rinalduzzi, S.

L. Barbato, S. Rinalduzzi, M. Laurenti, S. Ruggieri, and N. Accornero, “Color VEPs in Parkinson’s disease,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. Evoked Potentials 92, 169–172 (1994).
[Crossref]

Rizzo, P. A.

A. Peppe, P. Stanzione, F. Pierelli, E. Stefano, P. A. Rizzo, M. Tagliati, and C. Morocutti, “Low contrast stimuli enhance PERG sensitivity to the visual dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 82, 453–457 (1992).
[Crossref]

Rodrigo, M. J.

V. Polo, M. Satue, M. J. Rodrigo, S. Otin, R. Alarcia, M. P. Bambo, M. I. Fuertes, J. M. Larrosa, L. E. Pablo, and E. Garcia-Martin, “Visual dysfunction and its correlation with retinal changes in patients with Parkinson’s disease: an observational cross-sectional study,” BMJ Open 6, e009658 (2016).
[Crossref]

Rodrigues, A. R.

L. H. M. Canto-Pereira, M. Lago, M. F. Costa, A. R. Rodrigues, C. A. Saito, L. C. L. Silveira, and D. F. Ventura, “Visual impairment on dentists related to occupational mercury exposure,” Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 19, 517–522 (2005).
[Crossref]

Roth, J.

O. Veselá, E. Růžička, R. Jech, J. Roth, K. Štěpánkova, P. Mečíř, Z. Solano, and E. Preclíková, “Colour discrimination impairment is not a reliable early marker of Parkinson’s disease,” J. Neurol. 248, 975–978 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ruggieri, S.

L. Barbato, S. Rinalduzzi, M. Laurenti, S. Ruggieri, and N. Accornero, “Color VEPs in Parkinson’s disease,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. Evoked Potentials 92, 169–172 (1994).
[Crossref]

Ružicka, E.

O. Veselá, E. Růžička, R. Jech, J. Roth, K. Štěpánkova, P. Mečíř, Z. Solano, and E. Preclíková, “Colour discrimination impairment is not a reliable early marker of Parkinson’s disease,” J. Neurol. 248, 975–978 (2001).
[Crossref]

Saito, C. A.

L. H. M. Canto-Pereira, M. Lago, M. F. Costa, A. R. Rodrigues, C. A. Saito, L. C. L. Silveira, and D. F. Ventura, “Visual impairment on dentists related to occupational mercury exposure,” Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 19, 517–522 (2005).
[Crossref]

Satue, M.

V. Polo, M. Satue, M. J. Rodrigo, S. Otin, R. Alarcia, M. P. Bambo, M. I. Fuertes, J. M. Larrosa, L. E. Pablo, and E. Garcia-Martin, “Visual dysfunction and its correlation with retinal changes in patients with Parkinson’s disease: an observational cross-sectional study,” BMJ Open 6, e009658 (2016).
[Crossref]

Savitt, J.

J. Savitt and M. Mathews, “Treatment of visual disorders in Parkinson disease,” Curr. Treat. Options Neurol. 20, 30 (2018).
[Crossref]

Savitt, J. M.

S. G. Reich and J. M. Savitt, “Parkinson’s disease,” Med. Clin. North Am. 103, 337–350 (2019).
[Crossref]

Shrier, E.

C. R. Adam, E. Shrier, Y. Ding, S. Glazman, and I. Bodis-Wollner, “Correlation of inner retinal thickness evaluated by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and contrast sensitivity in Parkinson disease,” J. Neuro-Ophthalmology 33, 137–142 (2013).
[Crossref]

Silburn, P. A.

C. J. Worringham, J. M. Wood, G. K. Kerr, and P. A. Silburn, “Predictors of driving assessment outcome in Parkinson’s disease,” Mov. Disord. 21, 230–235 (2006).
[Crossref]

Silva, M. F.

