Abstract

We investigated the possibility of whether impressions of semantic words showing complex concepts could be stably expressed by hues. Using a paired comparison method, we asked ten subjects to select from a pair of hues the one that more suitably matched a word impression. We employed nine Japanese semantic words and used twelve hues from vivid tones in the practical color coordinate system. As examples of the results, for the word “vigorous” the most frequently selected color was yellow and the least selected was blue to purple; for “tranquil” the most selected was yellow to green and the least selected was red. Principal component analysis of the selection data indicated that the cumulative contribution rate of the first two components was 94.6%, and in the two-dimensional space of the components, all hues were distributed as a hue-circle shape. In addition, comparison with additional data of color impressions measured by a semantic differential method suggested that most semantic word impressions can be stably expressed by hue, but the impression of some words, such as “magnificent” cannot. These results suggest that semantic word impression can be expressed reasonably well by color, and that hues are treated as impressions from the hue circle, not from color categories.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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2017 (1)

I. Kuriki, R. Lange, Y. Muto, A. M. Brown, K. Fukuda, R. Tokunaga, D. T. Lindsey, K. Uchikawa, and S. Shioiri, “The modern Japanese color lexicon,” J. Vis. 17(3):1, 1 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

2012 (1)

K. Shinomori and J. S. Werner, “Aging of human short-wave cone pathways,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 109, 13422–13427 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

D. H. Foster, “Review: color constancy,” Vision Res. 51, 674–700 (2011).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

X. P. Gao and J. H. Xin, “Investigation of human’s emotional responses on colors,” Color Res. Appl. 31, 411–417 (2006).
[Crossref]

K. Shinomori and J. S. Werner, “Impulse response of an S-cone pathway in the aging visual system,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 1570–1577 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

L. C. Ou, M. R. Luo, A. Woodcock, and A. Wright, “A study of colour emotion and colour preference. Part II: colour emotions for two-colour combinations,” Color Res. Appl. 29, 292–298 (2004).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

1994 (1)

1991 (1)

C. M. MacLeod, “Half a century of research on the Stroop effect: an integrative review,” Psych. Bul. 109, 163–203 (1991).
[Crossref]

1990 (2)

R. M. Boynton and C. X. Olson, “Salience of chromatic basic color terms confirmed by three measures,” Vision Res. 30, 1311–1317 (1990).
[Crossref]

T. Chihara and H. Sakaida, “SD-rates and associations of twenty color-names and their colored-patches,” Bull. Fac. Ed. Shiga Univ. 40, 69–86 (1990) (in Japanese).

1987 (1)

K. Uchikawa and R. M. Boynton, “Categorical color perception of Japanese observers: comparison with that of Americans,” Vision Res. 27, 1825–1833 (1987).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

S. Kobayashi, “The aim and method of the color image scale,” Color Res. Appl. 6, 93–107 (1981).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

E. R. Heider and D. C. Oliver, “The structure of the color space in naming and memory for two languages,” Cognitive Psych. 3, 337–354 (1972).
[Crossref]

1969 (1)

J. Hogg, “A principal component analysis of semantic differential judgements of single colors and color pairs,” J. Gen. Psych. 80, 129–140 (1969).
[Crossref]

1952 (1)

C. E. Osgood, “The nature and measurement of meaning,” Psych. Bull. 49, 197–237 (1952).
[Crossref]

1935 (1)

J. R. Stroop, “Studies of interference in serial verbal reactions,” J. Exper. Psychol. 18, 643–662 (1935).
[Crossref]

Boynton, R. M.

R. M. Boynton and C. X. Olson, “Salience of chromatic basic color terms confirmed by three measures,” Vision Res. 30, 1311–1317 (1990).
[Crossref]

K. Uchikawa and R. M. Boynton, “Categorical color perception of Japanese observers: comparison with that of Americans,” Vision Res. 27, 1825–1833 (1987).
[Crossref]

Brown, A. M.

I. Kuriki, R. Lange, Y. Muto, A. M. Brown, K. Fukuda, R. Tokunaga, D. T. Lindsey, K. Uchikawa, and S. Shioiri, “The modern Japanese color lexicon,” J. Vis. 17(3):1, 1 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chihara, T.

T. Chihara and H. Sakaida, “SD-rates and associations of twenty color-names and their colored-patches,” Bull. Fac. Ed. Shiga Univ. 40, 69–86 (1990) (in Japanese).

