Abstract

This study determined the AC1 agreement values between computer-based color vision tests and the Farnworth–Munsell D-15 (F-D15) and the Holmes–Wright Type A lantern (HWA). The computer-based tests were the United States Air Force Cone Contrast Test (OCCT), Cambridge Color Test, Innova Rabin Cone Contrast, Konan–Waggoner D15 (KWC-D15), and Color Assessment and Diagnosis (CAD). Sixty-eight color-vision-defective persons participated. The KWC-D15 had the highest AC1 with the F-D15 (${\rm AC1} = {0.88}$). Both the CAD and OCCT had the highest values with the HWA (${\rm AC1} \gt {0.96}$). The KWC-D15 would be the best substitute for the F-D15. Either the CAD or OCCT would be appropriate substitutes for the HWA.

© 2020 Optical Society of America

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References

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  6. J. L. Barbur, M. Rodriguez-Carmona, and A. Harlow, “Establishing the statistical limits of ‘normal’ chromatic sensitivity,” in CIE Expert Symposium, CIE Proceedings 75 Years of the Standard Colorimetric Observer (2006).
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  9. J. Rabin, “Quantification of color vision with cone contrast sensitivity,” Vis. Neurosci. 21, 483–485 (2004).
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  10. A. J. Vingrys and P. E. King-Smith, “A quantitative scoring technique for panel tests of color vision,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 29, 50–63 (1988).
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  12. J. K. Hovis, “Repeatability of the Holmes-Wright type A lantern color vision test,” Aviat. Space Environ. Med. 79, 1028–1033 (2008).
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  24. J. Rabin, “Cone-specific measures of human color vision,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 37, 2771–2774 (1996).
  25. H. Gao, M. D. Reddix, and C. D. Kirkendall, “Can operationally-relevant accuracy and reaction-time metrics guide the development of color-vision standards?” Aerosp. Med. Hum. Perform. 86, 265 (2015).
  26. S. J. Dain, D. A. Atchison, and J. K. Hovis, “Limitations and precautions in the use of the Farnsworth-Munsell Dichotomous D-15 test,” Optometry Vis. Sci. 96, 695–705 (2019).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  29. J. Birch, “Performance of color-deficient people on the Holmes-Wright lantern (type A): consistency of occupational color vision standards in aviation,” Ophthalmic Physiolog. Opt. 28, 253–258 (2008).
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    [Crossref]
  32. J. Birch, “Pass rates for the Farnsworth D15 colour vision test,” Ophthalmic Physiolog. Opt. 28, 259–264 (2008).
    [Crossref]

2019 (2)

I. W. Chay, S. W. Y. Lim, and B. B. C. Tan, “Cone contrast test for color vision deficiency screening among a cohort of military aircrew applicants,” Aerosp. Med. Hum. Perform. 90, 71–76 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. J. Dain, D. A. Atchison, and J. K. Hovis, “Limitations and precautions in the use of the Farnsworth-Munsell Dichotomous D-15 test,” Optometry Vis. Sci. 96, 695–705 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (1)

J. S. Ng and W. A. Morton, “Case report: invalidation of the Farnsworth D15 test in dichromacy secondary to practice,” Optometry Vision Sci. 95, 272–274 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (1)

M. Rodriguez-Carmona and J. L. Barbur, “Colour vision requirements in visually demanding occupations,” Br. Med. Bull. 122(1), 51–77 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

D. V. Walsh, J. Robinson, G. M. Jurek, J. E. Capo-Aponte, D. W. Riggs, and L. A. Temme, “A performance comparison of color vision tests for military screening,” Aerosp. Med. Hum. Perform. 87, 382–387 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

H. Gao, M. D. Reddix, and C. D. Kirkendall, “Can operationally-relevant accuracy and reaction-time metrics guide the development of color-vision standards?” Aerosp. Med. Hum. Perform. 86, 265 (2015).

