Abstract

Iterative phase retrieval methods based on the Gerchberg–Saxton (GS) or Fienup algorithm typically show stagnation artifacts even after a large number of iterations. We introduce a complexity parameter ζ that can be computed directly from the Fourier magnitude data and provides a measure of fluctuations in the desired phase retrieval solution. It is observed that when initiated with a constant or a uniformly random phase map, the complexity of the Fienup solution containing stagnation artifacts stabilizes at a numerical value that is higher than ζ. We propose a modified Fienup algorithm that uses a controlled sparsity-enhancing step such that in every iteration the complexity of the resulting guess solution is explicitly made close to ζ. This approach, which we refer to as complexity-guided phase retrieval, is seen to provide an artifact-free phase retrieval solution within a few hundred iterations. Numerical illustrations are provided for both amplitude as well as phase objects with and without Poisson noise introduced in the Fourier intensity data. The complexity-guidance concept may potentially be combined with a variety of phase retrieval algorithms and can enable several practical applications.

© 2019 Optical Society of America

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