Abstract

The color identification responses to photographs of #thedress (white/gold and blue/black) and a jacket (white/blue and green/black, and teal) reveal obvious individual differences in color perception. To explore possible association between pupil size/retinal illuminance and color perception, we recorded the pupil diameters of participants shown 22 uniformly colored (generated from the RGB values using a laptop LCD display) screens followed by photographs of #thedress and jacket. We analyzed (a) pupil size difference in the color groups and (b) age-related pupil size and/or reflex change and its influence on color perception. The data confirms that the average pupil size of the white/gold group was significantly less than the blue/black group for the dress. The pupil size difference between the color groups is slightly higher in the 21–30-year and 31–55-year age groups but not in the 18–20-year age group, while a similar variance was not observed for the jacket color groups. Interestingly, the average pupil size of both color groups was smaller for the dress compared to the baseline (collected with a gray hue displayed on the screen), whereas an opposite effect was observed for the jacket. The contrasting results for the two photographs do not allow for a strong inference of only pupil size change principal for differences in color perception. But, a probable explanation of the pupil size difference could be the subjective variation in the perceptual interpretation of illumination cues in the photographs.

© 2018 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. K. Vemuri, K. Bisla, S. Mulpuru, and S. Varadharajan, “Do normal pupil diameter differences in the population underlie the color selection of #thedress?” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 33, A137–A142 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  2. J. E. Birren, R. C. Casperson, and J. Botwinick, “Age changes in pupil size,” J. Gerontol. 5, 216–221 (1950).
    [Crossref]
  3. B. Winn, D. Whitaker, D. B. Elliott, and N. J. Phillips, “Factors affecting light-adapted pupil size in normal human subjects,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 35, 1132–1137 (1994).
  4. A. B. Watson and J. I. Yellott, “A unified formula for light-adapted pupil size,” J. Vis. 12(10), 12 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  5. D. A. Atchison, D. H. Scott, and G. Smith, “Pupil photometric efficiency and effective centre,” Ophthalmic Physiolog. Opt. 20, 501–503 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  6. M. E. Sloane, C. Owsley, and S. L. Alvarez, “Aging, senile miosis and spatial contrast sensitivity at low luminance,” Vision Res. 28, 1235–1246 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  7. J. G. Vizmanos, I. De La Fuente, B. M. Matesanz, and J. A. Aparicio, “Influence of surround illumination on pupil size and contrast sensitivity,” Ophthalmic Physiolog. Opt. 24, 464–468 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  8. B. Laeng and T. Endestad, “Bright illusions reduce the eye’s pupil,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 109, 2162–2167 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  9. J. Rabin, B. Houser, C. Talbert, and R. Patel, “Blue-black or white-gold? Early stage processing and the color of ‘The dress’,” PLoS ONE 11, e0161090 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  10. R. Lafer-Sousa, K. L. Hermann, and B. R. Conway, “Striking individual differences in color perception uncovered by ‘the dress’ photograph,” Curr. Biol. 25, R545–R546 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  11. P. Wallisch, “Illumination assumptions account for individual differences in the perceptual interpretation of a profoundly ambiguous stimulus in the color domain: “The dress”,” J. Vis. 17(4), 5 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  12. A. Chetverikov and I. Ivanchei, “Seeing ’the dress’ in the right light: perceived colors and inferred light sources,” Perception 45, 910–930 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  13. O. A. Mahroo, K. M. Williams, I. T. Hossain, E. Yonova-Doing, D. Kozareva, A. Yusuf, I. Sheriff, M. Oomerjee, T. Soorma, and C. J. Hammond, “Do twins share the same dress code? Quantifying relative genetic and environmental contributions to subjective perceptions of ’the dress’ in a classical twin study,” J. Vis. 17(1), 29 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  14. L. Schlaffke, A. Golisch, L. M. Haag, M. Lenz, S. Heba, S. Lissek, T. Schmidt-Wilcke, U. T. Eysel, and M. Tegenthoff, “The brain’s dress code: how The Dress allows to decode the neuronal pathway of an optical illusion,” Cortex 73, 271–275 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  15. K. R. Gegenfurtner, M. Bloj, and M. Toscani, “The many colours of ‘the dress’,” Curr. Biol. 25, R543–R544 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  16. A. D. Winkler, L. Spillmann, J. S. Werner, and M. A. Webster, “Asymmetries in blue-yellow color perception and in the color of ’the dress’,” Curr. Biol. 25, R547–R548 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  17. L. Hugrass, J. Slavikova, M. Horvat, A. Al Musawi, and D. Crewther, “Temporal brightness illusion changes color perception of ’the dress’,” J. Vis. 17(5), 6 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  18. L. D. Daoudi, A. Doerig, K. Parkosadze, M. Kunchulia, and M. H. Herzog, “The role of one-shot learning in #TheDress,” J. Vis. 17(3), 15 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  19. M. Toscani, K. R. Gegenfurtner, and K. Doerschner, “Differences in illumination estimation in #thedress,” J. Vis. 17(1), 22 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  20. C. Witzel, C. Racey, and J. K. O’Regan, “The most reasonable explanation of ’the dress’: implicit assumptions about illumination,” J. Vis. 17(2), 1 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  21. C. Witzel, J. K. O’Regan, and S. Hansmann-Roth, “The dress and individual differences in the perception of surface properties,” Vision Res. 141, 76–94 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  22. S. Aston and A. Hurlbert, “What #theDress reveals about the role of illumination priors in color perception and color constancy,” J. Vis. 17(9), 4 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  23. E. L. Dixon and A. G. Shapiro, “Spatial filtering, color constancy, and the color-changing dress,” J. Vis. 17(3), 7 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  24. V. M. Hesslinger and C. Carbon, “#TheDress: the role of illumination information and individual differences in the psychophysics of perceiving white-blue ambiguities,” i-Perception 7, 2041669516645592 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  25. K. Uchikawa, T. Morimoto, and T. Matsumoto, “Understanding individual differences in color appearance of ‘#TheDress’ based on the optimal color hypothesis,” J. Vis. 17(8), 10 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  26. M. Melgosa, L. Gómez-Robledo, M. I. Suero, and M. D. Fairchild, “What can we learn from a dress with ambiguous colors?” Color Res. Appl. 40, 525–529 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  27. D. H. Brainard and A. C. Hurlbert, “Colour vision: understanding #TheDress,” Curr. Biol. 25, R551–R554 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  28. D. H. Brainard, P. Longere, P. B. Delahunt, W. T. Freeman, J. M. Kraft, and B. Xiao, “Bayesian model of human color constancy,” J. Vis. 6(11), 10 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  29. W. Adrian, “Spectral sensitivity of the pupillary system,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 86, 235–238 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  30. R. Lafer-Sousa and B. R. Conway, “#TheDress: categorical perception of an ambiguous color image,” J. Vis. 17(12), 25 (2017).
    [Crossref]

