Abstract

Popular color reproductions of art paintings such as postcards are intended to remind viewers of the original works. It is, however, unclear how well the quality of the reproductions is preserved under various illuminations. Color constancy of the reproductions in relation to colors in the original paintings was estimated computationally with hyperspectral images of 15th-century Flemish paintings, 20th-century modern abstract paintings, and their corresponding postcards with a series of illuminants: the CIE daylight D65 with correlated color temperature (CCT) 6500 K, daylight D40, fluorescent lamps F2 and F11, and a LED lamp designed for museums with CCT approximately 3500–4000 K. Despite large colorimetric differences between the types of art paintings and between the illuminants simulated, local areas showed good color constancy: skin areas in the Flemish paintings ranged from 0.76 to 0.81, whereas nonskin areas ranged from 0.19 to 0.68. This result suggests that viewers may be able to achieve color constancy with the reproduction postcards by disregarding inconsistent colors representations from the original paintings caused by changes in illumination conditions.

© 2018 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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S. M. C. Nascimento, J. M. M. Linhares, C. Montagner, C. A. R. João, K. Amano, C. Alfaro, and A. Bailão, “The colors of paintings and viewers’ preferences,” Vis. Res. 130, 76–84 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Garside, K. Curran, C. Korenberg, L. MacDonald, K. Teunissen, and S. Robson, “How is museum lighting selected? an insight into current practice in UK museums,” J. Inst. Conserv. 40, 3–14 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Amano, A. Sohaib, K. Xiao, J. Yates, C. Whitford, and S. Wuerger, “Color quality assessments of 3D facial prostheses in varying illuminations,” J. Vis. 17(10), 138 (2017).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

2014 (2)

R. Shrestha, R. Pillay, S. George, and J. Y. Hardeberg, “Quality evaluation in spectral imaging–quality factors and metrics,” J. Int. Colour Assoc. 12, 22–35 (2014).

S. M. C. Nascimento and O. Masuda, “Best lighting for visual appreciation of artistic paintings-experiments with real paintings and real illumination,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 31, A214–A219 (2014).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

D. H. Foster, “Color constancy,” Vis. Res. 51, 674–700 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. Viénot, G. Coron, and B. Lavédrine, “LEDs as a tool to enhance faded colours of museums artefacts,” J. Cult. Herit. 12, 431–440 (2011).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

A. J. Reeves, K. Amano, and D. H. Foster, “Color constancy: phenomenal or projective?” Percept. Psychophys. 70, 219–228 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. S. Rea and J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, “Color rendering: a tale of two metrics,” Color Res. Appl. 33, 192–202 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. Ling and A. Hurlbert, “Role of color memory in successive color constancy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 1215–1226 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

D. H. Foster, K. Amano, S. M. C. Nascimento, and M. J. Foster, “Frequency of metamerism in natural scenes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 2359–2372 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. H. Foster, K. Amano, and S. M. C. Nascimento, “Color constancy in natural scenes explained by global image statistics,” Vis. Neurosci. 23, 341–349 (2006).

2004 (1)

M. Scuello, I. Abramov, J. Gordon, and S. Weintraub, “Museum lighting: optimizing the illuminant,” Color Res. Appl. 29, 121–127 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

P. Monnier and S. K. Shevell, “Large shifts in color appearance from patterned chromatic backgrounds,” Nat. Neurosci. 6, 801–802 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

1999 (1)

1997 (1)

R. O. Brown and D. I. A. MacLeod, “Color appearance depends on the variance of surround colors,” Curr. Biol. 7, 844–849 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (3)

1991 (1)

1987 (1)

R. M. Boynton and C. X. Olson, “Locating basic colors in the OSA space,” Color Res. Appl. 12, 94–105 (1987).
[Crossref]

1964 (1)

1960 (2)

1957 (1)

Abramov, I.

M. Scuello, I. Abramov, J. Gordon, and S. Weintraub, “Museum lighting: optimizing the illuminant,” Color Res. Appl. 29, 121–127 (2004).
[Crossref]

Alfaro, C.

S. M. C. Nascimento, J. M. M. Linhares, C. Montagner, C. A. R. João, K. Amano, C. Alfaro, and A. Bailão, “The colors of paintings and viewers’ preferences,” Vis. Res. 130, 76–84 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. de Helena, A. Cardoso, M. J. Melo, M. Vilarigues, S. Babo, and C. Alfaro, Catálogo Raisonné Amadeo de Souza-Cardoso, Pintura (Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian, 2008).