M. F. Silva, P. Faria, F. S. Regateiro, V. Forjaz, C. Januário, A. Freire, and M. Castelo-Branco, “Independent patterns of damage within magno-, parvo- and koniocellular pathways in Parkinson’s disease,” Brain 128, 2260–2271 (2005).
[Crossref]

Silveira, L. C. L.

L. H. M. Canto-Pereira, M. Lago, M. F. Costa, A. R. Rodrigues, C. A. Saito, L. C. L. Silveira, and D. F. Ventura, “Visual impairment on dentists related to occupational mercury exposure,” Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 19, 517–522 (2005).
[Crossref]

Singer, D. M.

L. T. Chylack, J. K. Wolfe, D. M. Singer, M. C. Leske, M. A. Bullimore, I. L. Bailey, J. Friend, D. McCarthy, and S. Y. Wu, “The lens opacities classification system III,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 111, 831–836 (1993).
[Crossref]

Skottun, B. C.

B. C. Skottun, “A few words on differentiating magno- and parvocellular contributions to vision on the basis of temporal frequency,” Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 71, 756–760 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. C. Skottun, “On the use of spatial frequency to isolate contributions from the magnocellular and parvocellular systems and the dorsal and ventral cortical streams,” Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 56, 266–275 (2015).
[Crossref]

Smith, V. C.

A. Leonova, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Spatial frequency processing in inferred PC- and MC-pathways,” Vision Res. 43, 2133–2139 (2003).
[Crossref]

Snider, J.

J. R. Lukos, J. Snider, M. E. Hernandez, E. Tunik, S. Hillyard, and H. Poizner, “Parkinson’s disease patients show impaired corrective grasp control and eye–hand coupling when reaching to grasp virtual objects,” Neuroscience 254, 205–221 (2013).
[Crossref]

Solano, Z.

O. Veselá, E. Růžička, R. Jech, J. Roth, K. Štěpánkova, P. Mečíř, Z. Solano, and E. Preclíková, “Colour discrimination impairment is not a reliable early marker of Parkinson’s disease,” J. Neurol. 248, 975–978 (2001).
[Crossref]

Spering, M.

W. Ming, D. J. Palidis, M. Spering, and M. J. McKeown, “Visual contrast sensitivity in early-stage Parkinson’s disease,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57, 5696–5704 (2016).
[Crossref]

Stanzione, P.

A. Peppe, P. Stanzione, F. Pierelli, E. Stefano, P. A. Rizzo, M. Tagliati, and C. Morocutti, “Low contrast stimuli enhance PERG sensitivity to the visual dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 82, 453–457 (1992).
[Crossref]

Stebbins, G. T.

N. J. Diederich, C. G. Goetz, and G. T. Stebbins, “Repeated visual hallucinations in Parkinson’s disease as disturbed external/internal perceptions: focused review and a new integrative model,” Mov. Disord. 20, 130–140 (2005).
[Crossref]

Stefano, E.

A. Peppe, P. Stanzione, F. Pierelli, E. Stefano, P. A. Rizzo, M. Tagliati, and C. Morocutti, “Low contrast stimuli enhance PERG sensitivity to the visual dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 82, 453–457 (1992).
[Crossref]

Štepánkova, K.

O. Veselá, E. Růžička, R. Jech, J. Roth, K. Štěpánkova, P. Mečíř, Z. Solano, and E. Preclíková, “Colour discrimination impairment is not a reliable early marker of Parkinson’s disease,” J. Neurol. 248, 975–978 (2001).
[Crossref]

Tagliati, M.

M. Tagliati, I. Bodis-Wollner, and M. D. Yahr, “The pattern electroretinogram in Parkinson’s disease reveals lack of retinal spatial tuning,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol.–Evoked Potentials 100, 1–11 (1996).
[Crossref]

A. Peppe, P. Stanzione, F. Pierelli, E. Stefano, P. A. Rizzo, M. Tagliati, and C. Morocutti, “Low contrast stimuli enhance PERG sensitivity to the visual dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 82, 453–457 (1992).
[Crossref]

Tebartz Van Elst, L.