Foster, D. H.

D. H. Foster, “Review: color constancy,” Vision Res. 51, 674–700 (2011).
[Crossref]

Fukuda, K.

I. Kuriki, R. Lange, Y. Muto, A. M. Brown, K. Fukuda, R. Tokunaga, D. T. Lindsey, K. Uchikawa, and S. Shioiri, “The modern Japanese color lexicon,” J. Vis. 17(3):1, 1 (2017).
[Crossref]

Gao, X. P.

X. P. Gao and J. H. Xin, “Investigation of human’s emotional responses on colors,” Color Res. Appl. 31, 411–417 (2006).
[Crossref]

Heider, E. R.

E. R. Heider and D. C. Oliver, “The structure of the color space in naming and memory for two languages,” Cognitive Psych. 3, 337–354 (1972).
[Crossref]

Hering, E.

E. Hering, Outlines of a Theory of the Light Sense, trans. L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, (Harvard University, 1964).

Hogg, J.

J. Hogg, “A principal component analysis of semantic differential judgements of single colors and color pairs,” J. Gen. Psych. 80, 129–140 (1969).
[Crossref]

Kawamoto, K.

Kobayashi, S.

S. Kobayashi, “The aim and method of the color image scale,” Color Res. Appl. 6, 93–107 (1981).
[Crossref]

S. Kobayashi, Color Image Scale, L. Matsunaga, transl. (Kodansha Int., 1990).

Kuriki, I.

I. Kuriki, R. Lange, Y. Muto, A. M. Brown, K. Fukuda, R. Tokunaga, D. T. Lindsey, K. Uchikawa, and S. Shioiri, “The modern Japanese color lexicon,” J. Vis. 17(3):1, 1 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lange, R.

I. Kuriki, R. Lange, Y. Muto, A. M. Brown, K. Fukuda, R. Tokunaga, D. T. Lindsey, K. Uchikawa, and S. Shioiri, “The modern Japanese color lexicon,” J. Vis. 17(3):1, 1 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lindsey, D. T.

I. Kuriki, R. Lange, Y. Muto, A. M. Brown, K. Fukuda, R. Tokunaga, D. T. Lindsey, K. Uchikawa, and S. Shioiri, “The modern Japanese color lexicon,” J. Vis. 17(3):1, 1 (2017).
[Crossref]

Luo, M. R.

L. C. Ou, M. R. Luo, A. Woodcock, and A. Wright, “A study of colour emotion and colour preference. Part II: colour emotions for two-colour combinations,” Color Res. Appl. 29, 292–298 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ma, R.

MacLeod, C. M.

C. M. MacLeod, “Half a century of research on the Stroop effect: an integrative review,” Psych. Bul. 109, 163–203 (1991).
[Crossref]

Muto, Y.

I. Kuriki, R. Lange, Y. Muto, A. M. Brown, K. Fukuda, R. Tokunaga, D. T. Lindsey, K. Uchikawa, and S. Shioiri, “The modern Japanese color lexicon,” J. Vis. 17(3):1, 1 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nakano, Y.

Oliver, D. C.

E. R. Heider and D. C. Oliver, “The structure of the color space in naming and memory for two languages,” Cognitive Psych. 3, 337–354 (1972).
[Crossref]

Olson, C. X.

R. M. Boynton and C. X. Olson, “Salience of chromatic basic color terms confirmed by three measures,” Vision Res. 30, 1311–1317 (1990).
[Crossref]

Osgood, C. E.

C. E. Osgood, “The nature and measurement of meaning,” Psych. Bull. 49, 197–237 (1952).
[Crossref]

C. E. Osgood, G. J. Suci, and P. H. Tannenbaum, The Measurement of Meaning (University of Illinois, 1957).

Ou, L. C.

L. C. Ou, M. R. Luo, A. Woodcock, and A. Wright, “A study of colour emotion and colour preference. Part II: colour emotions for two-colour combinations,” Color Res. Appl. 29, 292–298 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sakaida, H.

T. Chihara and H. Sakaida, “SD-rates and associations of twenty color-names and their colored-patches,” Bull. Fac. Ed. Shiga Univ. 40, 69–86 (1990) (in Japanese).

Schefrin, B. E.

Shinomori, K.

Shioiri, S.

