Abstract

In this paper, we present a disturbance compensation technique to improve the performance of interferometric imaging for extremely large ground-based telescopes, e.g., the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT), which serves as the application example in this contribution. The most significant disturbance sources at ground-based telescopes are wind-induced mechanical vibrations in the range of 8–60 Hz. Traditionally, their optical effect is eliminated by feedback systems, such as the adaptive optics control loop combined with a fringe tracking system within the interferometric instrument. In this paper, accelerometers are used to measure the vibrations. These measurements are used to estimate the motion of the mirrors, i.e., tip, tilt and piston, with a dynamic estimator. Additional delay compensation methods are presented to cancel sensor network delays and actuator input delays, improving the estimation result even more, particularly at higher frequencies. Because various instruments benefit from the implementation of telescope vibration mitigation, the estimator is implemented as a separate, independent software on the telescope, publishing the estimated values via multicast on the telescope’s ethernet. Every client capable of using and correcting the estimated disturbances can subscribe and use these values in a feedforward for its compensation device, e.g., the deformable mirror, the piston mirror of LINC-NIRVANA, or the fast path length corrector of the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer. This easy-to-use approach eventually leveraged the presented technology for interferometric use at the LBT and now significantly improves the sky coverage, performance, and operational robustness of interferometric imaging on a regular basis.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]

2016 (6)

M. Böhm, J.-U. Pott, J. Borelli, P. Hinz, D. Defrére, E. Downey, J. Hill, K. Summers, A. Conrad, M. Kürster, T. Herbst, and O. Sawodny, “OVMS-plus at the LBT: disturbance compensation simplified,” Proc. SPIE 9906, 99062R (2016).
[Crossref]

L. M. Belmonte, R. Morales, A. Fernández-Caballero, and J. A. Somolinos, “A tandem active disturbance rejection control for a laboratory helicopter with variable-speed rotors,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 63, 6395–6406 (2016).
[Crossref]

O. K. Kjerstad and R. Skjetne, “Disturbance rejection by acceleration feedforward for marine surface vessels,” IEEE Access 4, 2656–2669 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Böhm, J.-U. Pott, M. Kürster, O. Sawodny, D. Defrére, and P. Hinz, “Delay compensation for real time disturbance estimation at extremely large telescopes,” IEEE Trans. Contr. Syst. Technol. PP, 1–10 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Keck, J.-U. Pott, and O. Sawodny, “Accelerometer-based online reconstruction of fast telescope vibrations from delayed measurements,” Proc. SPIE 9906, 990630 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Defrère, P. Hinz, E. Downey, M. Böhm, W. C. Danchi, O. Durney, S. Ertel, J. M. Hill, W. F. Hoffmann, B. Mennesson, R. Millan-Gabet, M. Montoya, J.-U. Pott, A. Skemer, E. Spalding, J. Stone, and A. Vaz, “Simultaneous water vapor and dry air optical path length measurements and compensation with the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 9907, 99071G (2016).
[Crossref]

2014 (5)

C. Petit, J.-F. Sauvage, T. Fusco, A. Sevin, M. Suarez, A. Costille, A. Vigan, C. Soenke, D. Perret, S. Rochat, A. Barrufolo, B. Salasnich, J.-L. Beuzit, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, P. Puget, F. Wildi, M. Kasper, J.-M. Conan, C. Kulcsár, and H.-F. Raynaudand, “Sphere extreme AO control scheme: final performance assessment and on sky validation of the first auto-tuned LQG based operational system,” Proc. SPIE 9148, 91480O (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Defrère, P. Hinz, E. Downey, D. Ashby, V. Bailey, G. Brusa, J. Christou, W. C. Danchi, P. Grenz, J. M. Hill, W. F. Hoffmann, J. Leisenring, J. Lozi, T. McMahon, B. Mennesson, R. Millan-Gabet, M. Montoya, K. Powell, A. Skemer, V. Vaitheeswaran, A. Vaz, and C. Veillet, “Co-phasing the Large Binocular Telescope: status and performance of LBTI/PHASECam,” Proc. SPIE 9146, 914609 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Keck, “Accelerometer-based online reconstruction of vibrations in extremely large telescopes,” IFAC Proc. Vol. 47, 7467–7473 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Keck, J.-U. Pott, and O. Sawodny, “Accelerometer-based position reconstruction for the feedforward compensation of fast telescope vibrations in the E-ELT/MICADO,” Proc. SPIE 9145, 91454H (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Böhm, J.-U. Pott, O. Sawodny, T. Herbst, and M. Kürster, “Real-time vibration compensation for large telescopes,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 442, 2446–2455 (2014).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

G. Agapito, F. Quirós-Pacheco, P. Tesi, A. Riccardi, and S. Esposito, “Observer-based control techniques for the LBT adaptive optics under telescope vibrations,” Euro. J. Control 17, 316–326 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

M. Kürster, T. Bertram, J. L. Borelli, M. Brix, W. Gässler, T. M. Herbst, V. Naranjo, J.-U. Pott, and J. Trowitzsch, “OVMS: the optical path difference and vibration monitoring system for the LBT and its interferometers,” Proc. SPIE 7734, 77342Y (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

T. M. Herbst, R. Ragazzoni, A. Eckart, and G. Weigelt, “LINC-NIRVANA: achieving 10  mas imagery on the Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 812015 (2008).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

M. F. Byl, S. J. Ludwick, and D. L. Trumper, “A loop shaping perspective for tuning controllers with adaptive feedforward cancellation,” Precis. Eng. 29, 27–40 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

P. M. Hinz, T. Connors, T. McMahon, A. Cheng, C. Y. Peng, W. Hoffmann, D. McCarthy, and R. Angel, “Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer: the universal beam combiner,” Proc. SPIE 5491, 787–797 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

G. Vasisht, A. J. Booth, M. M. Colavita, R. L. Johnson, E. R. Ligon, J. D. Moore, and D. L. Palmer, “Performance and verification of the Keck interferometer fringe detection and tracking system,” Proc. SPIE 4838, 824–834 (2003).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

D. S. Bayard, “A general theory of linear time-invariant adaptive feedforward systems with harmonic regressors,” IEEE Trans. Autom. Control 45, 1983–1996 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

M. M. Colavita, J. K. Wallace, B. E. Hines, Y. Gursel, F. Malbet, D. L. Palmer, X. P. Pan, M. Shao, J. W. Yu, A. F. Boden, P. J. Dumont, J. Gubler, C. D. Koresko, S. R. Kulkarni, B. F. Lane, D. W. Mobley, and G. T. van Belle, “The Palomar testbed interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 510, 505–521 (1999).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

W. Messner and M. Bodson, “Design of adaptive feedforward algorithms using internal model equivalence,” Internat. J. Adapt. Control Signal Process. 9, 199–212 (1995).
[Crossref]

1964 (1)

D. Luenberger, “Observing the state of a linear system,” IEEE Trans. Mil. Electron. 8, 74–80 (1964).
[Crossref]

Agapito, G.

G. Agapito, F. Quirós-Pacheco, P. Tesi, A. Riccardi, and S. Esposito, “Observer-based control techniques for the LBT adaptive optics under telescope vibrations,” Euro. J. Control 17, 316–326 (2011).
[Crossref]

Alloin, D.

D. Alloin and J.-M. Mariotti, Adaptive Optics for Astronomy, Nato Science Series C (Springer, 1994).

Angel, R.

P. M. Hinz, T. Connors, T. McMahon, A. Cheng, C. Y. Peng, W. Hoffmann, D. McCarthy, and R. Angel, “Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer: the universal beam combiner,” Proc. SPIE 5491, 787–797 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ashby, D.

D. Defrère, P. Hinz, E. Downey, D. Ashby, V. Bailey, G. Brusa, J. Christou, W. C. Danchi, P. Grenz, J. M. Hill, W. F. Hoffmann, J. Leisenring, J. Lozi, T. McMahon, B. Mennesson, R. Millan-Gabet, M. Montoya, K. Powell, A. Skemer, V. Vaitheeswaran, A. Vaz, and C. Veillet, “Co-phasing the Large Binocular Telescope: status and performance of LBTI/PHASECam,” Proc. SPIE 9146, 914609 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bailey, V.