T. Langheinrich, L. Tebartz Van Elst, W. A. Lagrèze, M. Bach, C. H. Lücking, and M. W. Greenlee, “Visual contrast response functions in Parkinson’s disease: evidence from electroretinograms, visually evoked potentials and psychophysics,” Clin. Neurophysiol. 111, 66–74 (2000).
[Crossref]

Timmings, P. L.

R. D. Jones, I. M. Donaldson, and P. L. Timmings, “Impairment of high-contrast visual acuity in Parkinson’s disease,” Mov. Disord. 7, 232–238 (1992).
[Crossref]

Tufik, S.

C. S. Ming, L. A. F. De Andrade, E. Amaro, A. C. Felicio, H. B. Ferraz, J. Wagner, M. Q. Hoexter, F. L. Li, K. F. Ying, J. J. Mari, S. Tufik, and R. A. Bressan, “Higher nigrostriatal dopamine neuron loss in early than late onset Parkinson’s disease?—A [99mTc]-TRODAT-1 SPECT study,” Mov. Disord. 22, 863–866 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tunik, E.

J. R. Lukos, J. Snider, M. E. Hernandez, E. Tunik, S. Hillyard, and H. Poizner, “Parkinson’s disease patients show impaired corrective grasp control and eye–hand coupling when reaching to grasp virtual objects,” Neuroscience 254, 205–221 (2013).
[Crossref]

Vaillant, M.

G. Hipp, N. J. Diederich, V. Pieria, and M. Vaillant, “Primary vision and facial emotion recognition in early Parkinson’s disease,” J. Neurol. Sci. 338, 178–182 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ventura, D. F.

M. T. S. Barboni, B. V. Nagy, A. L. de Araújo Moura, F. M. Damico, M. F. da Costa, J. Kremers, and D. F. Ventura, “ON and OFF electroretinography and contrast sensitivity in Duchenne muscular dystrophy,” Invest. Opthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54, 3195–3204 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. H. M. Canto-Pereira, M. Lago, M. F. Costa, A. R. Rodrigues, C. A. Saito, L. C. L. Silveira, and D. F. Ventura, “Visual impairment on dentists related to occupational mercury exposure,” Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 19, 517–522 (2005).
[Crossref]

Veselá, O.

O. Veselá, E. Růžička, R. Jech, J. Roth, K. Štěpánkova, P. Mečíř, Z. Solano, and E. Preclíková, “Colour discrimination impairment is not a reliable early marker of Parkinson’s disease,” J. Neurol. 248, 975–978 (2001).
[Crossref]

Wagner, J.

C. S. Ming, L. A. F. De Andrade, E. Amaro, A. C. Felicio, H. B. Ferraz, J. Wagner, M. Q. Hoexter, F. L. Li, K. F. Ying, J. J. Mari, S. Tufik, and R. A. Bressan, “Higher nigrostriatal dopamine neuron loss in early than late onset Parkinson’s disease?—A [99mTc]-TRODAT-1 SPECT study,” Mov. Disord. 22, 863–866 (2007).
[Crossref]

Walraven, J.

J. Walraven and J. S. Werner, “The invariance of unique white; a possible implication for normalizing cone action spectra,” Vision Res. 31, 2185–2193 (1991).
[Crossref]

Werner, J. S.

J. Walraven and J. S. Werner, “The invariance of unique white; a possible implication for normalizing cone action spectra,” Vision Res. 31, 2185–2193 (1991).
[Crossref]

Williamson, P. M.

W. G. J. Reid, G. A. Broe, M. A. Hely, J. G. L. Morris, P. M. Williamson, D. J. O’Sullivan, D. Rail, S. Genge, and N. G. Moss, “The neuropsychology of de novo patients with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease: the effects of age of onset,” Int. J. Neurosci. 48, 205–217 (1989).
[Crossref]

Woitalla, D.

T. Müller, D. Woitalla, S. Peters, K. Kohla, and H. Przuntek, “Progress of visual dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease,” Acta Neurol. Scand. 105, 256–260 (2002).
[Crossref]

Wolfe, J. K.