Amano, K.

S. M. C. Nascimento, J. M. M. Linhares, C. Montagner, C. A. R. João, K. Amano, C. Alfaro, and A. Bailão, “The colors of paintings and viewers’ preferences,” Vis. Res. 130, 76–84 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Amano, A. Sohaib, K. Xiao, J. Yates, C. Whitford, and S. Wuerger, “Color quality assessments of 3D facial prostheses in varying illuminations,” J. Vis. 17(10), 138 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. J. Reeves, K. Amano, and D. H. Foster, “Color constancy: phenomenal or projective?” Percept. Psychophys. 70, 219–228 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. H. Foster, K. Amano, S. M. C. Nascimento, and M. J. Foster, “Frequency of metamerism in natural scenes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 2359–2372 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. H. Foster, K. Amano, and S. M. C. Nascimento, “Color constancy in natural scenes explained by global image statistics,” Vis. Neurosci. 23, 341–349 (2006).

K. Amano, K. Uchikawa, and I. Kuriki, “Characteristics of color memory for natural scenes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 1501–1514 (2002).
[Crossref]

K. Amano and D. H. Foster, “Effect of spatial uncertainty and familiarity on memory for surface colour in natural scenes and Mondrian patterns,” in Conference on Colour in Graphics, Imaging, and Vision 2008 (2008), pp. 223–226.

A. Sohaib, K. Amano, K. Xiao, J. M. Yates, C. Whitford, and S. Wuerger, “Colour quality of facial prostheses in additive manufacturing,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. (to be published), doi:10.1007/s00170-017-1480-x.

Arend, L. E.

Babo, S.

F. de Helena, A. Cardoso, M. J. Melo, M. Vilarigues, S. Babo, and C. Alfaro, Catálogo Raisonné Amadeo de Souza-Cardoso, Pintura (Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian, 2008).

Bailão, A.

S. M. C. Nascimento, J. M. M. Linhares, C. Montagner, C. A. R. João, K. Amano, C. Alfaro, and A. Bailão, “The colors of paintings and viewers’ preferences,” Vis. Res. 130, 76–84 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bartleson, C. J.

Boynton, R. M.

R. M. Boynton and C. X. Olson, “Locating basic colors in the OSA space,” Color Res. Appl. 12, 94–105 (1987).
[Crossref]

Brainard, D. H.

Brown, R. O.

R. O. Brown and D. I. A. MacLeod, “Color appearance depends on the variance of surround colors,” Curr. Biol. 7, 844–849 (1997).
[Crossref]

Budde, H. W.

Burnham, R. W.

Cardoso, A.

F. de Helena, A. Cardoso, M. J. Melo, M. Vilarigues, S. Babo, and C. Alfaro, Catálogo Raisonné Amadeo de Souza-Cardoso, Pintura (Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian, 2008).

Clark, J. R.

Condit, H. R.

Coron, G.

F. Viénot, G. Coron, and B. Lavédrine, “LEDs as a tool to enhance faded colours of museums artefacts,” J. Cult. Herit. 12, 431–440 (2011).
[Crossref]

Curran, K.

D. Garside, K. Curran, C. Korenberg, L. MacDonald, K. Teunissen, and S. Robson, “How is museum lighting selected? an insight into current practice in UK museums,” J. Inst. Conserv. 40, 3–14 (2017).
[Crossref]

de Helena, F.

F. de Helena, A. Cardoso, M. J. Melo, M. Vilarigues, S. Babo, and C. Alfaro, Catálogo Raisonné Amadeo de Souza-Cardoso, Pintura (Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian, 2008).

Ferreira, F. P.

Foster, D. H.

D. H. Foster, “Color constancy,” Vis. Res. 51, 674–700 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. J. Reeves, K. Amano, and D. H. Foster, “Color constancy: phenomenal or projective?” Percept. Psychophys. 70, 219–228 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. H. Foster, K. Amano, S. M. C. Nascimento, and M. J. Foster, “Frequency of metamerism in natural scenes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 2359–2372 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. H. Foster, K. Amano, and S. M. C. Nascimento, “Color constancy in natural scenes explained by global image statistics,” Vis. Neurosci. 23, 341–349 (2006).