D. Defrère, P. Hinz, E. Downey, D. Ashby, V. Bailey, G. Brusa, J. Christou, W. C. Danchi, P. Grenz, J. M. Hill, W. F. Hoffmann, J. Leisenring, J. Lozi, T. McMahon, B. Mennesson, R. Millan-Gabet, M. Montoya, K. Powell, A. Skemer, V. Vaitheeswaran, A. Vaz, and C. Veillet, “Co-phasing the Large Binocular Telescope: status and performance of LBTI/PHASECam,” Proc. SPIE 9146, 914609 (2014).
[Crossref]

Barrufolo, A.

C. Petit, J.-F. Sauvage, T. Fusco, A. Sevin, M. Suarez, A. Costille, A. Vigan, C. Soenke, D. Perret, S. Rochat, A. Barrufolo, B. Salasnich, J.-L. Beuzit, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, P. Puget, F. Wildi, M. Kasper, J.-M. Conan, C. Kulcsár, and H.-F. Raynaudand, “Sphere extreme AO control scheme: final performance assessment and on sky validation of the first auto-tuned LQG based operational system,” Proc. SPIE 9148, 91480O (2014).
[Crossref]

Bayard, D. S.

D. S. Bayard, “A general theory of linear time-invariant adaptive feedforward systems with harmonic regressors,” IEEE Trans. Autom. Control 45, 1983–1996 (2000).
[Crossref]

Belmonte, L. M.

L. M. Belmonte, R. Morales, A. Fernández-Caballero, and J. A. Somolinos, “A tandem active disturbance rejection control for a laboratory helicopter with variable-speed rotors,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 63, 6395–6406 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bertram, T.

M. Kürster, T. Bertram, J. L. Borelli, M. Brix, W. Gässler, T. M. Herbst, V. Naranjo, J.-U. Pott, and J. Trowitzsch, “OVMS: the optical path difference and vibration monitoring system for the LBT and its interferometers,” Proc. SPIE 7734, 77342Y (2010).
[Crossref]

Beuzit, J.-L.

C. Petit, J.-F. Sauvage, T. Fusco, A. Sevin, M. Suarez, A. Costille, A. Vigan, C. Soenke, D. Perret, S. Rochat, A. Barrufolo, B. Salasnich, J.-L. Beuzit, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, P. Puget, F. Wildi, M. Kasper, J.-M. Conan, C. Kulcsár, and H.-F. Raynaudand, “Sphere extreme AO control scheme: final performance assessment and on sky validation of the first auto-tuned LQG based operational system,” Proc. SPIE 9148, 91480O (2014).
[Crossref]

Boden, A. F.

M. M. Colavita, J. K. Wallace, B. E. Hines, Y. Gursel, F. Malbet, D. L. Palmer, X. P. Pan, M. Shao, J. W. Yu, A. F. Boden, P. J. Dumont, J. Gubler, C. D. Koresko, S. R. Kulkarni, B. F. Lane, D. W. Mobley, and G. T. van Belle, “The Palomar testbed interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 510, 505–521 (1999).
[Crossref]

Bodson, M.

W. Messner and M. Bodson, “Design of adaptive feedforward algorithms using internal model equivalence,” Internat. J. Adapt. Control Signal Process. 9, 199–212 (1995).
[Crossref]

Böhm, M.

M. Böhm, J.-U. Pott, M. Kürster, O. Sawodny, D. Defrére, and P. Hinz, “Delay compensation for real time disturbance estimation at extremely large telescopes,” IEEE Trans. Contr. Syst. Technol. PP, 1–10 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Böhm, J.-U. Pott, J. Borelli, P. Hinz, D. Defrére, E. Downey, J. Hill, K. Summers, A. Conrad, M. Kürster, T. Herbst, and O. Sawodny, “OVMS-plus at the LBT: disturbance compensation simplified,” Proc. SPIE 9906, 99062R (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Defrère, P. Hinz, E. Downey, M. Böhm, W. C. Danchi, O. Durney, S. Ertel, J. M. Hill, W. F. Hoffmann, B. Mennesson, R. Millan-Gabet, M. Montoya, J.-U. Pott, A. Skemer, E. Spalding, J. Stone, and A. Vaz, “Simultaneous water vapor and dry air optical path length measurements and compensation with the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 9907, 99071G (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Böhm, J.-U. Pott, O. Sawodny, T. Herbst, and M. Kürster, “Real-time vibration compensation for large telescopes,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 442, 2446–2455 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Böhm, J.-U. Pott, M. Kürster, and O. Sawodny, “Modeling and identification of the optical path at ELTs–a case study at the LBT,” in Proceedings of the 6th IFAC Symposium on Mechatronic Systems (2013), Vol. 6, pp. 249–255.

Booth, A. J.

G. Vasisht, A. J. Booth, M. M. Colavita, R. L. Johnson, E. R. Ligon, J. D. Moore, and D. L. Palmer, “Performance and verification of the Keck interferometer fringe detection and tracking system,” Proc. SPIE 4838, 824–834 (2003).
[Crossref]

Borelli, J.

M. Böhm, J.-U. Pott, J. Borelli, P. Hinz, D. Defrére, E. Downey, J. Hill, K. Summers, A. Conrad, M. Kürster, T. Herbst, and O. Sawodny, “OVMS-plus at the LBT: disturbance compensation simplified,” Proc. SPIE 9906, 99062R (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Trowitzsch, J. Borelli, J. Pott, and M. Kürster, “Software-centric view on OVMS for LBT,” in Astronomical Data Analysis Software and Systems XXI, P. Ballester, D. Egret, and N. P. F. Lorente, eds. (Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series, 2012), Vol. 461, pp. 229.

Borelli, J. L.

M. Kürster, T. Bertram, J. L. Borelli, M. Brix, W. Gässler, T. M. Herbst, V. Naranjo, J.-U. Pott, and J. Trowitzsch, “OVMS: the optical path difference and vibration monitoring system for the LBT and its interferometers,” Proc. SPIE 7734, 77342Y (2010).
[Crossref]

Briguglio, R.

F. Quirós-Pacheco, R. Briguglio, E. Pinna, A. Puglisi, A. Riccardi, and S. Esposito, “FLAO1 commissioning report,” Tech. Rep. (INAF–Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, 2011).

Brix, M.

M. Kürster, T. Bertram, J. L. Borelli, M. Brix, W. Gässler, T. M. Herbst, V. Naranjo, J.-U. Pott, and J. Trowitzsch, “OVMS: the optical path difference and vibration monitoring system for the LBT and its interferometers,” Proc. SPIE 7734, 77342Y (2010).
[Crossref]

Brusa, G.

D. Defrère, P. Hinz, E. Downey, D. Ashby, V. Bailey, G. Brusa, J. Christou, W. C. Danchi, P. Grenz, J. M. Hill, W. F. Hoffmann, J. Leisenring, J. Lozi, T. McMahon, B. Mennesson, R. Millan-Gabet, M. Montoya, K. Powell, A. Skemer, V. Vaitheeswaran, A. Vaz, and C. Veillet, “Co-phasing the Large Binocular Telescope: status and performance of LBTI/PHASECam,” Proc. SPIE 9146, 914609 (2014).
[Crossref]

Byl, M. F.

M. F. Byl, S. J. Ludwick, and D. L. Trumper, “A loop shaping perspective for tuning controllers with adaptive feedforward cancellation,” Precis. Eng. 29, 27–40 (2005).
[Crossref]

Cheng, A.

P. M. Hinz, T. Connors, T. McMahon, A. Cheng, C. Y. Peng, W. Hoffmann, D. McCarthy, and R. Angel, “Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer: the universal beam combiner,” Proc. SPIE 5491, 787–797 (2004).
[Crossref]

Christou, J.