I. Kuriki, R. Lange, Y. Muto, A. M. Brown, K. Fukuda, R. Tokunaga, D. T. Lindsey, K. Uchikawa, and S. Shioiri, “The modern Japanese color lexicon,” J. Vis. 17(3):1, 1 (2017).
[Crossref]

Stroop, J. R.

J. R. Stroop, “Studies of interference in serial verbal reactions,” J. Exper. Psychol. 18, 643–662 (1935).
[Crossref]

Suci, G. J.

C. E. Osgood, G. J. Suci, and P. H. Tannenbaum, The Measurement of Meaning (University of Illinois, 1957).

Tannenbaum, P. H.

C. E. Osgood, G. J. Suci, and P. H. Tannenbaum, The Measurement of Meaning (University of Illinois, 1957).

Tokunaga, R.

I. Kuriki, R. Lange, Y. Muto, A. M. Brown, K. Fukuda, R. Tokunaga, D. T. Lindsey, K. Uchikawa, and S. Shioiri, “The modern Japanese color lexicon,” J. Vis. 17(3):1, 1 (2017).
[Crossref]

Uchikawa, K.

I. Kuriki, R. Lange, Y. Muto, A. M. Brown, K. Fukuda, R. Tokunaga, D. T. Lindsey, K. Uchikawa, and S. Shioiri, “The modern Japanese color lexicon,” J. Vis. 17(3):1, 1 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Shinomori, Y. Nakano, and K. Uchikawa, “Influence of the illuminance and spectral composition of surround fields on spatially induced blackness,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 2383–2388 (1994).
[Crossref]

K. Uchikawa and R. M. Boynton, “Categorical color perception of Japanese observers: comparison with that of Americans,” Vision Res. 27, 1825–1833 (1987).
[Crossref]

Werner, J. S.

Woodcock, A.

L. C. Ou, M. R. Luo, A. Woodcock, and A. Wright, “A study of colour emotion and colour preference. Part II: colour emotions for two-colour combinations,” Color Res. Appl. 29, 292–298 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wright, A.

L. C. Ou, M. R. Luo, A. Woodcock, and A. Wright, “A study of colour emotion and colour preference. Part II: colour emotions for two-colour combinations,” Color Res. Appl. 29, 292–298 (2004).
[Crossref]

Xin, J. H.

X. P. Gao and J. H. Xin, “Investigation of human’s emotional responses on colors,” Color Res. Appl. 31, 411–417 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bull. Fac. Ed. Shiga Univ. (1)

T. Chihara and H. Sakaida, “SD-rates and associations of twenty color-names and their colored-patches,” Bull. Fac. Ed. Shiga Univ. 40, 69–86 (1990) (in Japanese).

Cognitive Psych. (1)

E. R. Heider and D. C. Oliver, “The structure of the color space in naming and memory for two languages,” Cognitive Psych. 3, 337–354 (1972).
[Crossref]

Color Res. Appl. (3)

X. P. Gao and J. H. Xin, “Investigation of human’s emotional responses on colors,” Color Res. Appl. 31, 411–417 (2006).
[Crossref]

L. C. Ou, M. R. Luo, A. Woodcock, and A. Wright, “A study of colour emotion and colour preference. Part II: colour emotions for two-colour combinations,” Color Res. Appl. 29, 292–298 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. Kobayashi, “The aim and method of the color image scale,” Color Res. Appl. 6, 93–107 (1981).
[Crossref]

J. Exper. Psychol. (1)

J. R. Stroop, “Studies of interference in serial verbal reactions,” J. Exper. Psychol. 18, 643–662 (1935).
[Crossref]

J. Gen. Psych. (1)

J. Hogg, “A principal component analysis of semantic differential judgements of single colors and color pairs,” J. Gen. Psych. 80, 129–140 (1969).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (4)

J. Vis. (1)

I. Kuriki, R. Lange, Y. Muto, A. M. Brown, K. Fukuda, R. Tokunaga, D. T. Lindsey, K. Uchikawa, and S. Shioiri, “The modern Japanese color lexicon,” J. Vis. 17(3):1, 1 (2017).
[Crossref]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1)

K. Shinomori and J. S. Werner, “Aging of human short-wave cone pathways,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 109, 13422–13427 (2012).
[Crossref]

Psych. Bul. (1)

C. M. MacLeod, “Half a century of research on the Stroop effect: an integrative review,” Psych. Bul. 109, 163–203 (1991).
[Crossref]

Psych. Bull. (1)