L. T. Chylack, J. K. Wolfe, D. M. Singer, M. C. Leske, M. A. Bullimore, I. L. Bailey, J. Friend, D. McCarthy, and S. Y. Wu, “The lens opacities classification system III,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 111, 831–836 (1993).
[Crossref]

Wood, J. M.

C. J. Worringham, J. M. Wood, G. K. Kerr, and P. A. Silburn, “Predictors of driving assessment outcome in Parkinson’s disease,” Mov. Disord. 21, 230–235 (2006).
[Crossref]

Worringham, C. J.

C. J. Worringham, J. M. Wood, G. K. Kerr, and P. A. Silburn, “Predictors of driving assessment outcome in Parkinson’s disease,” Mov. Disord. 21, 230–235 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wu, S. Y.

L. T. Chylack, J. K. Wolfe, D. M. Singer, M. C. Leske, M. A. Bullimore, I. L. Bailey, J. Friend, D. McCarthy, and S. Y. Wu, “The lens opacities classification system III,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 111, 831–836 (1993).
[Crossref]

Yahr, M. D.

M. Tagliati, I. Bodis-Wollner, and M. D. Yahr, “The pattern electroretinogram in Parkinson’s disease reveals lack of retinal spatial tuning,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol.–Evoked Potentials 100, 1–11 (1996).
[Crossref]

Ying, K. F.

C. S. Ming, L. A. F. De Andrade, E. Amaro, A. C. Felicio, H. B. Ferraz, J. Wagner, M. Q. Hoexter, F. L. Li, K. F. Ying, J. J. Mari, S. Tufik, and R. A. Bressan, “Higher nigrostriatal dopamine neuron loss in early than late onset Parkinson’s disease?—A [99mTc]-TRODAT-1 SPECT study,” Mov. Disord. 22, 863–866 (2007).
[Crossref]

Acta Neurol. Scand. (1)

T. Müller, D. Woitalla, S. Peters, K. Kohla, and H. Przuntek, “Progress of visual dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease,” Acta Neurol. Scand. 105, 256–260 (2002).
[Crossref]

Arch. Neurol. (2)

N. J. Diederich, R. Raman, S. Leurgans, and C. G. Goetz, “Progressive worsening of spatial and chromatic processing deficits in Parkinson disease,” Arch. Neurol. 59, 1249–1252 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. T. Hutton, J. L. Morris, and J. W. Elias, “Levodopa improves spatial contrast sensitivity in Parkinson’s disease,” Arch. Neurol. 50, 721–724 (1993).
[Crossref]

Arch. Ophthalmol. (1)

L. T. Chylack, J. K. Wolfe, D. M. Singer, M. C. Leske, M. A. Bullimore, I. L. Bailey, J. Friend, D. McCarthy, and S. Y. Wu, “The lens opacities classification system III,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 111, 831–836 (1993).
[Crossref]

BMJ Open (1)

V. Polo, M. Satue, M. J. Rodrigo, S. Otin, R. Alarcia, M. P. Bambo, M. I. Fuertes, J. M. Larrosa, L. E. Pablo, and E. Garcia-Martin, “Visual dysfunction and its correlation with retinal changes in patients with Parkinson’s disease: an observational cross-sectional study,” BMJ Open 6, e009658 (2016).
[Crossref]

Brain (1)

M. F. Silva, P. Faria, F. S. Regateiro, V. Forjaz, C. Januário, A. Freire, and M. Castelo-Branco, “Independent patterns of damage within magno-, parvo- and koniocellular pathways in Parkinson’s disease,” Brain 128, 2260–2271 (2005).
[Crossref]

Can. J. Neurol. Sci. (1)

L. W. Ferguson, A. H. Rajput, and A. Rajput, “Early-onset vs. late-onset Parkinson’s disease: a clinical-pathological study,” Can. J. Neurol. Sci. 43, 113–119 (2015).
[Crossref]