D. Defrère, P. Hinz, E. Downey, D. Ashby, V. Bailey, G. Brusa, J. Christou, W. C. Danchi, P. Grenz, J. M. Hill, W. F. Hoffmann, J. Leisenring, J. Lozi, T. McMahon, B. Mennesson, R. Millan-Gabet, M. Montoya, K. Powell, A. Skemer, V. Vaitheeswaran, A. Vaz, and C. Veillet, “Co-phasing the Large Binocular Telescope: status and performance of LBTI/PHASECam,” Proc. SPIE 9146, 914609 (2014).
[Crossref]

Colavita, M. M.

G. Vasisht, A. J. Booth, M. M. Colavita, R. L. Johnson, E. R. Ligon, J. D. Moore, and D. L. Palmer, “Performance and verification of the Keck interferometer fringe detection and tracking system,” Proc. SPIE 4838, 824–834 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. M. Colavita, J. K. Wallace, B. E. Hines, Y. Gursel, F. Malbet, D. L. Palmer, X. P. Pan, M. Shao, J. W. Yu, A. F. Boden, P. J. Dumont, J. Gubler, C. D. Koresko, S. R. Kulkarni, B. F. Lane, D. W. Mobley, and G. T. van Belle, “The Palomar testbed interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 510, 505–521 (1999).
[Crossref]

Conan, J.-M.

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P. M. Hinz, T. Connors, T. McMahon, A. Cheng, C. Y. Peng, W. Hoffmann, D. McCarthy, and R. Angel, “Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer: the universal beam combiner,” Proc. SPIE 5491, 787–797 (2004).
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M. Böhm, J.-U. Pott, J. Borelli, P. Hinz, D. Defrére, E. Downey, J. Hill, K. Summers, A. Conrad, M. Kürster, T. Herbst, and O. Sawodny, “OVMS-plus at the LBT: disturbance compensation simplified,” Proc. SPIE 9906, 99062R (2016).
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C. Petit, J.-F. Sauvage, T. Fusco, A. Sevin, M. Suarez, A. Costille, A. Vigan, C. Soenke, D. Perret, S. Rochat, A. Barrufolo, B. Salasnich, J.-L. Beuzit, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, P. Puget, F. Wildi, M. Kasper, J.-M. Conan, C. Kulcsár, and H.-F. Raynaudand, “Sphere extreme AO control scheme: final performance assessment and on sky validation of the first auto-tuned LQG based operational system,” Proc. SPIE 9148, 91480O (2014).
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D. Defrère, P. Hinz, E. Downey, M. Böhm, W. C. Danchi, O. Durney, S. Ertel, J. M. Hill, W. F. Hoffmann, B. Mennesson, R. Millan-Gabet, M. Montoya, J.-U. Pott, A. Skemer, E. Spalding, J. Stone, and A. Vaz, “Simultaneous water vapor and dry air optical path length measurements and compensation with the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 9907, 99071G (2016).
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Defrére, D.

M. Böhm, J.-U. Pott, M. Kürster, O. Sawodny, D. Defrére, and P. Hinz, “Delay compensation for real time disturbance estimation at extremely large telescopes,” IEEE Trans. Contr. Syst. Technol. PP, 1–10 (2016).
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M. Böhm, J.-U. Pott, J. Borelli, P. Hinz, D. Defrére, E. Downey, J. Hill, K. Summers, A. Conrad, M. Kürster, T. Herbst, and O. Sawodny, “OVMS-plus at the LBT: disturbance compensation simplified,” Proc. SPIE 9906, 99062R (2016).
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D. Defrère, P. Hinz, E. Downey, M. Böhm, W. C. Danchi, O. Durney, S. Ertel, J. M. Hill, W. F. Hoffmann, B. Mennesson, R. Millan-Gabet, M. Montoya, J.-U. Pott, A. Skemer, E. Spalding, J. Stone, and A. Vaz, “Simultaneous water vapor and dry air optical path length measurements and compensation with the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 9907, 99071G (2016).
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D. Defrère, P. Hinz, E. Downey, D. Ashby, V. Bailey, G. Brusa, J. Christou, W. C. Danchi, P. Grenz, J. M. Hill, W. F. Hoffmann, J. Leisenring, J. Lozi, T. McMahon, B. Mennesson, R. Millan-Gabet, M. Montoya, K. Powell, A. Skemer, V. Vaitheeswaran, A. Vaz, and C. Veillet, “Co-phasing the Large Binocular Telescope: status and performance of LBTI/PHASECam,” Proc. SPIE 9146, 914609 (2014).
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C. Petit, J.-F. Sauvage, T. Fusco, A. Sevin, M. Suarez, A. Costille, A. Vigan, C. Soenke, D. Perret, S. Rochat, A. Barrufolo, B. Salasnich, J.-L. Beuzit, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, P. Puget, F. Wildi, M. Kasper, J.-M. Conan, C. Kulcsár, and H.-F. Raynaudand, “Sphere extreme AO control scheme: final performance assessment and on sky validation of the first auto-tuned LQG based operational system,” Proc. SPIE 9148, 91480O (2014).
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D. Defrère, P. Hinz, E. Downey, M. Böhm, W. C. Danchi, O. Durney, S. Ertel, J. M. Hill, W. F. Hoffmann, B. Mennesson, R. Millan-Gabet, M. Montoya, J.-U. Pott, A. Skemer, E. Spalding, J. Stone, and A. Vaz, “Simultaneous water vapor and dry air optical path length measurements and compensation with the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 9907, 99071G (2016).
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M. Böhm, J.-U. Pott, J. Borelli, P. Hinz, D. Defrére, E. Downey, J. Hill, K. Summers, A. Conrad, M. Kürster, T. Herbst, and O. Sawodny, “OVMS-plus at the LBT: disturbance compensation simplified,” Proc. SPIE 9906, 99062R (2016).
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D. Defrère, P. Hinz, E. Downey, M. Böhm, W. C. Danchi, O. Durney, S. Ertel, J. M. Hill, W. F. Hoffmann, B. Mennesson, R. Millan-Gabet, M. Montoya, J.-U. Pott, A. Skemer, E. Spalding, J. Stone, and A. Vaz, “Simultaneous water vapor and dry air optical path length measurements and compensation with the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 9907, 99071G (2016).
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D. Defrère, P. Hinz, E. Downey, M. Böhm, W. C. Danchi, O. Durney, S. Ertel, J. M. Hill, W. F. Hoffmann, B. Mennesson, R. Millan-Gabet, M. Montoya, J.-U. Pott, A. Skemer, E. Spalding, J. Stone, and A. Vaz, “Simultaneous water vapor and dry air optical path length measurements and compensation with the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 9907, 99071G (2016).
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C. Petit, J.-F. Sauvage, T. Fusco, A. Sevin, M. Suarez, A. Costille, A. Vigan, C. Soenke, D. Perret, S. Rochat, A. Barrufolo, B. Salasnich, J.-L. Beuzit, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, P. Puget, F. Wildi, M. Kasper, J.-M. Conan, C. Kulcsár, and H.-F. Raynaudand, “Sphere extreme AO control scheme: final performance assessment and on sky validation of the first auto-tuned LQG based operational system,” Proc. SPIE 9148, 91480O (2014).
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M. Kürster, T. Bertram, J. L. Borelli, M. Brix, W. Gässler, T. M. Herbst, V. Naranjo, J.-U. Pott, and J. Trowitzsch, “OVMS: the optical path difference and vibration monitoring system for the LBT and its interferometers,” Proc. SPIE 7734, 77342Y (2010).
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D. Defrère, P. Hinz, E. Downey, D. Ashby, V. Bailey, G. Brusa, J. Christou, W. C. Danchi, P. Grenz, J. M. Hill, W. F. Hoffmann, J. Leisenring, J. Lozi, T. McMahon, B. Mennesson, R. Millan-Gabet, M. Montoya, K. Powell, A. Skemer, V. Vaitheeswaran, A. Vaz, and C. Veillet, “Co-phasing the Large Binocular Telescope: status and performance of LBTI/PHASECam,” Proc. SPIE 9146, 914609 (2014).
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M. M. Colavita, J. K. Wallace, B. E. Hines, Y. Gursel, F. Malbet, D. L. Palmer, X. P. Pan, M. Shao, J. W. Yu, A. F. Boden, P. J. Dumont, J. Gubler, C. D. Koresko, S. R. Kulkarni, B. F. Lane, D. W. Mobley, and G. T. van Belle, “The Palomar testbed interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 510, 505–521 (1999).
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M. Böhm, J.-U. Pott, J. Borelli, P. Hinz, D. Defrére, E. Downey, J. Hill, K. Summers, A. Conrad, M. Kürster, T. Herbst, and O. Sawodny, “OVMS-plus at the LBT: disturbance compensation simplified,” Proc. SPIE 9906, 99062R (2016).
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M. Böhm, J.-U. Pott, O. Sawodny, T. Herbst, and M. Kürster, “Real-time vibration compensation for large telescopes,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 442, 2446–2455 (2014).
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M. Kürster, T. Bertram, J. L. Borelli, M. Brix, W. Gässler, T. M. Herbst, V. Naranjo, J.-U. Pott, and J. Trowitzsch, “OVMS: the optical path difference and vibration monitoring system for the LBT and its interferometers,” Proc. SPIE 7734, 77342Y (2010).
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D. Defrère, P. Hinz, E. Downey, M. Böhm, W. C. Danchi, O. Durney, S. Ertel, J. M. Hill, W. F. Hoffmann, B. Mennesson, R. Millan-Gabet, M. Montoya, J.-U. Pott, A. Skemer, E. Spalding, J. Stone, and A. Vaz, “Simultaneous water vapor and dry air optical path length measurements and compensation with the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 9907, 99071G (2016).
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M. M. Colavita, J. K. Wallace, B. E. Hines, Y. Gursel, F. Malbet, D. L. Palmer, X. P. Pan, M. Shao, J. W. Yu, A. F. Boden, P. J. Dumont, J. Gubler, C. D. Koresko, S. R. Kulkarni, B. F. Lane, D. W. Mobley, and G. T. van Belle, “The Palomar testbed interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 510, 505–521 (1999).
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M. Böhm, J.-U. Pott, J. Borelli, P. Hinz, D. Defrére, E. Downey, J. Hill, K. Summers, A. Conrad, M. Kürster, T. Herbst, and O. Sawodny, “OVMS-plus at the LBT: disturbance compensation simplified,” Proc. SPIE 9906, 99062R (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Böhm, J.-U. Pott, M. Kürster, O. Sawodny, D. Defrére, and P. Hinz, “Delay compensation for real time disturbance estimation at extremely large telescopes,” IEEE Trans. Contr. Syst. Technol. PP, 1–10 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Defrère, P. Hinz, E. Downey, M. Böhm, W. C. Danchi, O. Durney, S. Ertel, J. M. Hill, W. F. Hoffmann, B. Mennesson, R. Millan-Gabet, M. Montoya, J.-U. Pott, A. Skemer, E. Spalding, J. Stone, and A. Vaz, “Simultaneous water vapor and dry air optical path length measurements and compensation with the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 9907, 99071G (2016).
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D. Defrère, P. Hinz, E. Downey, D. Ashby, V. Bailey, G. Brusa, J. Christou, W. C. Danchi, P. Grenz, J. M. Hill, W. F. Hoffmann, J. Leisenring, J. Lozi, T. McMahon, B. Mennesson, R. Millan-Gabet, M. Montoya, K. Powell, A. Skemer, V. Vaitheeswaran, A. Vaz, and C. Veillet, “Co-phasing the Large Binocular Telescope: status and performance of LBTI/PHASECam,” Proc. SPIE 9146, 914609 (2014).
[Crossref]