2017 (11)

L. Hugrass, J. Slavikova, M. Horvat, A. Al Musawi, and D. Crewther, “Temporal brightness illusion changes color perception of ’the dress’,” J. Vis. 17(5), 6 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. D. Daoudi, A. Doerig, K. Parkosadze, M. Kunchulia, and M. H. Herzog, “The role of one-shot learning in #TheDress,” J. Vis. 17(3), 15 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Toscani, K. R. Gegenfurtner, and K. Doerschner, “Differences in illumination estimation in #thedress,” J. Vis. 17(1), 22 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Witzel, C. Racey, and J. K. O’Regan, “The most reasonable explanation of ’the dress’: implicit assumptions about illumination,” J. Vis. 17(2), 1 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Witzel, J. K. O’Regan, and S. Hansmann-Roth, “The dress and individual differences in the perception of surface properties,” Vision Res. 141, 76–94 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Aston and A. Hurlbert, “What #theDress reveals about the role of illumination priors in color perception and color constancy,” J. Vis. 17(9), 4 (2017).
[Crossref]

E. L. Dixon and A. G. Shapiro, “Spatial filtering, color constancy, and the color-changing dress,” J. Vis. 17(3), 7 (2017).
[Crossref]

O. A. Mahroo, K. M. Williams, I. T. Hossain, E. Yonova-Doing, D. Kozareva, A. Yusuf, I. Sheriff, M. Oomerjee, T. Soorma, and C. J. Hammond, “Do twins share the same dress code? Quantifying relative genetic and environmental contributions to subjective perceptions of ’the dress’ in a classical twin study,” J. Vis. 17(1), 29 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Uchikawa, T. Morimoto, and T. Matsumoto, “Understanding individual differences in color appearance of ‘#TheDress’ based on the optimal color hypothesis,” J. Vis. 17(8), 10 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. Wallisch, “Illumination assumptions account for individual differences in the perceptual interpretation of a profoundly ambiguous stimulus in the color domain: “The dress”,” J. Vis. 17(4), 5 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Lafer-Sousa and B. R. Conway, “#TheDress: categorical perception of an ambiguous color image,” J. Vis. 17(12), 25 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (4)

K. Vemuri, K. Bisla, S. Mulpuru, and S. Varadharajan, “Do normal pupil diameter differences in the population underlie the color selection of #thedress?” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 33, A137–A142 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Chetverikov and I. Ivanchei, “Seeing ’the dress’ in the right light: perceived colors and inferred light sources,” Perception 45, 910–930 (2016).
[Crossref]

V. M. Hesslinger and C. Carbon, “#TheDress: the role of illumination information and individual differences in the psychophysics of perceiving white-blue ambiguities,” i-Perception 7, 2041669516645592 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Rabin, B. Houser, C. Talbert, and R. Patel, “Blue-black or white-gold? Early stage processing and the color of ‘The dress’,” PLoS ONE 11, e0161090 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (6)

R. Lafer-Sousa, K. L. Hermann, and B. R. Conway, “Striking individual differences in color perception uncovered by ‘the dress’ photograph,” Curr. Biol. 25, R545–R546 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Melgosa, L. Gómez-Robledo, M. I. Suero, and M. D. Fairchild, “What can we learn from a dress with ambiguous colors?” Color Res. Appl. 40, 525–529 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. H. Brainard and A. C. Hurlbert, “Colour vision: understanding #TheDress,” Curr. Biol. 25, R551–R554 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Schlaffke, A. Golisch, L. M. Haag, M. Lenz, S. Heba, S. Lissek, T. Schmidt-Wilcke, U. T. Eysel, and M. Tegenthoff, “The brain’s dress code: how The Dress allows to decode the neuronal pathway of an optical illusion,” Cortex 73, 271–275 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. R. Gegenfurtner, M. Bloj, and M. Toscani, “The many colours of ‘the dress’,” Curr. Biol. 25, R543–R544 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. D. Winkler, L. Spillmann, J. S. Werner, and M. A. Webster, “Asymmetries in blue-yellow color perception and in the color of ’the dress’,” Curr. Biol. 25, R547–R548 (2015).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

B. Laeng and T. Endestad, “Bright illusions reduce the eye’s pupil,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 109, 2162–2167 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. B. Watson and J. I. Yellott, “A unified formula for light-adapted pupil size,” J. Vis. 12(10), 12 (2012).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

D. H. Brainard, P. Longere, P. B. Delahunt, W. T. Freeman, J. M. Kraft, and B. Xiao, “Bayesian model of human color constancy,” J. Vis. 6(11), 10 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

J. G. Vizmanos, I. De La Fuente, B. M. Matesanz, and J. A. Aparicio, “Influence of surround illumination on pupil size and contrast sensitivity,” Ophthalmic Physiolog. Opt. 24, 464–468 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

W. Adrian, “Spectral sensitivity of the pupillary system,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 86, 235–238 (2003).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

D. A. Atchison, D. H. Scott, and G. Smith, “Pupil photometric efficiency and effective centre,” Ophthalmic Physiolog. Opt. 20, 501–503 (2000).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

B. Winn, D. Whitaker, D. B. Elliott, and N. J. Phillips, “Factors affecting light-adapted pupil size in normal human subjects,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 35, 1132–1137 (1994).

1988 (1)

M. E. Sloane, C. Owsley, and S. L. Alvarez, “Aging, senile miosis and spatial contrast sensitivity at low luminance,” Vision Res. 28, 1235–1246 (1988).
[Crossref]

1950 (1)

J. E. Birren, R. C. Casperson, and J. Botwinick, “Age changes in pupil size,” J. Gerontol. 5, 216–221 (1950).
[Crossref]

Adrian, W.

