Abstract

The sensitivity of the pyramid wavefront sensor (PyWFS) has made it a popular choice for astronomical adaptive optics (AAO) systems. The PyWFS is at its most sensitive when it is used without modulation of the input beam. In nonmodulated mode, the device is highly nonlinear. Hence, all PyWFS implementations on current AAO systems employ modulation to make the device more linear. The upcoming era of 30-m class telescopes and the demand for ultra-precise wavefront control stemming from science objectives that include direct imaging of exoplanets make using the PyWFS without modulation desirable. This article argues that nonlinear estimation based on Newton’s method for nonlinear optimization can be useful for mitigating the effects of nonlinearity in the nonmodulated PyWFS. The proposed approach requires all optical modeling to be pre-computed, which has the advantage of avoiding real-time simulations of beam propagation. Further, the required real-time calculations are amenable to massively parallel computation. Numerical experiments simulate a PyWFS with faces sloped 3.7° to the horizontal, operating at a wavelength of 0.85 μm, and with an index of refraction of 1.45. A singular value analysis shows that the common practice of calculating two “slope” images from the four PyWFS pupil images discards critical information and is unsuitable for the nonmodulated PyWFS simulated here. Instead, this article advocates estimators that use the raw pixel values not only from the four geometrical images of the pupil, but from surrounding pixels as well. The simulations indicate that nonlinear estimation can be effective when the Strehl ratio of the input beam is greater than 0.3, and the improvement relative to linear estimation tends to increase at larger Strehl ratios. At Strehl ratios less than about 0.5, the performances of both the nonlinear and linear estimators are relatively insensitive to noise since they are dominated by nonlinearity error.

© 2018 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Virtual pyramid wavefront sensor for phase unwrapping

Vyas Akondi, Brian Vohnsen, and Susana Marcos
Appl. Opt. 55(29) 8363-8367 (2016)

Convolution- and Fourier-transform-based reconstructors for pyramid wavefront sensor

Iuliia Shatokhina and Ronny Ramlau
Appl. Opt. 56(22) 6381-6390 (2017)

References

You do not have subscription access to this journal. Citation lists with outbound citation links are available to subscribers only. You may subscribe either as an OSA member, or as an authorized user of your institution.

Contact your librarian or system administrator
or
Login to access OSA Member Subscription

Cited By

You do not have subscription access to this journal. Cited by links are available to subscribers only. You may subscribe either as an OSA member, or as an authorized user of your institution.

Contact your librarian or system administrator
or
Login to access OSA Member Subscription

Figures (6)

You do not have subscription access to this journal. Figure files are available to subscribers only. You may subscribe either as an OSA member, or as an authorized user of your institution.

Contact your librarian or system administrator
or
Login to access OSA Member Subscription

Tables (1)

You do not have subscription access to this journal. Article tables are available to subscribers only. You may subscribe either as an OSA member, or as an authorized user of your institution.

Contact your librarian or system administrator
or
Login to access OSA Member Subscription

Equations (38)

You do not have subscription access to this journal. Equations are available to subscribers only. You may subscribe either as an OSA member, or as an authorized user of your institution.

Contact your librarian or system administrator
or
Login to access OSA Member Subscription

Metrics

You do not have subscription access to this journal. Article level metrics are available to subscribers only. You may subscribe either as an OSA member, or as an authorized user of your institution.

Contact your librarian or system administrator
or
Login to access OSA Member Subscription