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P. M. Hinz, T. Connors, T. McMahon, A. Cheng, C. Y. Peng, W. Hoffmann, D. McCarthy, and R. Angel, “Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer: the universal beam combiner,” Proc. SPIE 5491, 787–797 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hoffmann, W.

P. M. Hinz, T. Connors, T. McMahon, A. Cheng, C. Y. Peng, W. Hoffmann, D. McCarthy, and R. Angel, “Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer: the universal beam combiner,” Proc. SPIE 5491, 787–797 (2004).
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Hoffmann, W. F.

D. Defrère, P. Hinz, E. Downey, M. Böhm, W. C. Danchi, O. Durney, S. Ertel, J. M. Hill, W. F. Hoffmann, B. Mennesson, R. Millan-Gabet, M. Montoya, J.-U. Pott, A. Skemer, E. Spalding, J. Stone, and A. Vaz, “Simultaneous water vapor and dry air optical path length measurements and compensation with the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 9907, 99071G (2016).
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D. Defrère, P. Hinz, E. Downey, D. Ashby, V. Bailey, G. Brusa, J. Christou, W. C. Danchi, P. Grenz, J. M. Hill, W. F. Hoffmann, J. Leisenring, J. Lozi, T. McMahon, B. Mennesson, R. Millan-Gabet, M. Montoya, K. Powell, A. Skemer, V. Vaitheeswaran, A. Vaz, and C. Veillet, “Co-phasing the Large Binocular Telescope: status and performance of LBTI/PHASECam,” Proc. SPIE 9146, 914609 (2014).
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Johnson, R. L.

G. Vasisht, A. J. Booth, M. M. Colavita, R. L. Johnson, E. R. Ligon, J. D. Moore, and D. L. Palmer, “Performance and verification of the Keck interferometer fringe detection and tracking system,” Proc. SPIE 4838, 824–834 (2003).
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Kasper, M.

C. Petit, J.-F. Sauvage, T. Fusco, A. Sevin, M. Suarez, A. Costille, A. Vigan, C. Soenke, D. Perret, S. Rochat, A. Barrufolo, B. Salasnich, J.-L. Beuzit, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, P. Puget, F. Wildi, M. Kasper, J.-M. Conan, C. Kulcsár, and H.-F. Raynaudand, “Sphere extreme AO control scheme: final performance assessment and on sky validation of the first auto-tuned LQG based operational system,” Proc. SPIE 9148, 91480O (2014).
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Keck, A.

A. Keck, J.-U. Pott, and O. Sawodny, “Accelerometer-based online reconstruction of fast telescope vibrations from delayed measurements,” Proc. SPIE 9906, 990630 (2016).
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A. Keck, “Accelerometer-based online reconstruction of vibrations in extremely large telescopes,” IFAC Proc. Vol. 47, 7467–7473 (2014).
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A. Keck, J.-U. Pott, and O. Sawodny, “Accelerometer-based position reconstruction for the feedforward compensation of fast telescope vibrations in the E-ELT/MICADO,” Proc. SPIE 9145, 91454H (2014).
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A. Keck, J.-U. Pott, and O. Sawodny, “Accelerometer-based online reconstruction of vibrations from delayed measurements,” in IEEE Conference on Control Applications (CCA) (2015), pp. 424–429.

A. Keck, J.-U. Pott, and O. Sawodny, “Accelerometer-based online reconstruction of vibrations in extremely large telescopes,” in Proceedings of the 19th IFAC World Congress (2014), pp. 7467–7473.

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O. K. Kjerstad and R. Skjetne, “Disturbance rejection by acceleration feedforward for marine surface vessels,” IEEE Access 4, 2656–2669 (2016).
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Koresko, C. D.

M. M. Colavita, J. K. Wallace, B. E. Hines, Y. Gursel, F. Malbet, D. L. Palmer, X. P. Pan, M. Shao, J. W. Yu, A. F. Boden, P. J. Dumont, J. Gubler, C. D. Koresko, S. R. Kulkarni, B. F. Lane, D. W. Mobley, and G. T. van Belle, “The Palomar testbed interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 510, 505–521 (1999).
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Kulcsár, C.