2014 (1)

D. B. Watson, “Lack of international uniformity in assessing color vision deficiency in professional pilots,” Aviat. Space Environ. Med. 85, 148–159 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

N. Wongpakaran, T. Wongpakaran, D. Wedding, and K. L. Gwet, “A comparison of Cohen’s Kappa and Gwet’s AC1 when calculating inter-rater reliability coefficients: a study conducted with personality disorder samples,” BMC Med. Res. Methodol. 13, 61 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

J. Rabin, J. Gooch, and D. Ivan, “Rapid quantification of color vision: the cone contrast test,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52, 816–820 (2011).
[Crossref]

2008 (4)

J. Birch, “Pass rates for the Farnsworth D15 colour vision test,” Ophthalmic Physiolog. Opt. 28, 259–264 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Birch, “Performance of color-deficient people on the Holmes-Wright lantern (type A): consistency of occupational color vision standards in aviation,” Ophthalmic Physiolog. Opt. 28, 253–258 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. K. Hovis, “Repeatability of the Holmes-Wright type A lantern color vision test,” Aviat. Space Environ. Med. 79, 1028–1033 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. L. Gwet, “Computing inter-rater reliability and its variance in the presence of high agreement,” British J. Math. Statist. Psychl. 61, 29–48 (2008).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

J. Rabin, “Quantification of color vision with cone contrast sensitivity,” Vis. Neurosci. 21, 483–485 (2004).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

L. L. Kontsevich and C. W. Tyler, “Bayesian adaptive estimation of psychometric slope and threshold,” Vis. Res. 39, 2729–2737 (1999).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

J. Rabin, “Cone-specific measures of human color vision,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 37, 2771–2774 (1996).

1994 (1)

B. C. Regan, J. P. Reffin, and J. D. Mollon, “Luminance noise and the rapid determination of discrimination ellipses in colour deficiency,” Vis. Res. 34, 1279–1299 (1994).

1993 (1)

M. H. Zweig and G. Campbell, “Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) plots: a fundamental evaluation tool in clinical medicine,” Clin. Chem. 39, 561–577 (1993).

1991 (1)

D. A. Atchison, K. J. Bowman, and A. J. Vingrys, “Quantitative scoring methods for D15 panel tests in the diagnosis of congenital color vision deficiencies,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 68, 41–48 (1991).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

A. J. Vingrys and P. E. King-Smith, “A quantitative scoring technique for panel tests of color vision,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 29, 50–63 (1988).

1985 (1)

M. E. Breton and B. W. Tansley, “Improved color test results with large-field viewing in dichromats,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 103, 1490–1495 (1985).
[Crossref]

1983 (2)

B. L. Cole and A. J. Vingrys, “Who fails lantern tests?” Doc. Ophthalmol. 55, 157–175 (1983).
[Crossref]

A. Vingrys and B. Cole, “Validation of the Holmes-Wright lanterns for testing color vision,” Ophthalmic Physiolog. Opt. 3, 137–152 (1983).
[Crossref]

1982 (2)

B. L. Cole and A. J. Vingrys, “A survey and evaluation of lantern tests of color vision,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 59, 346–374 (1982).
[Crossref]

J. Holmes and W. Wright, “A new color-perception lantern,” Color Res. Appl. 7, 82–88 (1982).
[Crossref]

Atchison, D. A.

S. J. Dain, D. A. Atchison, and J. K. Hovis, “Limitations and precautions in the use of the Farnsworth-Munsell Dichotomous D-15 test,” Optometry Vis. Sci. 96, 695–705 (2019).
[Crossref]

D. A. Atchison, K. J. Bowman, and A. J. Vingrys, “Quantitative scoring methods for D15 panel tests in the diagnosis of congenital color vision deficiencies,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 68, 41–48 (1991).
[Crossref]

Barbur, J. L.