W. Adrian, “Spectral sensitivity of the pupillary system,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 86, 235–238 (2003).
[Crossref]

Al Musawi, A.

L. Hugrass, J. Slavikova, M. Horvat, A. Al Musawi, and D. Crewther, “Temporal brightness illusion changes color perception of ’the dress’,” J. Vis. 17(5), 6 (2017).
[Crossref]

Alvarez, S. L.

M. E. Sloane, C. Owsley, and S. L. Alvarez, “Aging, senile miosis and spatial contrast sensitivity at low luminance,” Vision Res. 28, 1235–1246 (1988).
[Crossref]

Aparicio, J. A.

J. G. Vizmanos, I. De La Fuente, B. M. Matesanz, and J. A. Aparicio, “Influence of surround illumination on pupil size and contrast sensitivity,” Ophthalmic Physiolog. Opt. 24, 464–468 (2004).
[Crossref]

Aston, S.

S. Aston and A. Hurlbert, “What #theDress reveals about the role of illumination priors in color perception and color constancy,” J. Vis. 17(9), 4 (2017).
[Crossref]

Atchison, D. A.

D. A. Atchison, D. H. Scott, and G. Smith, “Pupil photometric efficiency and effective centre,” Ophthalmic Physiolog. Opt. 20, 501–503 (2000).
[Crossref]

Birren, J. E.

J. E. Birren, R. C. Casperson, and J. Botwinick, “Age changes in pupil size,” J. Gerontol. 5, 216–221 (1950).
[Crossref]

Bisla, K.

Bloj, M.

K. R. Gegenfurtner, M. Bloj, and M. Toscani, “The many colours of ‘the dress’,” Curr. Biol. 25, R543–R544 (2015).
[Crossref]

Botwinick, J.

J. E. Birren, R. C. Casperson, and J. Botwinick, “Age changes in pupil size,” J. Gerontol. 5, 216–221 (1950).
[Crossref]

Brainard, D. H.

D. H. Brainard and A. C. Hurlbert, “Colour vision: understanding #TheDress,” Curr. Biol. 25, R551–R554 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. H. Brainard, P. Longere, P. B. Delahunt, W. T. Freeman, J. M. Kraft, and B. Xiao, “Bayesian model of human color constancy,” J. Vis. 6(11), 10 (2006).
[Crossref]

Carbon, C.

V. M. Hesslinger and C. Carbon, “#TheDress: the role of illumination information and individual differences in the psychophysics of perceiving white-blue ambiguities,” i-Perception 7, 2041669516645592 (2016).
[Crossref]

Casperson, R. C.

J. E. Birren, R. C. Casperson, and J. Botwinick, “Age changes in pupil size,” J. Gerontol. 5, 216–221 (1950).
[Crossref]

Chetverikov, A.

A. Chetverikov and I. Ivanchei, “Seeing ’the dress’ in the right light: perceived colors and inferred light sources,” Perception 45, 910–930 (2016).
[Crossref]

Conway, B. R.

R. Lafer-Sousa and B. R. Conway, “#TheDress: categorical perception of an ambiguous color image,” J. Vis. 17(12), 25 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Lafer-Sousa, K. L. Hermann, and B. R. Conway, “Striking individual differences in color perception uncovered by ‘the dress’ photograph,” Curr. Biol. 25, R545–R546 (2015).
[Crossref]

Crewther, D.

L. Hugrass, J. Slavikova, M. Horvat, A. Al Musawi, and D. Crewther, “Temporal brightness illusion changes color perception of ’the dress’,” J. Vis. 17(5), 6 (2017).
[Crossref]

Daoudi, L. D.

L. D. Daoudi, A. Doerig, K. Parkosadze, M. Kunchulia, and M. H. Herzog, “The role of one-shot learning in #TheDress,” J. Vis. 17(3), 15 (2017).
[Crossref]

De La Fuente, I.

J. G. Vizmanos, I. De La Fuente, B. M. Matesanz, and J. A. Aparicio, “Influence of surround illumination on pupil size and contrast sensitivity,” Ophthalmic Physiolog. Opt. 24, 464–468 (2004).
[Crossref]

Delahunt, P. B.

D. H. Brainard, P. Longere, P. B. Delahunt, W. T. Freeman, J. M. Kraft, and B. Xiao, “Bayesian model of human color constancy,” J. Vis. 6(11), 10 (2006).
[Crossref]

Dixon, E. L.

E. L. Dixon and A. G. Shapiro, “Spatial filtering, color constancy, and the color-changing dress,” J. Vis. 17(3), 7 (2017).
[Crossref]

Doerig, A.

L. D. Daoudi, A. Doerig, K. Parkosadze, M. Kunchulia, and M. H. Herzog, “The role of one-shot learning in #TheDress,” J. Vis. 17(3), 15 (2017).
[Crossref]

Doerschner, K.

M. Toscani, K. R. Gegenfurtner, and K. Doerschner, “Differences in illumination estimation in #thedress,” J. Vis. 17(1), 22 (2017).
[Crossref]

Elliott, D. B.

B. Winn, D. Whitaker, D. B. Elliott, and N. J. Phillips, “Factors affecting light-adapted pupil size in normal human subjects,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 35, 1132–1137 (1994).

Endestad, T.

B. Laeng and T. Endestad, “Bright illusions reduce the eye’s pupil,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 109, 2162–2167 (2012).
[Crossref]

Eysel, U. T.

L. Schlaffke, A. Golisch, L. M. Haag, M. Lenz, S. Heba, S. Lissek, T. Schmidt-Wilcke, U. T. Eysel, and M. Tegenthoff, “The brain’s dress code: how The Dress allows to decode the neuronal pathway of an optical illusion,” Cortex 73, 271–275 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fairchild, M. D.

M. Melgosa, L. Gómez-Robledo, M. I. Suero, and M. D. Fairchild, “What can we learn from a dress with ambiguous colors?” Color Res. Appl. 40, 525–529 (2015).
[Crossref]

Freeman, W. T.