C. Petit, J.-F. Sauvage, T. Fusco, A. Sevin, M. Suarez, A. Costille, A. Vigan, C. Soenke, D. Perret, S. Rochat, A. Barrufolo, B. Salasnich, J.-L. Beuzit, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, P. Puget, F. Wildi, M. Kasper, J.-M. Conan, C. Kulcsár, and H.-F. Raynaudand, “Sphere extreme AO control scheme: final performance assessment and on sky validation of the first auto-tuned LQG based operational system,” Proc. SPIE 9148, 91480O (2014).
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Kulkarni, S. R.

M. M. Colavita, J. K. Wallace, B. E. Hines, Y. Gursel, F. Malbet, D. L. Palmer, X. P. Pan, M. Shao, J. W. Yu, A. F. Boden, P. J. Dumont, J. Gubler, C. D. Koresko, S. R. Kulkarni, B. F. Lane, D. W. Mobley, and G. T. van Belle, “The Palomar testbed interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 510, 505–521 (1999).
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Kürster, M.

M. Böhm, J.-U. Pott, M. Kürster, O. Sawodny, D. Defrére, and P. Hinz, “Delay compensation for real time disturbance estimation at extremely large telescopes,” IEEE Trans. Contr. Syst. Technol. PP, 1–10 (2016).
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M. Böhm, J.-U. Pott, J. Borelli, P. Hinz, D. Defrére, E. Downey, J. Hill, K. Summers, A. Conrad, M. Kürster, T. Herbst, and O. Sawodny, “OVMS-plus at the LBT: disturbance compensation simplified,” Proc. SPIE 9906, 99062R (2016).
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M. Böhm, J.-U. Pott, O. Sawodny, T. Herbst, and M. Kürster, “Real-time vibration compensation for large telescopes,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 442, 2446–2455 (2014).
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M. Kürster, T. Bertram, J. L. Borelli, M. Brix, W. Gässler, T. M. Herbst, V. Naranjo, J.-U. Pott, and J. Trowitzsch, “OVMS: the optical path difference and vibration monitoring system for the LBT and its interferometers,” Proc. SPIE 7734, 77342Y (2010).
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J. Trowitzsch, J. Borelli, J. Pott, and M. Kürster, “Software-centric view on OVMS for LBT,” in Astronomical Data Analysis Software and Systems XXI, P. Ballester, D. Egret, and N. P. F. Lorente, eds. (Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series, 2012), Vol. 461, pp. 229.

M. Böhm, J.-U. Pott, M. Kürster, and O. Sawodny, “Modeling and identification of the optical path at ELTs–a case study at the LBT,” in Proceedings of the 6th IFAC Symposium on Mechatronic Systems (2013), Vol. 6, pp. 249–255.

Lane, B. F.

M. M. Colavita, J. K. Wallace, B. E. Hines, Y. Gursel, F. Malbet, D. L. Palmer, X. P. Pan, M. Shao, J. W. Yu, A. F. Boden, P. J. Dumont, J. Gubler, C. D. Koresko, S. R. Kulkarni, B. F. Lane, D. W. Mobley, and G. T. van Belle, “The Palomar testbed interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 510, 505–521 (1999).
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D. Defrère, P. Hinz, E. Downey, D. Ashby, V. Bailey, G. Brusa, J. Christou, W. C. Danchi, P. Grenz, J. M. Hill, W. F. Hoffmann, J. Leisenring, J. Lozi, T. McMahon, B. Mennesson, R. Millan-Gabet, M. Montoya, K. Powell, A. Skemer, V. Vaitheeswaran, A. Vaz, and C. Veillet, “Co-phasing the Large Binocular Telescope: status and performance of LBTI/PHASECam,” Proc. SPIE 9146, 914609 (2014).
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Ligon, E. R.

G. Vasisht, A. J. Booth, M. M. Colavita, R. L. Johnson, E. R. Ligon, J. D. Moore, and D. L. Palmer, “Performance and verification of the Keck interferometer fringe detection and tracking system,” Proc. SPIE 4838, 824–834 (2003).
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Lozi, J.

D. Defrère, P. Hinz, E. Downey, D. Ashby, V. Bailey, G. Brusa, J. Christou, W. C. Danchi, P. Grenz, J. M. Hill, W. F. Hoffmann, J. Leisenring, J. Lozi, T. McMahon, B. Mennesson, R. Millan-Gabet, M. Montoya, K. Powell, A. Skemer, V. Vaitheeswaran, A. Vaz, and C. Veillet, “Co-phasing the Large Binocular Telescope: status and performance of LBTI/PHASECam,” Proc. SPIE 9146, 914609 (2014).
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D. Defrère, P. Hinz, E. Downey, D. Ashby, V. Bailey, G. Brusa, J. Christou, W. C. Danchi, P. Grenz, J. M. Hill, W. F. Hoffmann, J. Leisenring, J. Lozi, T. McMahon, B. Mennesson, R. Millan-Gabet, M. Montoya, K. Powell, A. Skemer, V. Vaitheeswaran, A. Vaz, and C. Veillet, “Co-phasing the Large Binocular Telescope: status and performance of LBTI/PHASECam,” Proc. SPIE 9146, 914609 (2014).
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D. Defrère, P. Hinz, E. Downey, M. Böhm, W. C. Danchi, O. Durney, S. Ertel, J. M. Hill, W. F. Hoffmann, B. Mennesson, R. Millan-Gabet, M. Montoya, J.-U. Pott, A. Skemer, E. Spalding, J. Stone, and A. Vaz, “Simultaneous water vapor and dry air optical path length measurements and compensation with the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 9907, 99071G (2016).
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D. Defrère, P. Hinz, E. Downey, M. Böhm, W. C. Danchi, O. Durney, S. Ertel, J. M. Hill, W. F. Hoffmann, B. Mennesson, R. Millan-Gabet, M. Montoya, J.-U. Pott, A. Skemer, E. Spalding, J. Stone, and A. Vaz, “Simultaneous water vapor and dry air optical path length measurements and compensation with the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 9907, 99071G (2016).
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D. Defrère, P. Hinz, E. Downey, M. Böhm, W. C. Danchi, O. Durney, S. Ertel, J. M. Hill, W. F. Hoffmann, B. Mennesson, R. Millan-Gabet, M. Montoya, J.-U. Pott, A. Skemer, E. Spalding, J. Stone, and A. Vaz, “Simultaneous water vapor and dry air optical path length measurements and compensation with the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 9907, 99071G (2016).
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G. Vasisht, A. J. Booth, M. M. Colavita, R. L. Johnson, E. R. Ligon, J. D. Moore, and D. L. Palmer, “Performance and verification of the Keck interferometer fringe detection and tracking system,” Proc. SPIE 4838, 824–834 (2003).
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C. Petit, J.-F. Sauvage, T. Fusco, A. Sevin, M. Suarez, A. Costille, A. Vigan, C. Soenke, D. Perret, S. Rochat, A. Barrufolo, B. Salasnich, J.-L. Beuzit, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, P. Puget, F. Wildi, M. Kasper, J.-M. Conan, C. Kulcsár, and H.-F. Raynaudand, “Sphere extreme AO control scheme: final performance assessment and on sky validation of the first auto-tuned LQG based operational system,” Proc. SPIE 9148, 91480O (2014).
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Naranjo, V.

M. Kürster, T. Bertram, J. L. Borelli, M. Brix, W. Gässler, T. M. Herbst, V. Naranjo, J.-U. Pott, and J. Trowitzsch, “OVMS: the optical path difference and vibration monitoring system for the LBT and its interferometers,” Proc. SPIE 7734, 77342Y (2010).
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Palmer, D. L.