Clin. Exp. Optom. (1)

B. B. Lee, “Paths to colour in the retina,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 87, 239–248 (2004).
[Crossref]

Clin. Neuropharmacol. (1)

T. Buttner, W. Kuhn, T. Muller, T. Patzold, and H. Przuntek, “Color vision in Parkinson’s disease: missing influence of amantadine sulphate,” Clin. Neuropharmacol. 18, 458–463 (1995).
[Crossref]

Clin. Neurophysiol. (1)

T. Langheinrich, L. Tebartz Van Elst, W. A. Lagrèze, M. Bach, C. H. Lücking, and M. W. Greenlee, “Visual contrast response functions in Parkinson’s disease: evidence from electroretinograms, visually evoked potentials and psychophysics,” Clin. Neurophysiol. 111, 66–74 (2000).
[Crossref]

Curr. Opin. Neurol. (1)

C. Marras, “Subtypes of Parkinson’s disease: state of the field and future directions,” Curr. Opin. Neurol. 28, 382–386 (2015).
[Crossref]

Curr. Treat. Options Neurol. (1)

J. Savitt and M. Mathews, “Treatment of visual disorders in Parkinson disease,” Curr. Treat. Options Neurol. 20, 30 (2018).
[Crossref]

Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. (1)

A. Peppe, P. Stanzione, F. Pierelli, E. Stefano, P. A. Rizzo, M. Tagliati, and C. Morocutti, “Low contrast stimuli enhance PERG sensitivity to the visual dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 82, 453–457 (1992).
[Crossref]

Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. Evoked Potentials (1)

L. Barbato, S. Rinalduzzi, M. Laurenti, S. Ruggieri, and N. Accornero, “Color VEPs in Parkinson’s disease,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. Evoked Potentials 92, 169–172 (1994).
[Crossref]

Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol.–Evoked Potentials (1)

M. Tagliati, I. Bodis-Wollner, and M. D. Yahr, “The pattern electroretinogram in Parkinson’s disease reveals lack of retinal spatial tuning,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol.–Evoked Potentials 100, 1–11 (1996).
[Crossref]

Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol. (1)

L. H. M. Canto-Pereira, M. Lago, M. F. Costa, A. R. Rodrigues, C. A. Saito, L. C. L. Silveira, and D. F. Ventura, “Visual impairment on dentists related to occupational mercury exposure,” Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 19, 517–522 (2005).
[Crossref]

Front. Biosci. (1)

O. S. Gershanik, “Early onset parkinsonism,” Front. Biosci. 8, s568–s578 (2007).
[Crossref]

Front. Neurol. (1)

C. La Morgia, L. di Vito, V. Carelli, and M. Carbonelli, “Patterns of retinal ganglion cell damage in neurodegenerative disorders: parvocellular vs magnocellular degeneration in optical coherence tomography studies,” Front. Neurol. 8, 710 (2017).
[Crossref]

Int. J. Neurosci. (1)

W. G. J. Reid, G. A. Broe, M. A. Hely, J. G. L. Morris, P. M. Williamson, D. J. O’Sullivan, D. Rail, S. Genge, and N. G. Moss, “The neuropsychology of de novo patients with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease: the effects of age of onset,” Int. J. Neurosci. 48, 205–217 (1989).
[Crossref]

Invest. Opthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1)

M. T. S. Barboni, B. V. Nagy, A. L. de Araújo Moura, F. M. Damico, M. F. da Costa, J. Kremers, and D. F. Ventura, “ON and OFF electroretinography and contrast sensitivity in Duchenne muscular dystrophy,” Invest. Opthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54, 3195–3204 (2013).
[Crossref]

Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1)

W. Ming, D. J. Palidis, M. Spering, and M. J. McKeown, “Visual contrast sensitivity in early-stage Parkinson’s disease,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57, 5696–5704 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Neural Transm. (1)

I. Bodis-Wollner, “Retinopathy in Parkinson disease,” J. Neural Transm. 116, 1493–1501 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Neural Transm. Park. Dis. Dement. Sect. (1)