D. H. Brainard, P. Longere, P. B. Delahunt, W. T. Freeman, J. M. Kraft, and B. Xiao, “Bayesian model of human color constancy,” J. Vis. 6(11), 10 (2006).
[Crossref]

Gegenfurtner, K. R.

M. Toscani, K. R. Gegenfurtner, and K. Doerschner, “Differences in illumination estimation in #thedress,” J. Vis. 17(1), 22 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. R. Gegenfurtner, M. Bloj, and M. Toscani, “The many colours of ‘the dress’,” Curr. Biol. 25, R543–R544 (2015).
[Crossref]

Golisch, A.

L. Schlaffke, A. Golisch, L. M. Haag, M. Lenz, S. Heba, S. Lissek, T. Schmidt-Wilcke, U. T. Eysel, and M. Tegenthoff, “The brain’s dress code: how The Dress allows to decode the neuronal pathway of an optical illusion,” Cortex 73, 271–275 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gómez-Robledo, L.

M. Melgosa, L. Gómez-Robledo, M. I. Suero, and M. D. Fairchild, “What can we learn from a dress with ambiguous colors?” Color Res. Appl. 40, 525–529 (2015).
[Crossref]

Haag, L. M.

L. Schlaffke, A. Golisch, L. M. Haag, M. Lenz, S. Heba, S. Lissek, T. Schmidt-Wilcke, U. T. Eysel, and M. Tegenthoff, “The brain’s dress code: how The Dress allows to decode the neuronal pathway of an optical illusion,” Cortex 73, 271–275 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hammond, C. J.

O. A. Mahroo, K. M. Williams, I. T. Hossain, E. Yonova-Doing, D. Kozareva, A. Yusuf, I. Sheriff, M. Oomerjee, T. Soorma, and C. J. Hammond, “Do twins share the same dress code? Quantifying relative genetic and environmental contributions to subjective perceptions of ’the dress’ in a classical twin study,” J. Vis. 17(1), 29 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hansmann-Roth, S.

C. Witzel, J. K. O’Regan, and S. Hansmann-Roth, “The dress and individual differences in the perception of surface properties,” Vision Res. 141, 76–94 (2017).
[Crossref]

Heba, S.

L. Schlaffke, A. Golisch, L. M. Haag, M. Lenz, S. Heba, S. Lissek, T. Schmidt-Wilcke, U. T. Eysel, and M. Tegenthoff, “The brain’s dress code: how The Dress allows to decode the neuronal pathway of an optical illusion,” Cortex 73, 271–275 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hermann, K. L.

R. Lafer-Sousa, K. L. Hermann, and B. R. Conway, “Striking individual differences in color perception uncovered by ‘the dress’ photograph,” Curr. Biol. 25, R545–R546 (2015).
[Crossref]

Herzog, M. H.

L. D. Daoudi, A. Doerig, K. Parkosadze, M. Kunchulia, and M. H. Herzog, “The role of one-shot learning in #TheDress,” J. Vis. 17(3), 15 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hesslinger, V. M.

V. M. Hesslinger and C. Carbon, “#TheDress: the role of illumination information and individual differences in the psychophysics of perceiving white-blue ambiguities,” i-Perception 7, 2041669516645592 (2016).
[Crossref]

Horvat, M.

L. Hugrass, J. Slavikova, M. Horvat, A. Al Musawi, and D. Crewther, “Temporal brightness illusion changes color perception of ’the dress’,” J. Vis. 17(5), 6 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hossain, I. T.

O. A. Mahroo, K. M. Williams, I. T. Hossain, E. Yonova-Doing, D. Kozareva, A. Yusuf, I. Sheriff, M. Oomerjee, T. Soorma, and C. J. Hammond, “Do twins share the same dress code? Quantifying relative genetic and environmental contributions to subjective perceptions of ’the dress’ in a classical twin study,” J. Vis. 17(1), 29 (2017).
[Crossref]

Houser, B.

J. Rabin, B. Houser, C. Talbert, and R. Patel, “Blue-black or white-gold? Early stage processing and the color of ‘The dress’,” PLoS ONE 11, e0161090 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hugrass, L.

L. Hugrass, J. Slavikova, M. Horvat, A. Al Musawi, and D. Crewther, “Temporal brightness illusion changes color perception of ’the dress’,” J. Vis. 17(5), 6 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hurlbert, A.

S. Aston and A. Hurlbert, “What #theDress reveals about the role of illumination priors in color perception and color constancy,” J. Vis. 17(9), 4 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hurlbert, A. C.

D. H. Brainard and A. C. Hurlbert, “Colour vision: understanding #TheDress,” Curr. Biol. 25, R551–R554 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ivanchei, I.

A. Chetverikov and I. Ivanchei, “Seeing ’the dress’ in the right light: perceived colors and inferred light sources,” Perception 45, 910–930 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kozareva, D.

O. A. Mahroo, K. M. Williams, I. T. Hossain, E. Yonova-Doing, D. Kozareva, A. Yusuf, I. Sheriff, M. Oomerjee, T. Soorma, and C. J. Hammond, “Do twins share the same dress code? Quantifying relative genetic and environmental contributions to subjective perceptions of ’the dress’ in a classical twin study,” J. Vis. 17(1), 29 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kraft, J. M.

D. H. Brainard, P. Longere, P. B. Delahunt, W. T. Freeman, J. M. Kraft, and B. Xiao, “Bayesian model of human color constancy,” J. Vis. 6(11), 10 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kunchulia, M.

L. D. Daoudi, A. Doerig, K. Parkosadze, M. Kunchulia, and M. H. Herzog, “The role of one-shot learning in #TheDress,” J. Vis. 17(3), 15 (2017).
[Crossref]

Laeng, B.

B. Laeng and T. Endestad, “Bright illusions reduce the eye’s pupil,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 109, 2162–2167 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lafer-Sousa, R.

R. Lafer-Sousa and B. R. Conway, “#TheDress: categorical perception of an ambiguous color image,” J. Vis. 17(12), 25 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Lafer-Sousa, K. L. Hermann, and B. R. Conway, “Striking individual differences in color perception uncovered by ‘the dress’ photograph,” Curr. Biol. 25, R545–R546 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lenz, M.