G. Vasisht, A. J. Booth, M. M. Colavita, R. L. Johnson, E. R. Ligon, J. D. Moore, and D. L. Palmer, “Performance and verification of the Keck interferometer fringe detection and tracking system,” Proc. SPIE 4838, 824–834 (2003).
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M. M. Colavita, J. K. Wallace, B. E. Hines, Y. Gursel, F. Malbet, D. L. Palmer, X. P. Pan, M. Shao, J. W. Yu, A. F. Boden, P. J. Dumont, J. Gubler, C. D. Koresko, S. R. Kulkarni, B. F. Lane, D. W. Mobley, and G. T. van Belle, “The Palomar testbed interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 510, 505–521 (1999).
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Pan, X. P.

M. M. Colavita, J. K. Wallace, B. E. Hines, Y. Gursel, F. Malbet, D. L. Palmer, X. P. Pan, M. Shao, J. W. Yu, A. F. Boden, P. J. Dumont, J. Gubler, C. D. Koresko, S. R. Kulkarni, B. F. Lane, D. W. Mobley, and G. T. van Belle, “The Palomar testbed interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 510, 505–521 (1999).
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Peng, C. Y.

P. M. Hinz, T. Connors, T. McMahon, A. Cheng, C. Y. Peng, W. Hoffmann, D. McCarthy, and R. Angel, “Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer: the universal beam combiner,” Proc. SPIE 5491, 787–797 (2004).
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C. Petit, J.-F. Sauvage, T. Fusco, A. Sevin, M. Suarez, A. Costille, A. Vigan, C. Soenke, D. Perret, S. Rochat, A. Barrufolo, B. Salasnich, J.-L. Beuzit, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, P. Puget, F. Wildi, M. Kasper, J.-M. Conan, C. Kulcsár, and H.-F. Raynaudand, “Sphere extreme AO control scheme: final performance assessment and on sky validation of the first auto-tuned LQG based operational system,” Proc. SPIE 9148, 91480O (2014).
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C. Petit, J.-F. Sauvage, T. Fusco, A. Sevin, M. Suarez, A. Costille, A. Vigan, C. Soenke, D. Perret, S. Rochat, A. Barrufolo, B. Salasnich, J.-L. Beuzit, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, P. Puget, F. Wildi, M. Kasper, J.-M. Conan, C. Kulcsár, and H.-F. Raynaudand, “Sphere extreme AO control scheme: final performance assessment and on sky validation of the first auto-tuned LQG based operational system,” Proc. SPIE 9148, 91480O (2014).
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J. Trowitzsch, J. Borelli, J. Pott, and M. Kürster, “Software-centric view on OVMS for LBT,” in Astronomical Data Analysis Software and Systems XXI, P. Ballester, D. Egret, and N. P. F. Lorente, eds. (Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series, 2012), Vol. 461, pp. 229.

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M. Böhm, J.-U. Pott, J. Borelli, P. Hinz, D. Defrére, E. Downey, J. Hill, K. Summers, A. Conrad, M. Kürster, T. Herbst, and O. Sawodny, “OVMS-plus at the LBT: disturbance compensation simplified,” Proc. SPIE 9906, 99062R (2016).
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A. Keck, J.-U. Pott, and O. Sawodny, “Accelerometer-based online reconstruction of fast telescope vibrations from delayed measurements,” Proc. SPIE 9906, 990630 (2016).
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M. Böhm, J.-U. Pott, M. Kürster, O. Sawodny, D. Defrére, and P. Hinz, “Delay compensation for real time disturbance estimation at extremely large telescopes,” IEEE Trans. Contr. Syst. Technol. PP, 1–10 (2016).
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D. Defrère, P. Hinz, E. Downey, M. Böhm, W. C. Danchi, O. Durney, S. Ertel, J. M. Hill, W. F. Hoffmann, B. Mennesson, R. Millan-Gabet, M. Montoya, J.-U. Pott, A. Skemer, E. Spalding, J. Stone, and A. Vaz, “Simultaneous water vapor and dry air optical path length measurements and compensation with the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 9907, 99071G (2016).
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M. Böhm, J.-U. Pott, O. Sawodny, T. Herbst, and M. Kürster, “Real-time vibration compensation for large telescopes,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 442, 2446–2455 (2014).
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A. Keck, J.-U. Pott, and O. Sawodny, “Accelerometer-based position reconstruction for the feedforward compensation of fast telescope vibrations in the E-ELT/MICADO,” Proc. SPIE 9145, 91454H (2014).
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M. Kürster, T. Bertram, J. L. Borelli, M. Brix, W. Gässler, T. M. Herbst, V. Naranjo, J.-U. Pott, and J. Trowitzsch, “OVMS: the optical path difference and vibration monitoring system for the LBT and its interferometers,” Proc. SPIE 7734, 77342Y (2010).
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M. Böhm, J.-U. Pott, M. Kürster, and O. Sawodny, “Modeling and identification of the optical path at ELTs–a case study at the LBT,” in Proceedings of the 6th IFAC Symposium on Mechatronic Systems (2013), Vol. 6, pp. 249–255.

A. Keck, J.-U. Pott, and O. Sawodny, “Accelerometer-based online reconstruction of vibrations from delayed measurements,” in IEEE Conference on Control Applications (CCA) (2015), pp. 424–429.

A. Keck, J.-U. Pott, and O. Sawodny, “Accelerometer-based online reconstruction of vibrations in extremely large telescopes,” in Proceedings of the 19th IFAC World Congress (2014), pp. 7467–7473.

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D. Defrère, P. Hinz, E. Downey, D. Ashby, V. Bailey, G. Brusa, J. Christou, W. C. Danchi, P. Grenz, J. M. Hill, W. F. Hoffmann, J. Leisenring, J. Lozi, T. McMahon, B. Mennesson, R. Millan-Gabet, M. Montoya, K. Powell, A. Skemer, V. Vaitheeswaran, A. Vaz, and C. Veillet, “Co-phasing the Large Binocular Telescope: status and performance of LBTI/PHASECam,” Proc. SPIE 9146, 914609 (2014).
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C. Petit, J.-F. Sauvage, T. Fusco, A. Sevin, M. Suarez, A. Costille, A. Vigan, C. Soenke, D. Perret, S. Rochat, A. Barrufolo, B. Salasnich, J.-L. Beuzit, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, P. Puget, F. Wildi, M. Kasper, J.-M. Conan, C. Kulcsár, and H.-F. Raynaudand, “Sphere extreme AO control scheme: final performance assessment and on sky validation of the first auto-tuned LQG based operational system,” Proc. SPIE 9148, 91480O (2014).
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Puglisi, A.

F. Quirós-Pacheco, R. Briguglio, E. Pinna, A. Puglisi, A. Riccardi, and S. Esposito, “FLAO1 commissioning report,” Tech. Rep. (INAF–Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, 2011).

Quirós-Pacheco, F.

G. Agapito, F. Quirós-Pacheco, P. Tesi, A. Riccardi, and S. Esposito, “Observer-based control techniques for the LBT adaptive optics under telescope vibrations,” Euro. J. Control 17, 316–326 (2011).
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F. Quirós-Pacheco, R. Briguglio, E. Pinna, A. Puglisi, A. Riccardi, and S. Esposito, “FLAO1 commissioning report,” Tech. Rep. (INAF–Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, 2011).

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C. Petit, J.-F. Sauvage, T. Fusco, A. Sevin, M. Suarez, A. Costille, A. Vigan, C. Soenke, D. Perret, S. Rochat, A. Barrufolo, B. Salasnich, J.-L. Beuzit, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, P. Puget, F. Wildi, M. Kasper, J.-M. Conan, C. Kulcsár, and H.-F. Raynaudand, “Sphere extreme AO control scheme: final performance assessment and on sky validation of the first auto-tuned LQG based operational system,” Proc. SPIE 9148, 91480O (2014).
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G. Agapito, F. Quirós-Pacheco, P. Tesi, A. Riccardi, and S. Esposito, “Observer-based control techniques for the LBT adaptive optics under telescope vibrations,” Euro. J. Control 17, 316–326 (2011).
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F. Quirós-Pacheco, R. Briguglio, E. Pinna, A. Puglisi, A. Riccardi, and S. Esposito, “FLAO1 commissioning report,” Tech. Rep. (INAF–Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, 2011).