T. Büttner, W. Kuhn, T. Patzold, and H. Przuntek, “L-dopa improves colour vision in Parkinson’s disease,” J. Neural Transm. Park. Dis. Dement. Sect. 7, 13–19 (1994).
[Crossref]

J. Neuro-Ophthalmology (1)

C. R. Adam, E. Shrier, Y. Ding, S. Glazman, and I. Bodis-Wollner, “Correlation of inner retinal thickness evaluated by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and contrast sensitivity in Parkinson disease,” J. Neuro-Ophthalmology 33, 137–142 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Neurol. (1)

O. Veselá, E. Růžička, R. Jech, J. Roth, K. Štěpánkova, P. Mečíř, Z. Solano, and E. Preclíková, “Colour discrimination impairment is not a reliable early marker of Parkinson’s disease,” J. Neurol. 248, 975–978 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Neurol. Sci. (2)

G. Hipp, N. J. Diederich, V. Pieria, and M. Vaillant, “Primary vision and facial emotion recognition in early Parkinson’s disease,” J. Neurol. Sci. 338, 178–182 (2014).
[Crossref]

V. Pieri, N. J. Diederich, R. Raman, and C. G. Goetz, “Decreased color discrimination and contrast sensitivity in Parkinson’s disease,” J. Neurol. Sci. 172, 7–11 (2000).
[Crossref]

Med. Clin. North Am. (1)

S. G. Reich and J. M. Savitt, “Parkinson’s disease,” Med. Clin. North Am. 103, 337–350 (2019).
[Crossref]

Mov. Disord. (5)

N. J. Diederich, C. G. Goetz, and G. T. Stebbins, “Repeated visual hallucinations in Parkinson’s disease as disturbed external/internal perceptions: focused review and a new integrative model,” Mov. Disord. 20, 130–140 (2005).
[Crossref]

C. J. Worringham, J. M. Wood, G. K. Kerr, and P. A. Silburn, “Predictors of driving assessment outcome in Parkinson’s disease,” Mov. Disord. 21, 230–235 (2006).
[Crossref]

R. D. Jones, I. M. Donaldson, and P. L. Timmings, “Impairment of high-contrast visual acuity in Parkinson’s disease,” Mov. Disord. 7, 232–238 (1992).
[Crossref]

T. J. Collier, N. M. Kanaan, and J. H. Kordower, “Aging and Parkinson’s disease: different sides of the same coin?” Mov. Disord. 32, 983–990 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. S. Ming, L. A. F. De Andrade, E. Amaro, A. C. Felicio, H. B. Ferraz, J. Wagner, M. Q. Hoexter, F. L. Li, K. F. Ying, J. J. Mari, S. Tufik, and R. A. Bressan, “Higher nigrostriatal dopamine neuron loss in early than late onset Parkinson’s disease?—A [99mTc]-TRODAT-1 SPECT study,” Mov. Disord. 22, 863–866 (2007).
[Crossref]

Neuro-Ophthalmology (1)

T. Büttner, W. Kuhn, T. Müller, U. McMonagle, and H. Przuntek, “Pharmacological effects of dopaminergics and amantadine on color discrimination in Parkinson’s disease,” Neuro-Ophthalmology 15, 135–141 (1995).
[Crossref]

Neurology (1)

G. Pagano, N. Ferrara, D. J. Brooks, and N. Pavese, “Age at onset and Parkinson disease phenotype,” Neurology 86, 1400–1407 (2016).
[Crossref]

Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (2)

B. C. Skottun, “A few words on differentiating magno- and parvocellular contributions to vision on the basis of temporal frequency,” Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 71, 756–760 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. C. Skottun, “On the use of spatial frequency to isolate contributions from the magnocellular and parvocellular systems and the dorsal and ventral cortical streams,” Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 56, 266–275 (2015).
[Crossref]

Neuroscience (1)

