Abstract

Most color simulators for color deficiencies are based on the tristimulus values and are intended to simulate the appearance of an image for dichromats. Statistics show that there are more anomalous trichromats than dichromats. Furthermore, the spectral sensitivities of anomalous cones are different from those of normal cones. Clinically, the types of color defects are characterized through Rayleigh color matching, where the observer matches a spectral yellow to a mixture of spectral red and green. The midpoints of the red/green ratios deviate from a normal trichromat. This means that any simulation based on the tristimulus values defined by a normal trichromat cannot predict the color appearance of anomalous Rayleigh matches. We propose a computerized simulation of the color appearance for anomalous trichromats using multispectral images. First, we assume that anomalous trichromats possess a protanomalous (green shifted) or deuteranomalous (red shifted) pigment instead of a normal (L or M) one. Second, we assume that the luminance will be given by L+M, and red/green and yellow/blue opponent color stimulus values are defined through LM and (L+M)S, respectively. Third, equal-energy white will look white for all observers. The spectral sensitivities of the luminance and the two opponent color channels are multiplied by the spectral radiance of each pixel of a multispectral image to give the luminance and opponent color stimulus values of the entire image. In the next stage of color reproduction for normal observers, the luminance and two opponent color channels are transformed into XYZ tristimulus values and then transformed into sRGB to reproduce a final image for anomalous trichromats. The proposed simulation can be used to predict the Rayleigh color matches for anomalous trichromats. We also conducted experiments to evaluate the appearance of simulated images by color deficient observers and verified the reliability of the simulation.

© 2018 Optical Society of America

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