Rochat, S.

C. Petit, J.-F. Sauvage, T. Fusco, A. Sevin, M. Suarez, A. Costille, A. Vigan, C. Soenke, D. Perret, S. Rochat, A. Barrufolo, B. Salasnich, J.-L. Beuzit, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, P. Puget, F. Wildi, M. Kasper, J.-M. Conan, C. Kulcsár, and H.-F. Raynaudand, “Sphere extreme AO control scheme: final performance assessment and on sky validation of the first auto-tuned LQG based operational system,” Proc. SPIE 9148, 91480O (2014).
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Salasnich, B.

C. Petit, J.-F. Sauvage, T. Fusco, A. Sevin, M. Suarez, A. Costille, A. Vigan, C. Soenke, D. Perret, S. Rochat, A. Barrufolo, B. Salasnich, J.-L. Beuzit, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, P. Puget, F. Wildi, M. Kasper, J.-M. Conan, C. Kulcsár, and H.-F. Raynaudand, “Sphere extreme AO control scheme: final performance assessment and on sky validation of the first auto-tuned LQG based operational system,” Proc. SPIE 9148, 91480O (2014).
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Sauvage, J.-F.

C. Petit, J.-F. Sauvage, T. Fusco, A. Sevin, M. Suarez, A. Costille, A. Vigan, C. Soenke, D. Perret, S. Rochat, A. Barrufolo, B. Salasnich, J.-L. Beuzit, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, P. Puget, F. Wildi, M. Kasper, J.-M. Conan, C. Kulcsár, and H.-F. Raynaudand, “Sphere extreme AO control scheme: final performance assessment and on sky validation of the first auto-tuned LQG based operational system,” Proc. SPIE 9148, 91480O (2014).
[Crossref]

Sawodny, O.

A. Keck, J.-U. Pott, and O. Sawodny, “Accelerometer-based online reconstruction of fast telescope vibrations from delayed measurements,” Proc. SPIE 9906, 990630 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Böhm, J.-U. Pott, M. Kürster, O. Sawodny, D. Defrére, and P. Hinz, “Delay compensation for real time disturbance estimation at extremely large telescopes,” IEEE Trans. Contr. Syst. Technol. PP, 1–10 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Böhm, J.-U. Pott, J. Borelli, P. Hinz, D. Defrére, E. Downey, J. Hill, K. Summers, A. Conrad, M. Kürster, T. Herbst, and O. Sawodny, “OVMS-plus at the LBT: disturbance compensation simplified,” Proc. SPIE 9906, 99062R (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Böhm, J.-U. Pott, O. Sawodny, T. Herbst, and M. Kürster, “Real-time vibration compensation for large telescopes,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 442, 2446–2455 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Keck, J.-U. Pott, and O. Sawodny, “Accelerometer-based position reconstruction for the feedforward compensation of fast telescope vibrations in the E-ELT/MICADO,” Proc. SPIE 9145, 91454H (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Keck, J.-U. Pott, and O. Sawodny, “Accelerometer-based online reconstruction of vibrations from delayed measurements,” in IEEE Conference on Control Applications (CCA) (2015), pp. 424–429.

A. Keck, J.-U. Pott, and O. Sawodny, “Accelerometer-based online reconstruction of vibrations in extremely large telescopes,” in Proceedings of the 19th IFAC World Congress (2014), pp. 7467–7473.

M. Böhm, J.-U. Pott, M. Kürster, and O. Sawodny, “Modeling and identification of the optical path at ELTs–a case study at the LBT,” in Proceedings of the 6th IFAC Symposium on Mechatronic Systems (2013), Vol. 6, pp. 249–255.

Sevin, A.

C. Petit, J.-F. Sauvage, T. Fusco, A. Sevin, M. Suarez, A. Costille, A. Vigan, C. Soenke, D. Perret, S. Rochat, A. Barrufolo, B. Salasnich, J.-L. Beuzit, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, P. Puget, F. Wildi, M. Kasper, J.-M. Conan, C. Kulcsár, and H.-F. Raynaudand, “Sphere extreme AO control scheme: final performance assessment and on sky validation of the first auto-tuned LQG based operational system,” Proc. SPIE 9148, 91480O (2014).
[Crossref]

Shao, M.

M. M. Colavita, J. K. Wallace, B. E. Hines, Y. Gursel, F. Malbet, D. L. Palmer, X. P. Pan, M. Shao, J. W. Yu, A. F. Boden, P. J. Dumont, J. Gubler, C. D. Koresko, S. R. Kulkarni, B. F. Lane, D. W. Mobley, and G. T. van Belle, “The Palomar testbed interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 510, 505–521 (1999).
[Crossref]

Skemer, A.

D. Defrère, P. Hinz, E. Downey, M. Böhm, W. C. Danchi, O. Durney, S. Ertel, J. M. Hill, W. F. Hoffmann, B. Mennesson, R. Millan-Gabet, M. Montoya, J.-U. Pott, A. Skemer, E. Spalding, J. Stone, and A. Vaz, “Simultaneous water vapor and dry air optical path length measurements and compensation with the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 9907, 99071G (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Defrère, P. Hinz, E. Downey, D. Ashby, V. Bailey, G. Brusa, J. Christou, W. C. Danchi, P. Grenz, J. M. Hill, W. F. Hoffmann, J. Leisenring, J. Lozi, T. McMahon, B. Mennesson, R. Millan-Gabet, M. Montoya, K. Powell, A. Skemer, V. Vaitheeswaran, A. Vaz, and C. Veillet, “Co-phasing the Large Binocular Telescope: status and performance of LBTI/PHASECam,” Proc. SPIE 9146, 914609 (2014).
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O. K. Kjerstad and R. Skjetne, “Disturbance rejection by acceleration feedforward for marine surface vessels,” IEEE Access 4, 2656–2669 (2016).
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Soenke, C.

C. Petit, J.-F. Sauvage, T. Fusco, A. Sevin, M. Suarez, A. Costille, A. Vigan, C. Soenke, D. Perret, S. Rochat, A. Barrufolo, B. Salasnich, J.-L. Beuzit, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, P. Puget, F. Wildi, M. Kasper, J.-M. Conan, C. Kulcsár, and H.-F. Raynaudand, “Sphere extreme AO control scheme: final performance assessment and on sky validation of the first auto-tuned LQG based operational system,” Proc. SPIE 9148, 91480O (2014).
[Crossref]

Somolinos, J. A.

L. M. Belmonte, R. Morales, A. Fernández-Caballero, and J. A. Somolinos, “A tandem active disturbance rejection control for a laboratory helicopter with variable-speed rotors,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 63, 6395–6406 (2016).
[Crossref]

Spalding, E.

D. Defrère, P. Hinz, E. Downey, M. Böhm, W. C. Danchi, O. Durney, S. Ertel, J. M. Hill, W. F. Hoffmann, B. Mennesson, R. Millan-Gabet, M. Montoya, J.-U. Pott, A. Skemer, E. Spalding, J. Stone, and A. Vaz, “Simultaneous water vapor and dry air optical path length measurements and compensation with the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 9907, 99071G (2016).
[Crossref]

Stone, J.

D. Defrère, P. Hinz, E. Downey, M. Böhm, W. C. Danchi, O. Durney, S. Ertel, J. M. Hill, W. F. Hoffmann, B. Mennesson, R. Millan-Gabet, M. Montoya, J.-U. Pott, A. Skemer, E. Spalding, J. Stone, and A. Vaz, “Simultaneous water vapor and dry air optical path length measurements and compensation with the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 9907, 99071G (2016).
[Crossref]

Suarez, M.