M. Rodriguez-Carmona and J. L. Barbur, “Colour vision requirements in visually demanding occupations,” Br. Med. Bull. 122(1), 51–77 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. L. Barbur, M. Rodriguez-Carmona, and A. Harlow, “Establishing the statistical limits of ‘normal’ chromatic sensitivity,” in CIE Expert Symposium, CIE Proceedings 75 Years of the Standard Colorimetric Observer (2006).

Birch, J.

J. Birch, “Performance of color-deficient people on the Holmes-Wright lantern (type A): consistency of occupational color vision standards in aviation,” Ophthalmic Physiolog. Opt. 28, 253–258 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Birch, “Pass rates for the Farnsworth D15 colour vision test,” Ophthalmic Physiolog. Opt. 28, 259–264 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bowman, K. J.

D. A. Atchison, K. J. Bowman, and A. J. Vingrys, “Quantitative scoring methods for D15 panel tests in the diagnosis of congenital color vision deficiencies,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 68, 41–48 (1991).
[Crossref]

Breton, M. E.

M. E. Breton and B. W. Tansley, “Improved color test results with large-field viewing in dichromats,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 103, 1490–1495 (1985).
[Crossref]

Campbell, G.

M. H. Zweig and G. Campbell, “Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) plots: a fundamental evaluation tool in clinical medicine,” Clin. Chem. 39, 561–577 (1993).

Capo-Aponte, J. E.

D. V. Walsh, J. Robinson, G. M. Jurek, J. E. Capo-Aponte, D. W. Riggs, and L. A. Temme, “A performance comparison of color vision tests for military screening,” Aerosp. Med. Hum. Perform. 87, 382–387 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chay, I. W.

I. W. Chay, S. W. Y. Lim, and B. B. C. Tan, “Cone contrast test for color vision deficiency screening among a cohort of military aircrew applicants,” Aerosp. Med. Hum. Perform. 90, 71–76 (2019).
[Crossref]

Cole, B.

A. Vingrys and B. Cole, “Validation of the Holmes-Wright lanterns for testing color vision,” Ophthalmic Physiolog. Opt. 3, 137–152 (1983).
[Crossref]

Cole, B. L.

B. L. Cole and A. J. Vingrys, “Who fails lantern tests?” Doc. Ophthalmol. 55, 157–175 (1983).
[Crossref]

B. L. Cole and A. J. Vingrys, “A survey and evaluation of lantern tests of color vision,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 59, 346–374 (1982).
[Crossref]

J. M. Steward and B. L. Cole, “The effect of object size on the performance of colour ordering and discrimination tasks,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies IX: Proceedings of the Ninth Symposium of the International Research Group on Colour Vision Deficiencies, B. Drum and G. Verriest, eds. (Springer, 1989), pp. 79–88.

Dain, S. J.

S. J. Dain, D. A. Atchison, and J. K. Hovis, “Limitations and precautions in the use of the Farnsworth-Munsell Dichotomous D-15 test,” Optometry Vis. Sci. 96, 695–705 (2019).
[Crossref]

Gao, H.

H. Gao, M. D. Reddix, and C. D. Kirkendall, “Can operationally-relevant accuracy and reaction-time metrics guide the development of color-vision standards?” Aerosp. Med. Hum. Perform. 86, 265 (2015).

Gooch, J.

J. Rabin, J. Gooch, and D. Ivan, “Rapid quantification of color vision: the cone contrast test,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52, 816–820 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gwet, K. L.

N. Wongpakaran, T. Wongpakaran, D. Wedding, and K. L. Gwet, “A comparison of Cohen’s Kappa and Gwet’s AC1 when calculating inter-rater reliability coefficients: a study conducted with personality disorder samples,” BMC Med. Res. Methodol. 13, 61 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. L. Gwet, “Computing inter-rater reliability and its variance in the presence of high agreement,” British J. Math. Statist. Psychl. 61, 29–48 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hanabusa, A.