S. M. C. Nascimento, F. P. Ferreira, and D. H. Foster, “Statistics of spatial cone-excitation ratios in natural scenes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 1484–1490 (2002).
[Crossref]

K. Amano and D. H. Foster, “Effect of spatial uncertainty and familiarity on memory for surface colour in natural scenes and Mondrian patterns,” in Conference on Colour in Graphics, Imaging, and Vision 2008 (2008), pp. 223–226.

Foster, M. J.

Freyssinier-Nova, J. P.

M. S. Rea and J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, “Color rendering: a tale of two metrics,” Color Res. Appl. 33, 192–202 (2008).
[Crossref]

Garside, D.

D. Garside, K. Curran, C. Korenberg, L. MacDonald, K. Teunissen, and S. Robson, “How is museum lighting selected? an insight into current practice in UK museums,” J. Inst. Conserv. 40, 3–14 (2017).
[Crossref]

George, S.

R. Shrestha, R. Pillay, S. George, and J. Y. Hardeberg, “Quality evaluation in spectral imaging–quality factors and metrics,” J. Int. Colour Assoc. 12, 22–35 (2014).

Gill, L.

K. Xiao, J. M. Yates, F. Zardawi, S. Sueeprasan, N. Liao, L. Gill, C. Li, and S. Wuerger, “Characterising the variations in ethnic skin colours: a new calibrated data base for human skin,” Skin Res. Technol. 23, 21–29 (2017).
[Crossref]

Goldstein, R.

Gordon, J.

M. Scuello, I. Abramov, J. Gordon, and S. Weintraub, “Museum lighting: optimizing the illuminant,” Color Res. Appl. 29, 121–127 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hardeberg, J. Y.

R. Shrestha, R. Pillay, S. George, and J. Y. Hardeberg, “Quality evaluation in spectral imaging–quality factors and metrics,” J. Int. Colour Assoc. 12, 22–35 (2014).

Henderson, S. T.

Hurlbert, A.

Jin, E. W.

João, C. A. R.

S. M. C. Nascimento, J. M. M. Linhares, C. Montagner, C. A. R. João, K. Amano, C. Alfaro, and A. Bailão, “The colors of paintings and viewers’ preferences,” Vis. Res. 130, 76–84 (2017).
[Crossref]

Judd, D. B.

Korenberg, C.

D. Garside, K. Curran, C. Korenberg, L. MacDonald, K. Teunissen, and S. Robson, “How is museum lighting selected? an insight into current practice in UK museums,” J. Inst. Conserv. 40, 3–14 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kuriki, I.

Lavédrine, B.

F. Viénot, G. Coron, and B. Lavédrine, “LEDs as a tool to enhance faded colours of museums artefacts,” J. Cult. Herit. 12, 431–440 (2011).
[Crossref]

Li, C.

K. Xiao, J. M. Yates, F. Zardawi, S. Sueeprasan, N. Liao, L. Gill, C. Li, and S. Wuerger, “Characterising the variations in ethnic skin colours: a new calibrated data base for human skin,” Skin Res. Technol. 23, 21–29 (2017).
[Crossref]

Liao, N.

K. Xiao, J. M. Yates, F. Zardawi, S. Sueeprasan, N. Liao, L. Gill, C. Li, and S. Wuerger, “Characterising the variations in ethnic skin colours: a new calibrated data base for human skin,” Skin Res. Technol. 23, 21–29 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ling, Y.

Linhares, J. M. M.

S. M. C. Nascimento, J. M. M. Linhares, C. Montagner, C. A. R. João, K. Amano, C. Alfaro, and A. Bailão, “The colors of paintings and viewers’ preferences,” Vis. Res. 130, 76–84 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Montagner, J. M. M. Linhares, M. Vilarigues, M. J. Melo, and S. M. C. Nascimento, “Supporting history of art with colorimetry: the paintings of Amadeo de Souza-Cardoso,” Color Res. Appl. (to be published).

MacAdam, D. L.

MacDonald, L.

D. Garside, K. Curran, C. Korenberg, L. MacDonald, K. Teunissen, and S. Robson, “How is museum lighting selected? an insight into current practice in UK museums,” J. Inst. Conserv. 40, 3–14 (2017).
[Crossref]

MacLeod, D. I. A.

R. O. Brown and D. I. A. MacLeod, “Color appearance depends on the variance of surround colors,” Curr. Biol. 7, 844–849 (1997).
[Crossref]

Masuda, O.

Melo, M. J.

C. Montagner, J. M. M. Linhares, M. Vilarigues, M. J. Melo, and S. M. C. Nascimento, “Supporting history of art with colorimetry: the paintings of Amadeo de Souza-Cardoso,” Color Res. Appl. (to be published).