C. E. Osgood, “The nature and measurement of meaning,” Psych. Bull. 49, 197–237 (1952).
[Crossref]

Vision Res. (3)

D. H. Foster, “Review: color constancy,” Vision Res. 51, 674–700 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. M. Boynton and C. X. Olson, “Salience of chromatic basic color terms confirmed by three measures,” Vision Res. 30, 1311–1317 (1990).
[Crossref]

K. Uchikawa and R. M. Boynton, “Categorical color perception of Japanese observers: comparison with that of Americans,” Vision Res. 27, 1825–1833 (1987).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

C. E. Osgood, G. J. Suci, and P. H. Tannenbaum, The Measurement of Meaning (University of Illinois, 1957).

S. Kobayashi, Color Image Scale, L. Matsunaga, transl. (Kodansha Int., 1990).

E. Hering, Outlines of a Theory of the Light Sense, trans. L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, (Harvard University, 1964).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Luminance (top panel) and chromaticity coordinates (bottom panel) of 12 stimulus colors. (Top panel) Circles and squares denote luminance of color chips and background gray (BkG) (N4.57), respectively. (Bottom panel) Color chip number and PCCS names are presented near each point. Circle and cross denote chromaticity coordinates of BkG and D65 (on standard white plate), respectively.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Distribution of 25 semantic words (denoted by smaller font size) and categories, for determining new semantic words (denoted by ellipses and words in sky-blue fonts) defined by the first and second PC loading values calculated from the data of a previous study [16]. Semantic words are shown near their symbols. Red, blue, and purple fonts denote that the absolute loading values of those semantic words are greater than 70% of the absolute maximum loading value in the first, second, and third PCs, respectively. Dark-yellow lines and words in bold black font denote antonyms set in this study. See the text for details.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Stimulus presentation for evaluation of word impression by hue. The words were written in Japanese (“tranquil” in this diagram).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Mean of color naming ratio for each color chip. Color names of red (denoted by small squares), orange (light triangle), yellow (light circles), green (large squares), blue (dark circles), purple (dark triangles), and pink (diamond) appeared in color naming task. Responses of yellowish-green were treated as half yellow and half green responses in calculation.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Distribution of nine semantic word impressions plotted as activity versus evaluation coordinates (left panel) and as evaluation versus potency coordinates (right panel). Semantic words are shown near the symbols. Blue and black ellipses denote categories defined by grading scores (see the text for details). R 2 denotes the coefficient of determination.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Modified selection rate as a function of hue (denoted by color chip number) for nine semantic words. The order of the panels (left top to left bottom and right top to right bottom) is the descending order of activity points in Fig. 5. Error bars denote ± 2 S.E.M . Blue curves and dots are fits by PCA-based model (see the text for details).

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Loading values of first and second PCs (top panel) and distribution of hues as defined by the first and second PC loading values (bottom panel). (Top panel) Circles and squares denote first and second PCs, respectively. (Bottom panel) Color chip number and names in PCCS are presented near each point. The black ellipse denotes the best fit to all data points.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Distribution of semantic words obtained by optimized weight coefficients for first and second PCs. Squares denote the coordinates of semantic words shown near the symbol. Square colors denote the hue of the maximum selection rate. Blue ellipses denote categories defined by absolute values greater than 70% of the maximum absolute values (see the text for details).

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Distribution of 9 core semantic words (denoted by sky-blue font) and 26 semantic words (denoted by smaller size black font) defined by the first and second PC loading values. Semantic words are shown near their symbols. The symbol colors for 9 core semantic words were obtained from Fig. 8. The dotted line denotes the connection between “extreme” and “tranquil.” See the text for details.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Distribution of 9 hues, white, gray and black, obtained from the first and second PC score values. Color chip number and names in PCCS are presented near each point. The black ellipse denotes the best fit to all hue points (white, gray, and black excluded).

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Distribution of semantic words obtained by optimized weight coefficients of hue selection (denoted by squares) and by loading values of the SD method (circles) in a modified scale for first and second PCs. For hue selection, the coordinates were compressed and rotated as shown by the scale vectors (red arrows) for the first and second PCs, indicating abscissa (first PC) and ordinate (second PC) vectors of length 0.5 in the original coordinates (Fig. 8). Semantic words are shown near the related symbols. Colors of squares denote the hue of the maximum selection rate. Longer distances between two data points are connected by dotted lines for ease of visibility (see the text for details).