T. Motohashi, Y. Ohta, A. Hanabusa, and H. Shiraishi, “Comparative study between test results of 8-deg. large-field anomaloscope and large-size panel D15 test on dichromats,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies IX: Proceedings of the Ninth Symposium of the International Research Group on Colour Vision Deficiencies, B. Drum and G. Verriest, eds. (Springer, 1989), pp. 543–554.

Harlow, A.

J. L. Barbur, M. Rodriguez-Carmona, and A. Harlow, “Establishing the statistical limits of ‘normal’ chromatic sensitivity,” in CIE Expert Symposium, CIE Proceedings 75 Years of the Standard Colorimetric Observer (2006).

Holmes, J.

J. Holmes and W. Wright, “A new color-perception lantern,” Color Res. Appl. 7, 82–88 (1982).
[Crossref]

Hovis, J. K.

S. J. Dain, D. A. Atchison, and J. K. Hovis, “Limitations and precautions in the use of the Farnsworth-Munsell Dichotomous D-15 test,” Optometry Vis. Sci. 96, 695–705 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. K. Hovis, “Repeatability of the Holmes-Wright type A lantern color vision test,” Aviat. Space Environ. Med. 79, 1028–1033 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ivan, D.

J. Rabin, J. Gooch, and D. Ivan, “Rapid quantification of color vision: the cone contrast test,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52, 816–820 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jurek, G. M.

D. V. Walsh, J. Robinson, G. M. Jurek, J. E. Capo-Aponte, D. W. Riggs, and L. A. Temme, “A performance comparison of color vision tests for military screening,” Aerosp. Med. Hum. Perform. 87, 382–387 (2016).
[Crossref]

King-Smith, P. E.

A. J. Vingrys and P. E. King-Smith, “A quantitative scoring technique for panel tests of color vision,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 29, 50–63 (1988).

Kirkendall, C. D.

H. Gao, M. D. Reddix, and C. D. Kirkendall, “Can operationally-relevant accuracy and reaction-time metrics guide the development of color-vision standards?” Aerosp. Med. Hum. Perform. 86, 265 (2015).

Kontsevich, L. L.

L. L. Kontsevich and C. W. Tyler, “Bayesian adaptive estimation of psychometric slope and threshold,” Vis. Res. 39, 2729–2737 (1999).
[Crossref]

Lim, S. W. Y.

I. W. Chay, S. W. Y. Lim, and B. B. C. Tan, “Cone contrast test for color vision deficiency screening among a cohort of military aircrew applicants,” Aerosp. Med. Hum. Perform. 90, 71–76 (2019).
[Crossref]

Mollon, J. D.

B. C. Regan, J. P. Reffin, and J. D. Mollon, “Luminance noise and the rapid determination of discrimination ellipses in colour deficiency,” Vis. Res. 34, 1279–1299 (1994).

Morton, W. A.

J. S. Ng and W. A. Morton, “Case report: invalidation of the Farnsworth D15 test in dichromacy secondary to practice,” Optometry Vision Sci. 95, 272–274 (2018).
[Crossref]

Motohashi, T.

T. Motohashi, Y. Ohta, A. Hanabusa, and H. Shiraishi, “Comparative study between test results of 8-deg. large-field anomaloscope and large-size panel D15 test on dichromats,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies IX: Proceedings of the Ninth Symposium of the International Research Group on Colour Vision Deficiencies, B. Drum and G. Verriest, eds. (Springer, 1989), pp. 543–554.

Ng, J. S.

J. S. Ng and W. A. Morton, “Case report: invalidation of the Farnsworth D15 test in dichromacy secondary to practice,” Optometry Vision Sci. 95, 272–274 (2018).
[Crossref]

Ohta, Y.

