Abstract

In this paper we revisit the nondiffracting properties of the cosine beam (CB). Since the CB is of infinite extension and not physically realizable, we use two apodization pupils to manage its transverse extent: the first one is a Gaussian apodized pupil, giving rise to the cosine-Gauss (CG) beam, and the second one is a window (aperture) apodized pupil, giving rise to the cosine-windowed beam. Based on the second-order intensity moments, we demonstrate analytical expressions for the CG beam width and its nondiffracting range as a function of some key parameters. By considering the CG beam a standing wave resulting from the superposition of two oppositely oblique traveling Gaussian beams, we extend the study to higher-order CG beams. The latter is generated by the superposition of two oppositely oblique Hermite–Gauss (${\textit{HG}_n}$) beams of order $n$, giving birth to a standing nondiffracting Hermite–cosine–Gauss ($\textit{HCG}_n$) beam of order $n$. We also demonstrate the expressions of the higher-order CG beam width and its nondiffracting range ${z_{\max}}$. After demonstrating the nondiffracting nature of the HCG beam family, we test their ability to self-heal and recover against obstacles, and we show the limit distance from which $\textit{HCG}_n$ beams self-heal as a function of obstruction size and CG parameter. The results of this paper are of big interest in fields involving structured light such as particle manipulation, imaging, and light sheet microscopy.

© 2020 Optical Society of America

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