F. de Helena, A. Cardoso, M. J. Melo, M. Vilarigues, S. Babo, and C. Alfaro, Catálogo Raisonné Amadeo de Souza-Cardoso, Pintura (Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian, 2008).

Monnier, P.

P. Monnier and S. K. Shevell, “Large shifts in color appearance from patterned chromatic backgrounds,” Nat. Neurosci. 6, 801–802 (2003).
[Crossref]

Montagner, C.

S. M. C. Nascimento, J. M. M. Linhares, C. Montagner, C. A. R. João, K. Amano, C. Alfaro, and A. Bailão, “The colors of paintings and viewers’ preferences,” Vis. Res. 130, 76–84 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Montagner, J. M. M. Linhares, M. Vilarigues, M. J. Melo, and S. M. C. Nascimento, “Supporting history of art with colorimetry: the paintings of Amadeo de Souza-Cardoso,” Color Res. Appl. (to be published).

C. Montagner, “The brushstroke and materials of Amadeo de Souza-Cardoso combined in an authentication tool,” Ph.D. dissertation (Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, 2015).

Morovic, J.

J. Morovič, Color Gamut Mapping (Wiley, 2008).

Nascimento, S. M. C.

S. M. C. Nascimento, J. M. M. Linhares, C. Montagner, C. A. R. João, K. Amano, C. Alfaro, and A. Bailão, “The colors of paintings and viewers’ preferences,” Vis. Res. 130, 76–84 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. M. C. Nascimento and O. Masuda, “Best lighting for visual appreciation of artistic paintings-experiments with real paintings and real illumination,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 31, A214–A219 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. H. Foster, K. Amano, and S. M. C. Nascimento, “Color constancy in natural scenes explained by global image statistics,” Vis. Neurosci. 23, 341–349 (2006).

D. H. Foster, K. Amano, S. M. C. Nascimento, and M. J. Foster, “Frequency of metamerism in natural scenes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 2359–2372 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. M. C. Nascimento, F. P. Ferreira, and D. H. Foster, “Statistics of spatial cone-excitation ratios in natural scenes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 1484–1490 (2002).
[Crossref]

C. Montagner, J. M. M. Linhares, M. Vilarigues, M. J. Melo, and S. M. C. Nascimento, “Supporting history of art with colorimetry: the paintings of Amadeo de Souza-Cardoso,” Color Res. Appl. (to be published).

Newhall, S. M.

Nickerson, D.

Olson, C. X.

R. M. Boynton and C. X. Olson, “Locating basic colors in the OSA space,” Color Res. Appl. 12, 94–105 (1987).
[Crossref]

Pillay, R.

R. Shrestha, R. Pillay, S. George, and J. Y. Hardeberg, “Quality evaluation in spectral imaging–quality factors and metrics,” J. Int. Colour Assoc. 12, 22–35 (2014).

Rea, M. S.

M. S. Rea and J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, “Color rendering: a tale of two metrics,” Color Res. Appl. 33, 192–202 (2008).
[Crossref]

Reeves, A.

Reeves, A. J.

A. J. Reeves, K. Amano, and D. H. Foster, “Color constancy: phenomenal or projective?” Percept. Psychophys. 70, 219–228 (2008).
[Crossref]

Robson, S.

D. Garside, K. Curran, C. Korenberg, L. MacDonald, K. Teunissen, and S. Robson, “How is museum lighting selected? an insight into current practice in UK museums,” J. Inst. Conserv. 40, 3–14 (2017).
[Crossref]

Schirillo, J.

Scuello, M.

M. Scuello, I. Abramov, J. Gordon, and S. Weintraub, “Museum lighting: optimizing the illuminant,” Color Res. Appl. 29, 121–127 (2004).
[Crossref]

Shevell, S. K.

P. Monnier and S. K. Shevell, “Large shifts in color appearance from patterned chromatic backgrounds,” Nat. Neurosci. 6, 801–802 (2003).
[Crossref]

E. W. Jin and S. K. Shevell, “Color memory and color constancy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 1981–1991 (1996).
[Crossref]

Shinoda, H.

