Abstract

We investigate the properties of a single-view fluorescence microscope in a 4f geometry when imaging fluorescent dipoles without using the monopole or scalar approximations. We show that this imaging system has a spatio-angular band limit, and we exploit the band limit to perform efficient simulations. Notably, we show that information about the out-of-plane orientation of ensembles of in-focus fluorophores is recorded by paraxial fluorescence microscopes. Additionally, we show that the monopole approximation may cause biased estimates of fluorophore concentrations, but these biases are small when the sample contains either many randomly oriented fluorophores in each resolvable volume or unconstrained rotating fluorophores.

© 2019 Optical Society of America

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