J. R. Lukos, J. Snider, M. E. Hernandez, E. Tunik, S. Hillyard, and H. Poizner, “Parkinson’s disease patients show impaired corrective grasp control and eye–hand coupling when reaching to grasp virtual objects,” Neuroscience 254, 205–221 (2013).
[Crossref]

Park. Relat. Disord. (2)

H. Botha and J. Carr, “Attention and visual dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease,” Park. Relat. Disord. 18, 742–747 (2012).
[Crossref]

I. Bodis-Wollner, “Foveal vision is impaired in Parkinson’s disease,” Park. Relat. Disord. 19, 1–14 (2013).
[Crossref]

Parkinsonism Relat. Disord. (2)

J. T. Hutton, J. L. Morris, and J. W. Elias, “Visual contrast sensitivity in Parkinson’s disease is worsened with cabergoline treatment,” Parkinsonism Relat. Disord. 5, 87–91 (1999).
[Crossref]

S. Kubo, A. Iwatake, N. Ebihara, A. Murakami, and N. Hattori, “Visual impairment in Parkinson’s disease treated with amantadine: case report and review of the literature,” Parkinsonism Relat. Disord. 14, 166–169 (2008).
[Crossref]

Vision Res. (2)

J. Walraven and J. S. Werner, “The invariance of unique white; a possible implication for normalizing cone action spectra,” Vision Res. 31, 2185–2193 (1991).
[Crossref]

A. Leonova, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Spatial frequency processing in inferred PC- and MC-pathways,” Vision Res. 43, 2133–2139 (2003).
[Crossref]

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Stimulus configuration. The upper checkerboards indicate the low-SF (0.5 cpd), and the lower checkerboards indicate the high-SF (9 cpd) for the increment (left) and decrement (right) conditions. The bottom portion of the figure illustrates the temporal configuration (low-TF, 1500 ms; high-TF, 30 ms) for presentation of the appearance-disappearance stimuli, with an interval interstimulus as 3000 ms.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Checkerboard CS results for all 28 PD patients (gray boxplots) compared with controls (white boxplots). The $y$ axis shows CS in Log, and the $x$ axis shows the stimulus configurations as a combination of low-SF (0.5 cpd) or high-SF (9 cpd), low-TF (1500 ms) or high-TF (30 ms), and increment or decrement conditions. Asterisks mark statistically significant results (${\rm p}\; \lt \;{0.05}$); error bars mark ${\pm} {2}$ standard errors.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Checkerboard CS results for the PD subtypes (19 EOPD and 9 LOPD patients in gray boxplots) compared with age-matched controls in white boxplots. The $y$ axis shows CS in Log, and the $x$ axis shows the stimulus configurations as a combination of low-SF (0.5 cpd) or high-SF (9 cpd), low-TF (1500 ms) or high-TF (30 ms), and increment or decrement conditions. Asterisks mark statistically significant results (${\rm p}\; \lt \;{0.05}$); error bars mark ${\pm}{2}$ standard errors.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Chromaticity discrimination thresholds for 27 PD patients (gray bars) and controls (white bars). Upper panel: data for all 27 PD patients. Middle panel: data for 19 EOPD patients. Bottom panel: data for 8 LOPD patients. The $y$ axis shows CCT Trivector thresholds in $u^{\prime}\,v^{\prime}$ CIE 1976 units, and the $x$ axis shows the three subtests as follows: protan, deutan, and tritan. Asterisks mark statistically significant results (${\rm p}\; \lt \;{0.05}$); error bars mark ${\pm}{2}$ standard errors.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Demographic Data of All 28 PD Patientsa

Tables Icon

Table 2. Medications: Dosage of Medication in mg/daya

Tables Icon

Table 3. Statistical Summary for Both CS and CV Tests: the Achromatic Spatiotemporal CS Test and the Trivector Test (CV) for 28 Overall PD Patients, 19 EOPD Patients, and 9 LOPD Patients (8 LOPD Patients for CV Test), Compared to Their Respective Controlsa

Metrics