T. Motohashi, Y. Ohta, A. Hanabusa, and H. Shiraishi, “Comparative study between test results of 8-deg. large-field anomaloscope and large-size panel D15 test on dichromats,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies IX: Proceedings of the Ninth Symposium of the International Research Group on Colour Vision Deficiencies, B. Drum and G. Verriest, eds. (Springer, 1989), pp. 543–554.

Pinckers, A. J. L. G.

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, G. Verriest, and A. J. L. G. Pinckers, Congenital and Acquired Color Vision Defects (Grune and Stratton, 1979), Chap. 7.

Pokorny, J.

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, G. Verriest, and A. J. L. G. Pinckers, Congenital and Acquired Color Vision Defects (Grune and Stratton, 1979), Chap. 7.

Rabin, J.

J. Rabin, J. Gooch, and D. Ivan, “Rapid quantification of color vision: the cone contrast test,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52, 816–820 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Rabin, “Quantification of color vision with cone contrast sensitivity,” Vis. Neurosci. 21, 483–485 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Rabin, “Cone-specific measures of human color vision,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 37, 2771–2774 (1996).

Reddix, M. D.

H. Gao, M. D. Reddix, and C. D. Kirkendall, “Can operationally-relevant accuracy and reaction-time metrics guide the development of color-vision standards?” Aerosp. Med. Hum. Perform. 86, 265 (2015).

Reffin, J. P.

B. C. Regan, J. P. Reffin, and J. D. Mollon, “Luminance noise and the rapid determination of discrimination ellipses in colour deficiency,” Vis. Res. 34, 1279–1299 (1994).

Regan, B. C.

B. C. Regan, J. P. Reffin, and J. D. Mollon, “Luminance noise and the rapid determination of discrimination ellipses in colour deficiency,” Vis. Res. 34, 1279–1299 (1994).

Riggs, D. W.

D. V. Walsh, J. Robinson, G. M. Jurek, J. E. Capo-Aponte, D. W. Riggs, and L. A. Temme, “A performance comparison of color vision tests for military screening,” Aerosp. Med. Hum. Perform. 87, 382–387 (2016).
[Crossref]

Robinson, J.

D. V. Walsh, J. Robinson, G. M. Jurek, J. E. Capo-Aponte, D. W. Riggs, and L. A. Temme, “A performance comparison of color vision tests for military screening,” Aerosp. Med. Hum. Perform. 87, 382–387 (2016).
[Crossref]

Rodriguez-Carmona, M.

M. Rodriguez-Carmona and J. L. Barbur, “Colour vision requirements in visually demanding occupations,” Br. Med. Bull. 122(1), 51–77 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. L. Barbur, M. Rodriguez-Carmona, and A. Harlow, “Establishing the statistical limits of ‘normal’ chromatic sensitivity,” in CIE Expert Symposium, CIE Proceedings 75 Years of the Standard Colorimetric Observer (2006).

Shiraishi, H.

T. Motohashi, Y. Ohta, A. Hanabusa, and H. Shiraishi, “Comparative study between test results of 8-deg. large-field anomaloscope and large-size panel D15 test on dichromats,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies IX: Proceedings of the Ninth Symposium of the International Research Group on Colour Vision Deficiencies, B. Drum and G. Verriest, eds. (Springer, 1989), pp. 543–554.

Smith, V. C.

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, G. Verriest, and A. J. L. G. Pinckers, Congenital and Acquired Color Vision Defects (Grune and Stratton, 1979), Chap. 7.

Steward, J. M.

J. M. Steward and B. L. Cole, “The effect of object size on the performance of colour ordering and discrimination tasks,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies IX: Proceedings of the Ninth Symposium of the International Research Group on Colour Vision Deficiencies, B. Drum and G. Verriest, eds. (Springer, 1989), pp. 79–88.

Tan, B. B. C.

I. W. Chay, S. W. Y. Lim, and B. B. C. Tan, “Cone contrast test for color vision deficiency screening among a cohort of military aircrew applicants,” Aerosp. Med. Hum. Perform. 90, 71–76 (2019).
[Crossref]

Tansley, B. W.