L. Schlaffke, A. Golisch, L. M. Haag, M. Lenz, S. Heba, S. Lissek, T. Schmidt-Wilcke, U. T. Eysel, and M. Tegenthoff, “The brain’s dress code: how The Dress allows to decode the neuronal pathway of an optical illusion,” Cortex 73, 271–275 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lissek, S.

L. Schlaffke, A. Golisch, L. M. Haag, M. Lenz, S. Heba, S. Lissek, T. Schmidt-Wilcke, U. T. Eysel, and M. Tegenthoff, “The brain’s dress code: how The Dress allows to decode the neuronal pathway of an optical illusion,” Cortex 73, 271–275 (2015).
[Crossref]

Longere, P.

D. H. Brainard, P. Longere, P. B. Delahunt, W. T. Freeman, J. M. Kraft, and B. Xiao, “Bayesian model of human color constancy,” J. Vis. 6(11), 10 (2006).
[Crossref]

Mahroo, O. A.

O. A. Mahroo, K. M. Williams, I. T. Hossain, E. Yonova-Doing, D. Kozareva, A. Yusuf, I. Sheriff, M. Oomerjee, T. Soorma, and C. J. Hammond, “Do twins share the same dress code? Quantifying relative genetic and environmental contributions to subjective perceptions of ’the dress’ in a classical twin study,” J. Vis. 17(1), 29 (2017).
[Crossref]

Matesanz, B. M.

J. G. Vizmanos, I. De La Fuente, B. M. Matesanz, and J. A. Aparicio, “Influence of surround illumination on pupil size and contrast sensitivity,” Ophthalmic Physiolog. Opt. 24, 464–468 (2004).
[Crossref]

Matsumoto, T.

K. Uchikawa, T. Morimoto, and T. Matsumoto, “Understanding individual differences in color appearance of ‘#TheDress’ based on the optimal color hypothesis,” J. Vis. 17(8), 10 (2017).
[Crossref]

Melgosa, M.

M. Melgosa, L. Gómez-Robledo, M. I. Suero, and M. D. Fairchild, “What can we learn from a dress with ambiguous colors?” Color Res. Appl. 40, 525–529 (2015).
[Crossref]

Morimoto, T.

K. Uchikawa, T. Morimoto, and T. Matsumoto, “Understanding individual differences in color appearance of ‘#TheDress’ based on the optimal color hypothesis,” J. Vis. 17(8), 10 (2017).
[Crossref]

Mulpuru, S.

O’Regan, J. K.

C. Witzel, C. Racey, and J. K. O’Regan, “The most reasonable explanation of ’the dress’: implicit assumptions about illumination,” J. Vis. 17(2), 1 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Witzel, J. K. O’Regan, and S. Hansmann-Roth, “The dress and individual differences in the perception of surface properties,” Vision Res. 141, 76–94 (2017).
[Crossref]

Oomerjee, M.

O. A. Mahroo, K. M. Williams, I. T. Hossain, E. Yonova-Doing, D. Kozareva, A. Yusuf, I. Sheriff, M. Oomerjee, T. Soorma, and C. J. Hammond, “Do twins share the same dress code? Quantifying relative genetic and environmental contributions to subjective perceptions of ’the dress’ in a classical twin study,” J. Vis. 17(1), 29 (2017).
[Crossref]

Owsley, C.

M. E. Sloane, C. Owsley, and S. L. Alvarez, “Aging, senile miosis and spatial contrast sensitivity at low luminance,” Vision Res. 28, 1235–1246 (1988).
[Crossref]

Parkosadze, K.

L. D. Daoudi, A. Doerig, K. Parkosadze, M. Kunchulia, and M. H. Herzog, “The role of one-shot learning in #TheDress,” J. Vis. 17(3), 15 (2017).
[Crossref]

Patel, R.

J. Rabin, B. Houser, C. Talbert, and R. Patel, “Blue-black or white-gold? Early stage processing and the color of ‘The dress’,” PLoS ONE 11, e0161090 (2016).
[Crossref]

Phillips, N. J.

B. Winn, D. Whitaker, D. B. Elliott, and N. J. Phillips, “Factors affecting light-adapted pupil size in normal human subjects,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 35, 1132–1137 (1994).

Rabin, J.

J. Rabin, B. Houser, C. Talbert, and R. Patel, “Blue-black or white-gold? Early stage processing and the color of ‘The dress’,” PLoS ONE 11, e0161090 (2016).
[Crossref]

Racey, C.

C. Witzel, C. Racey, and J. K. O’Regan, “The most reasonable explanation of ’the dress’: implicit assumptions about illumination,” J. Vis. 17(2), 1 (2017).
[Crossref]

Schlaffke, L.

L. Schlaffke, A. Golisch, L. M. Haag, M. Lenz, S. Heba, S. Lissek, T. Schmidt-Wilcke, U. T. Eysel, and M. Tegenthoff, “The brain’s dress code: how The Dress allows to decode the neuronal pathway of an optical illusion,” Cortex 73, 271–275 (2015).
[Crossref]

Schmidt-Wilcke, T.

L. Schlaffke, A. Golisch, L. M. Haag, M. Lenz, S. Heba, S. Lissek, T. Schmidt-Wilcke, U. T. Eysel, and M. Tegenthoff, “The brain’s dress code: how The Dress allows to decode the neuronal pathway of an optical illusion,” Cortex 73, 271–275 (2015).
[Crossref]

Scott, D. H.

D. A. Atchison, D. H. Scott, and G. Smith, “Pupil photometric efficiency and effective centre,” Ophthalmic Physiolog. Opt. 20, 501–503 (2000).
[Crossref]

Shapiro, A. G.

E. L. Dixon and A. G. Shapiro, “Spatial filtering, color constancy, and the color-changing dress,” J. Vis. 17(3), 7 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sheriff, I.

O. A. Mahroo, K. M. Williams, I. T. Hossain, E. Yonova-Doing, D. Kozareva, A. Yusuf, I. Sheriff, M. Oomerjee, T. Soorma, and C. J. Hammond, “Do twins share the same dress code? Quantifying relative genetic and environmental contributions to subjective perceptions of ’the dress’ in a classical twin study,” J. Vis. 17(1), 29 (2017).
[Crossref]

Slavikova, J.

