Abstract

Iterative amplitude and phase retrieval algorithms have been proven to accurately reconstruct arbitrary wavefronts from multiple intensity measurements when system parameters are known exactly, given the ability to induce phase diversity between images. Such sets of intensity images with phase diversity can be generated by moving a lens in the optical system, but any position error on the lens will degenerate the reconstruction result. We demonstrate the use of an expectation-maximization algorithm with Kalman smoothing for recovering both the complex field and the lens position from a stack of intensity images. Our method successfully reduces the mean-squared-error of the estimated wavefront in comparison to an approach without position error estimation. We present and discuss the results of using a Kalman smoother and nonlinear least-squares optimization for the estimation of the moving lens position.

© 2018 Optical Society of America

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