M. E. Breton and B. W. Tansley, “Improved color test results with large-field viewing in dichromats,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 103, 1490–1495 (1985).
[Crossref]

Temme, L. A.

D. V. Walsh, J. Robinson, G. M. Jurek, J. E. Capo-Aponte, D. W. Riggs, and L. A. Temme, “A performance comparison of color vision tests for military screening,” Aerosp. Med. Hum. Perform. 87, 382–387 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tyler, C. W.

L. L. Kontsevich and C. W. Tyler, “Bayesian adaptive estimation of psychometric slope and threshold,” Vis. Res. 39, 2729–2737 (1999).
[Crossref]

Verriest, G.

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, G. Verriest, and A. J. L. G. Pinckers, Congenital and Acquired Color Vision Defects (Grune and Stratton, 1979), Chap. 7.

Vingrys, A.

A. Vingrys and B. Cole, “Validation of the Holmes-Wright lanterns for testing color vision,” Ophthalmic Physiolog. Opt. 3, 137–152 (1983).
[Crossref]

Vingrys, A. J.

D. A. Atchison, K. J. Bowman, and A. J. Vingrys, “Quantitative scoring methods for D15 panel tests in the diagnosis of congenital color vision deficiencies,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 68, 41–48 (1991).
[Crossref]

A. J. Vingrys and P. E. King-Smith, “A quantitative scoring technique for panel tests of color vision,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 29, 50–63 (1988).

B. L. Cole and A. J. Vingrys, “Who fails lantern tests?” Doc. Ophthalmol. 55, 157–175 (1983).
[Crossref]

B. L. Cole and A. J. Vingrys, “A survey and evaluation of lantern tests of color vision,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 59, 346–374 (1982).
[Crossref]

Walsh, D. V.

D. V. Walsh, J. Robinson, G. M. Jurek, J. E. Capo-Aponte, D. W. Riggs, and L. A. Temme, “A performance comparison of color vision tests for military screening,” Aerosp. Med. Hum. Perform. 87, 382–387 (2016).
[Crossref]

Watson, D. B.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Dot histogram showing the distribution of CAD threshold values for those protan and deutan subjects who passed or failed the Farnsworth D15. The solid line is the CAD score, which maximizes the sum of the sensitivity and specificity when the subjects are pooled into one group. The short dashed line is the score that maximizes the sensitivity with a specificity value greater than 0 for the protans, and the long dashed line is the score that maximizes the sensitivity with a specificity value greater than 0 for the deutans.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Dot histogram showing the distribution of OCCT(B) maximum (Max) of either the L- or M-cone threshold for those subjects who passed (solid circles and triangles) or failed (open circles and triangles) the Farnsworth D15. The solid line is the OCCT(B) score, which maximizes the sum of the sensitivity and specificity when the subjects are pooled into one group. The short dashed line is the score that maximizes the sensitivity with a specificity value greater than 0 for the protans, and the long dashed line is the score that maximizes the sensitivity with a specificity value greater than 0 for the deutans.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Dot histogram showing the distribution of lowest sensitivity value of either the RCCT L or M cone for those subjects who passed (solid circles and triangles) or failed (open circles and triangles) the Farnsworth D15. The values are the averages of the individual monocular sensitivities. The solid line is the RCCT score, which maximizes the sum of the sensitivity and specificity when the subjects are pooled into one group.

Tables (4)

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Table 1. Agreement Analyses for the Comparison between the F-D15 and Selected Tests

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Table 2. Agreement Analyses for the Comparison between the F-D15 and Selected Tests Using Separate Cutoff Values for Protans and Deutans

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Table 3. Agreement Analyses for the Comparison between the HWA and Selected Tests

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Table 4. Average Time in Minutes to Complete Each of the Tests for Both CVN and CVD Subjects

Metrics