L. Hugrass, J. Slavikova, M. Horvat, A. Al Musawi, and D. Crewther, “Temporal brightness illusion changes color perception of ’the dress’,” J. Vis. 17(5), 6 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sloane, M. E.

M. E. Sloane, C. Owsley, and S. L. Alvarez, “Aging, senile miosis and spatial contrast sensitivity at low luminance,” Vision Res. 28, 1235–1246 (1988).
[Crossref]

Smith, G.

D. A. Atchison, D. H. Scott, and G. Smith, “Pupil photometric efficiency and effective centre,” Ophthalmic Physiolog. Opt. 20, 501–503 (2000).
[Crossref]

Soorma, T.

O. A. Mahroo, K. M. Williams, I. T. Hossain, E. Yonova-Doing, D. Kozareva, A. Yusuf, I. Sheriff, M. Oomerjee, T. Soorma, and C. J. Hammond, “Do twins share the same dress code? Quantifying relative genetic and environmental contributions to subjective perceptions of ’the dress’ in a classical twin study,” J. Vis. 17(1), 29 (2017).
[Crossref]

Spillmann, L.

A. D. Winkler, L. Spillmann, J. S. Werner, and M. A. Webster, “Asymmetries in blue-yellow color perception and in the color of ’the dress’,” Curr. Biol. 25, R547–R548 (2015).
[Crossref]

Suero, M. I.

M. Melgosa, L. Gómez-Robledo, M. I. Suero, and M. D. Fairchild, “What can we learn from a dress with ambiguous colors?” Color Res. Appl. 40, 525–529 (2015).
[Crossref]

Talbert, C.

J. Rabin, B. Houser, C. Talbert, and R. Patel, “Blue-black or white-gold? Early stage processing and the color of ‘The dress’,” PLoS ONE 11, e0161090 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tegenthoff, M.

L. Schlaffke, A. Golisch, L. M. Haag, M. Lenz, S. Heba, S. Lissek, T. Schmidt-Wilcke, U. T. Eysel, and M. Tegenthoff, “The brain’s dress code: how The Dress allows to decode the neuronal pathway of an optical illusion,” Cortex 73, 271–275 (2015).
[Crossref]

Toscani, M.

M. Toscani, K. R. Gegenfurtner, and K. Doerschner, “Differences in illumination estimation in #thedress,” J. Vis. 17(1), 22 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. R. Gegenfurtner, M. Bloj, and M. Toscani, “The many colours of ‘the dress’,” Curr. Biol. 25, R543–R544 (2015).
[Crossref]

Uchikawa, K.

K. Uchikawa, T. Morimoto, and T. Matsumoto, “Understanding individual differences in color appearance of ‘#TheDress’ based on the optimal color hypothesis,” J. Vis. 17(8), 10 (2017).
[Crossref]

Varadharajan, S.

Vemuri, K.

Vizmanos, J. G.

J. G. Vizmanos, I. De La Fuente, B. M. Matesanz, and J. A. Aparicio, “Influence of surround illumination on pupil size and contrast sensitivity,” Ophthalmic Physiolog. Opt. 24, 464–468 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wallisch, P.

P. Wallisch, “Illumination assumptions account for individual differences in the perceptual interpretation of a profoundly ambiguous stimulus in the color domain: “The dress”,” J. Vis. 17(4), 5 (2017).
[Crossref]

Watson, A. B.

A. B. Watson and J. I. Yellott, “A unified formula for light-adapted pupil size,” J. Vis. 12(10), 12 (2012).
[Crossref]

Webster, M. A.

A. D. Winkler, L. Spillmann, J. S. Werner, and M. A. Webster, “Asymmetries in blue-yellow color perception and in the color of ’the dress’,” Curr. Biol. 25, R547–R548 (2015).
[Crossref]

Werner, J. S.

A. D. Winkler, L. Spillmann, J. S. Werner, and M. A. Webster, “Asymmetries in blue-yellow color perception and in the color of ’the dress’,” Curr. Biol. 25, R547–R548 (2015).
[Crossref]

Whitaker, D.

B. Winn, D. Whitaker, D. B. Elliott, and N. J. Phillips, “Factors affecting light-adapted pupil size in normal human subjects,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 35, 1132–1137 (1994).

Williams, K. M.

O. A. Mahroo, K. M. Williams, I. T. Hossain, E. Yonova-Doing, D. Kozareva, A. Yusuf, I. Sheriff, M. Oomerjee, T. Soorma, and C. J. Hammond, “Do twins share the same dress code? Quantifying relative genetic and environmental contributions to subjective perceptions of ’the dress’ in a classical twin study,” J. Vis. 17(1), 29 (2017).
[Crossref]

Winkler, A. D.

A. D. Winkler, L. Spillmann, J. S. Werner, and M. A. Webster, “Asymmetries in blue-yellow color perception and in the color of ’the dress’,” Curr. Biol. 25, R547–R548 (2015).
[Crossref]

Winn, B.

B. Winn, D. Whitaker, D. B. Elliott, and N. J. Phillips, “Factors affecting light-adapted pupil size in normal human subjects,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 35, 1132–1137 (1994).

Witzel, C.

C. Witzel, C. Racey, and J. K. O’Regan, “The most reasonable explanation of ’the dress’: implicit assumptions about illumination,” J. Vis. 17(2), 1 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Witzel, J. K. O’Regan, and S. Hansmann-Roth, “The dress and individual differences in the perception of surface properties,” Vision Res. 141, 76–94 (2017).
[Crossref]

Xiao, B.

D. H. Brainard, P. Longere, P. B. Delahunt, W. T. Freeman, J. M. Kraft, and B. Xiao, “Bayesian model of human color constancy,” J. Vis. 6(11), 10 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yellott, J. I.

A. B. Watson and J. I. Yellott, “A unified formula for light-adapted pupil size,” J. Vis. 12(10), 12 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yonova-Doing, E.

O. A. Mahroo, K. M. Williams, I. T. Hossain, E. Yonova-Doing, D. Kozareva, A. Yusuf, I. Sheriff, M. Oomerjee, T. Soorma, and C. J. Hammond, “Do twins share the same dress code? Quantifying relative genetic and environmental contributions to subjective perceptions of ’the dress’ in a classical twin study,” J. Vis. 17(1), 29 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yusuf, A.