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C. Montagner, J. M. M. Linhares, M. Vilarigues, M. J. Melo, and S. M. C. Nascimento, “Supporting history of art with colorimetry: the paintings of Amadeo de Souza-Cardoso,” Color Res. Appl. (to be published).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Sample images of the art paintings. The first and second rows show two Flemish paintings (P1 and P2) and three modern paintings by Amadeo de Souza-Cardoso (P172, P200, and P38), respectively. The color images were generated from the hyperspectral data with illuminant D65. The images in the third row show the color renderings with different illuminants (D65, F2, F11, LED, and D40) on the Flemish painting P2.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Local areas on the two Flemish paintings P1 and P2. Local skin areas, forehead, cheek, and hand/shoulder are indicated by f, c, and h with squares, respectively; nonskin local areas are indicated by ns with circles. The sizes of the squares and circles were adjusted for visibility.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Local areas selected on the modern paintings. Areas selected are indicated by circles. The sizes of circles were adjusted for visibility.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Spectral reflectances of the Flemish painting P2. (a) Original painting and (b) postcard. The local skin areas, forehead, cheek, and hand/shoulder (f, c, and h, respectively) correspond to those shown in Fig. 2.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Spectral reflectances of the selected local areas in the modern painting P200. (a) Original painting and (b) postcard. The numbers correspond to the areas selected, as shown in Fig. 3.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Chromaticities of the local skin areas in the Flemish paintings P1 and P2. (a) Comparison of chromaticities of the skin areas in the Flemish paintings P1 and P2 under D65 on (a*, b*) and (b) on (chroma, L*) space in the CIELAB. Labels f, c, and h correspond to those in Fig. 2; (c) comparisons of chromaticities of the skin areas under the different illuminants on (a*, b*) and (d) (chroma, L*) in the CIELAB. Filled symbols show the chromaticities in the original paintings and open symbols show those in the postcards. Arrows indicate the shifts of chromaticities due to the change of illuminants (from D65 to D40 or lower CCT).
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Chromaticities of the local areas in the modern painting P200. The colors of the symbols indicate the difference of the illuminants. (a) Comparison of chromaticites of the local areas in the original painting under the different illuminants (D65, F2, F11, LED, and D40) on (a*, b*) and (b) on (chroma, L*) in the CIELAB; (c) comparisons of chromaticities on the local areas in the postcard under the different illuminants on (a*, b*) and (d) on (chroma, L*) in the CIELAB. The numbers inserted into diamond symbols D65 correspond to the areas shown in Fig. 2. Arrows indicate the shifts of chromaticities caused by illuminants (from D65 to D40 and lower CCT).
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. RCCI of (a) local skin areas and (b) nonskin areas in the Flemish painting P2. To compute RCCI, the illuminant D65 was paired with one of the illuminants F2, F11, LED, or D40. The RCCIs with negative values were cut off at 0.25. Error bars represent standard error of mean. The labels correspond to the areas indicated in Fig. 2.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. RCCI on the local areas in the modern painting P200. The RCCIs with negative values were cut off at 0.25. Error bars represent standard error of mean. The labels correspond to the areas indicated in Fig. 3.
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. Transformation of color gamut on (a) and (b) the Flemish P2 and (c) and (d) modern painting P200 under the illuminants D65 and LED, respectively. Color gamuts of the original painting and the postcard are shown in (a) and (c) on (a*, b*) and (b) and (d) on (chroma, L*) in the CIELAB, respectively.
Fig. 11.
Fig. 11. Skewness caused by the transformation of color gamut in (a) the Flemish painting P2 and (b) the modern painting P200. Median chromaticities of a* and b* distributions of the original painting are shown as a function of those in the postcard along with the different illuminants, D65, F2, F11, LED, and D40. The ordinate and abscissa are the chromaticities of the original paintings and those of the postcard, respectively. The rank of the illuminants is different between a* and b*.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Ratios of Chromatic Contrast on the Local Areas in the Postcard under Each of the Illuminants F2, F11, LED, and D40 to the Contrast in the Original Painting under Illuminant D65a

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Table 2. Ratios of Chromatic Contrast of the Postcard under Each of the Illuminants F2, F11, LED, and D40 to the Contrast of the Original Painting under Illuminant D65a

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Table 3. Color Consistency from Ratios of Color Differences between the Original Paintings and the Postcardsa

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Chroma=a*2+b*2.
RMSE=1ni=1n(rr,irt,i)2,
SSV=RMSE2+S2,
S2=1[1ni=1n(rr,iμr)(rt,iμt)σrσt]2,
C=(L*Lmed*)2+(a*amed*)2+(b*bmed*)2,