O. A. Mahroo, K. M. Williams, I. T. Hossain, E. Yonova-Doing, D. Kozareva, A. Yusuf, I. Sheriff, M. Oomerjee, T. Soorma, and C. J. Hammond, “Do twins share the same dress code? Quantifying relative genetic and environmental contributions to subjective perceptions of ’the dress’ in a classical twin study,” J. Vis. 17(1), 29 (2017).
[Crossref]

Clin. Exp. Optom. (1)

W. Adrian, “Spectral sensitivity of the pupillary system,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 86, 235–238 (2003).
[Crossref]

Color Res. Appl. (1)

M. Melgosa, L. Gómez-Robledo, M. I. Suero, and M. D. Fairchild, “What can we learn from a dress with ambiguous colors?” Color Res. Appl. 40, 525–529 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cortex (1)

L. Schlaffke, A. Golisch, L. M. Haag, M. Lenz, S. Heba, S. Lissek, T. Schmidt-Wilcke, U. T. Eysel, and M. Tegenthoff, “The brain’s dress code: how The Dress allows to decode the neuronal pathway of an optical illusion,” Cortex 73, 271–275 (2015).
[Crossref]

Curr. Biol. (4)

K. R. Gegenfurtner, M. Bloj, and M. Toscani, “The many colours of ‘the dress’,” Curr. Biol. 25, R543–R544 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. D. Winkler, L. Spillmann, J. S. Werner, and M. A. Webster, “Asymmetries in blue-yellow color perception and in the color of ’the dress’,” Curr. Biol. 25, R547–R548 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. H. Brainard and A. C. Hurlbert, “Colour vision: understanding #TheDress,” Curr. Biol. 25, R551–R554 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Lafer-Sousa, K. L. Hermann, and B. R. Conway, “Striking individual differences in color perception uncovered by ‘the dress’ photograph,” Curr. Biol. 25, R545–R546 (2015).
[Crossref]

i-Perception (1)

V. M. Hesslinger and C. Carbon, “#TheDress: the role of illumination information and individual differences in the psychophysics of perceiving white-blue ambiguities,” i-Perception 7, 2041669516645592 (2016).
[Crossref]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. (1)

B. Winn, D. Whitaker, D. B. Elliott, and N. J. Phillips, “Factors affecting light-adapted pupil size in normal human subjects,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 35, 1132–1137 (1994).

J. Gerontol. (1)

J. E. Birren, R. C. Casperson, and J. Botwinick, “Age changes in pupil size,” J. Gerontol. 5, 216–221 (1950).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Vis. (12)

O. A. Mahroo, K. M. Williams, I. T. Hossain, E. Yonova-Doing, D. Kozareva, A. Yusuf, I. Sheriff, M. Oomerjee, T. Soorma, and C. J. Hammond, “Do twins share the same dress code? Quantifying relative genetic and environmental contributions to subjective perceptions of ’the dress’ in a classical twin study,” J. Vis. 17(1), 29 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Lafer-Sousa and B. R. Conway, “#TheDress: categorical perception of an ambiguous color image,” J. Vis. 17(12), 25 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Uchikawa, T. Morimoto, and T. Matsumoto, “Understanding individual differences in color appearance of ‘#TheDress’ based on the optimal color hypothesis,” J. Vis. 17(8), 10 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. H. Brainard, P. Longere, P. B. Delahunt, W. T. Freeman, J. M. Kraft, and B. Xiao, “Bayesian model of human color constancy,” J. Vis. 6(11), 10 (2006).
[Crossref]

P. Wallisch, “Illumination assumptions account for individual differences in the perceptual interpretation of a profoundly ambiguous stimulus in the color domain: “The dress”,” J. Vis. 17(4), 5 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Aston and A. Hurlbert, “What #theDress reveals about the role of illumination priors in color perception and color constancy,” J. Vis. 17(9), 4 (2017).
[Crossref]

E. L. Dixon and A. G. Shapiro, “Spatial filtering, color constancy, and the color-changing dress,” J. Vis. 17(3), 7 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. B. Watson and J. I. Yellott, “A unified formula for light-adapted pupil size,” J. Vis. 12(10), 12 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Hugrass, J. Slavikova, M. Horvat, A. Al Musawi, and D. Crewther, “Temporal brightness illusion changes color perception of ’the dress’,” J. Vis. 17(5), 6 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. D. Daoudi, A. Doerig, K. Parkosadze, M. Kunchulia, and M. H. Herzog, “The role of one-shot learning in #TheDress,” J. Vis. 17(3), 15 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Toscani, K. R. Gegenfurtner, and K. Doerschner, “Differences in illumination estimation in #thedress,” J. Vis. 17(1), 22 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Witzel, C. Racey, and J. K. O’Regan, “The most reasonable explanation of ’the dress’: implicit assumptions about illumination,” J. Vis. 17(2), 1 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ophthalmic Physiolog. Opt. (2)

D. A. Atchison, D. H. Scott, and G. Smith, “Pupil photometric efficiency and effective centre,” Ophthalmic Physiolog. Opt. 20, 501–503 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. G. Vizmanos, I. De La Fuente, B. M. Matesanz, and J. A. Aparicio, “Influence of surround illumination on pupil size and contrast sensitivity,” Ophthalmic Physiolog. Opt. 24, 464–468 (2004).
[Crossref]

Perception (1)

A. Chetverikov and I. Ivanchei, “Seeing ’the dress’ in the right light: perceived colors and inferred light sources,” Perception 45, 910–930 (2016).
[Crossref]

PLoS ONE (1)

J. Rabin, B. Houser, C. Talbert, and R. Patel, “Blue-black or white-gold? Early stage processing and the color of ‘The dress’,” PLoS ONE 11, e0161090 (2016).
[Crossref]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. (1)

B. Laeng and T. Endestad, “Bright illusions reduce the eye’s pupil,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 109, 2162–2167 (2012).
[Crossref]

Vision Res. (2)

M. E. Sloane, C. Owsley, and S. L. Alvarez, “Aging, senile miosis and spatial contrast sensitivity at low luminance,” Vision Res. 28, 1235–1246 (1988).
[Crossref]

C. Witzel, J. K. O’Regan, and S. Hansmann-Roth, “The dress and individual differences in the perception of surface properties,” Vision Res. 141, 76–94 (2017).
[Crossref]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Box and whisker plot for the data with pupil size versus respective categories of people. For the people who saw white/gold in the dress, the median value was 2.756 mm, mean value was 2.762 mm, the min-max values were 2.169 mm and 3.463 mm, and the IQR ranged from 2.565 mm to 2.948 mm. For those who saw black/blue in the dress, the median value was 2.922 mm, mean value was 2.889 mm, the min-max values were 2.214 mm and 3.696 mm, and the IQR ranged from 2.728 mm to 3.016 mm. For the people who saw white/blue in the jacket, the median value was 2.812 mm, mean value was 2.791 mm, the min-max values were 1.777 mm and 3.437 mm, and the IQR ranged from 2.606 mm to 2.96 mm. For the people who saw darker shade in the jacket, the median value was 2.816 mm, mean value was 2.844 mm, the min-max values were 2.18 mm and 3.696 mm, and the IQR ranged from 2.688 mm to 3.011 mm.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Mean pupil size measured for the baseline (from a gray hue screen) and dress/jacket image. The age and the color groups are labeled on the x-axis and the y-axis is the pupil diameter in millimeters.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Box and whisker plot for the pupil sizes of the groups reporting white/gold (wg) and black/blue (bb) in the dress for the age groups 18–20 (young), age 21–30 (mid-age), and 31–55 years (old). In the young category, for the people who saw (wg) in the dress, the median value was 2.63 mm, mean value was 2.67 mm, the min-max values were 2.378 mm and 3.273 mm, and the IQR ranged from 2.47 mm to 2.74 mm; for those who saw (bb) in the dress, the median value was 2.768 mm, mean value was 2.77 mm, the min-max values were 2.138 mm and 3.246 mm, and the IQR ranged from 2.62 mm to 2.906 mm. In the mid-age category, for the people who saw (wg) in the dress, the median value was 2.76 mm, mean value was 2.774 mm, the min-max values were 2.524 mm and 3.086 mm, and the IQR ranged from 2.66 mm to 2.88 mm; for those who saw (bb) in the dress, the median value was 2.933 mm, mean value was 2.905 mm, the min-max values were 2.343 mm and 3.437 mm, and the IQR ranged from 2.768 mm to 3.003 mm. In the old category, for the people who saw (wg) in the dress, the median value was 2.69 mm, mean value was 2.745 mm, the min-max values were 2.168 mm and 3.463 mm, and the IQR ranged from 2.533 mm to 3.01 mm; for those who saw (bb) in the dress, the median value was 2.919 mm, mean value was 2.856 mm, the min-max values were 1.77 mm and 3.696 mm, and the IQR ranged from 2.62 mm to 3.042 mm.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Box and whisker plot for the pupil sizes of the groups reporting white/blue (wb) and dark shades (dark) in the jacket for the age groups 18–20 (young), age 21–30 (mid-age), and 31–55 years (old). In the young category, for the people who saw (wb) in the dress, the median value was 2.747 mm, mean value was 2.731 mm, the min-max values were 2.137 mm and 3.246 mm, and the IQR ranged from 2.563 mm to 2.915 mm; for those who saw (dark) in the jacket, the median value was 2.746 mm, mean value was 2.784 mm, the min-max values were 2.445 mm and 3.273 mm, and the IQR ranged from 2.644 mm to 2.861 mm. In the mid-age category, for the people who saw (wb) in the jacket, the median value was 2.923 mm, mean value was 2.88 mm, the min-max values were 2.343 mm and 3.437 mm, and the IQR ranged from 2.737 mm to 2.966 mm; for those who saw (dark) in the jacket, the median value was 2.895 mm, mean value was 2.88 mm, the min-max values were 2.37 mm and 3.277 mm, and the IQR ranged from 2.77 mm to 3.01 mm. In the old category, for the people who saw (wb) in the jacket, the median value was 2.847 mm, mean value was 2.763 mm, the min-max values were 1.77 mm and 3.325 mm, and the IQR ranged from 2.563 mm to 2.99 mm; for those who saw (dark) in the jacket, the median value was 2.857 mm, mean value was 2.92 mm, the min-max values were 2.18 mm and 3.696 mm, and the IQR ranged from 2.68 mm to 3.353 mm.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Photographs (clicked from a Nexus mobile phone) of the 23-color placard prepared from cotton cloth of matte finish. Labels inside some of the color patches denote the maximally selected combinations. The bottom row is colors not selected by any of the participants. D_bb: dress—bb’ers; D_wg: dress—wg’ers; j_wb: jacket—white/blue; j_dark: jacket—dark colors.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Spectrum of wavelengths measured from the color screen stimuli displayed on the LCD screen. The y-axis is arbitrary units. The fiber tip of the spectrophotometer was placed 1 cm from the center of the LCD screen. The color of the graph corresponds to the color displayed on the screen.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Reflected wavelengths of the colored cloth placards measured by the fiber-coupled spectrophotometer, for the selected 24 cotton cloth placards. The placards were top illuminated with a QTH lamp and the fiber tip placed 1 cm from the surface of the cloth. The spectrum is normalized with the QTH spectrum in the visible wavelength range (400–700 nm). By deconvolution the peaks are identified in each spectral plot (small dots). A higher resolution spectrophotometer would give distinct peaks.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Pupil diameter for the various colored light stimuli. The colors corresponding to the numbers on the x-axis are presented on the left of the plots. The CIELAB coordinates and the spectrum are provided in Appendix A. The top plot is for the age group 18–20 years, the middle plot is for the age group of 21–30 years, and at the bottom is for 31–55 years. The first data point is the baseline pupil diameter (pre-stimulus presentation) and the last two points are for the dress and jacket, respectively.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. Average pupil size of the participant groups reporting white/blue (w/b) or darker shades (dark) for age 18–20 years (top), age 21–30 years (middle), and age 31–55 years (bottom). The colors corresponding to the numbers.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Distribution of wg’ers or the bbérs Also Selecting wb or Dark for the Jacket in the Online Survey and the Experiment Conducted in the Laba