C. Petit, J.-F. Sauvage, T. Fusco, A. Sevin, M. Suarez, A. Costille, A. Vigan, C. Soenke, D. Perret, S. Rochat, A. Barrufolo, B. Salasnich, J.-L. Beuzit, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, P. Puget, F. Wildi, M. Kasper, J.-M. Conan, C. Kulcsár, and H.-F. Raynaudand, “Sphere extreme AO control scheme: final performance assessment and on sky validation of the first auto-tuned LQG based operational system,” Proc. SPIE 9148, 91480O (2014).
[Crossref]

Summers, K.

M. Böhm, J.-U. Pott, J. Borelli, P. Hinz, D. Defrére, E. Downey, J. Hill, K. Summers, A. Conrad, M. Kürster, T. Herbst, and O. Sawodny, “OVMS-plus at the LBT: disturbance compensation simplified,” Proc. SPIE 9906, 99062R (2016).
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Tesi, P.

G. Agapito, F. Quirós-Pacheco, P. Tesi, A. Riccardi, and S. Esposito, “Observer-based control techniques for the LBT adaptive optics under telescope vibrations,” Euro. J. Control 17, 316–326 (2011).
[Crossref]

Trowitzsch, J.

M. Kürster, T. Bertram, J. L. Borelli, M. Brix, W. Gässler, T. M. Herbst, V. Naranjo, J.-U. Pott, and J. Trowitzsch, “OVMS: the optical path difference and vibration monitoring system for the LBT and its interferometers,” Proc. SPIE 7734, 77342Y (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Trowitzsch, J. Borelli, J. Pott, and M. Kürster, “Software-centric view on OVMS for LBT,” in Astronomical Data Analysis Software and Systems XXI, P. Ballester, D. Egret, and N. P. F. Lorente, eds. (Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series, 2012), Vol. 461, pp. 229.

Trumper, D. L.

M. F. Byl, S. J. Ludwick, and D. L. Trumper, “A loop shaping perspective for tuning controllers with adaptive feedforward cancellation,” Precis. Eng. 29, 27–40 (2005).
[Crossref]

Vaitheeswaran, V.

D. Defrère, P. Hinz, E. Downey, D. Ashby, V. Bailey, G. Brusa, J. Christou, W. C. Danchi, P. Grenz, J. M. Hill, W. F. Hoffmann, J. Leisenring, J. Lozi, T. McMahon, B. Mennesson, R. Millan-Gabet, M. Montoya, K. Powell, A. Skemer, V. Vaitheeswaran, A. Vaz, and C. Veillet, “Co-phasing the Large Binocular Telescope: status and performance of LBTI/PHASECam,” Proc. SPIE 9146, 914609 (2014).
[Crossref]

van Belle, G. T.

M. M. Colavita, J. K. Wallace, B. E. Hines, Y. Gursel, F. Malbet, D. L. Palmer, X. P. Pan, M. Shao, J. W. Yu, A. F. Boden, P. J. Dumont, J. Gubler, C. D. Koresko, S. R. Kulkarni, B. F. Lane, D. W. Mobley, and G. T. van Belle, “The Palomar testbed interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 510, 505–521 (1999).
[Crossref]

Vasisht, G.

G. Vasisht, A. J. Booth, M. M. Colavita, R. L. Johnson, E. R. Ligon, J. D. Moore, and D. L. Palmer, “Performance and verification of the Keck interferometer fringe detection and tracking system,” Proc. SPIE 4838, 824–834 (2003).
[Crossref]

N. Di Lieto, J. Sahlmann, A. Wallander, and G. Vasisht, “An approach to stabilizing large telescopes for stellar interferometry,” in Proceedings of ICALEPCS (2007), paper ROAA05.

Vaz, A.

D. Defrère, P. Hinz, E. Downey, M. Böhm, W. C. Danchi, O. Durney, S. Ertel, J. M. Hill, W. F. Hoffmann, B. Mennesson, R. Millan-Gabet, M. Montoya, J.-U. Pott, A. Skemer, E. Spalding, J. Stone, and A. Vaz, “Simultaneous water vapor and dry air optical path length measurements and compensation with the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 9907, 99071G (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Defrère, P. Hinz, E. Downey, D. Ashby, V. Bailey, G. Brusa, J. Christou, W. C. Danchi, P. Grenz, J. M. Hill, W. F. Hoffmann, J. Leisenring, J. Lozi, T. McMahon, B. Mennesson, R. Millan-Gabet, M. Montoya, K. Powell, A. Skemer, V. Vaitheeswaran, A. Vaz, and C. Veillet, “Co-phasing the Large Binocular Telescope: status and performance of LBTI/PHASECam,” Proc. SPIE 9146, 914609 (2014).
[Crossref]

Veillet, C.

D. Defrère, P. Hinz, E. Downey, D. Ashby, V. Bailey, G. Brusa, J. Christou, W. C. Danchi, P. Grenz, J. M. Hill, W. F. Hoffmann, J. Leisenring, J. Lozi, T. McMahon, B. Mennesson, R. Millan-Gabet, M. Montoya, K. Powell, A. Skemer, V. Vaitheeswaran, A. Vaz, and C. Veillet, “Co-phasing the Large Binocular Telescope: status and performance of LBTI/PHASECam,” Proc. SPIE 9146, 914609 (2014).
[Crossref]

Vigan, A.

C. Petit, J.-F. Sauvage, T. Fusco, A. Sevin, M. Suarez, A. Costille, A. Vigan, C. Soenke, D. Perret, S. Rochat, A. Barrufolo, B. Salasnich, J.-L. Beuzit, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, P. Puget, F. Wildi, M. Kasper, J.-M. Conan, C. Kulcsár, and H.-F. Raynaudand, “Sphere extreme AO control scheme: final performance assessment and on sky validation of the first auto-tuned LQG based operational system,” Proc. SPIE 9148, 91480O (2014).
[Crossref]

Wallace, J. K.

M. M. Colavita, J. K. Wallace, B. E. Hines, Y. Gursel, F. Malbet, D. L. Palmer, X. P. Pan, M. Shao, J. W. Yu, A. F. Boden, P. J. Dumont, J. Gubler, C. D. Koresko, S. R. Kulkarni, B. F. Lane, D. W. Mobley, and G. T. van Belle, “The Palomar testbed interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 510, 505–521 (1999).
[Crossref]

Wallander, A.

N. Di Lieto, J. Sahlmann, A. Wallander, and G. Vasisht, “An approach to stabilizing large telescopes for stellar interferometry,” in Proceedings of ICALEPCS (2007), paper ROAA05.

Weigelt, G.

T. M. Herbst, R. Ragazzoni, A. Eckart, and G. Weigelt, “LINC-NIRVANA: achieving 10  mas imagery on the Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 812015 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wildi, F.

C. Petit, J.-F. Sauvage, T. Fusco, A. Sevin, M. Suarez, A. Costille, A. Vigan, C. Soenke, D. Perret, S. Rochat, A. Barrufolo, B. Salasnich, J.-L. Beuzit, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, P. Puget, F. Wildi, M. Kasper, J.-M. Conan, C. Kulcsár, and H.-F. Raynaudand, “Sphere extreme AO control scheme: final performance assessment and on sky validation of the first auto-tuned LQG based operational system,” Proc. SPIE 9148, 91480O (2014).
[Crossref]

Yu, J. W.

M. M. Colavita, J. K. Wallace, B. E. Hines, Y. Gursel, F. Malbet, D. L. Palmer, X. P. Pan, M. Shao, J. W. Yu, A. F. Boden, P. J. Dumont, J. Gubler, C. D. Koresko, S. R. Kulkarni, B. F. Lane, D. W. Mobley, and G. T. van Belle, “The Palomar testbed interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 510, 505–521 (1999).
[Crossref]

Astrophys. J. (1)

M. M. Colavita, J. K. Wallace, B. E. Hines, Y. Gursel, F. Malbet, D. L. Palmer, X. P. Pan, M. Shao, J. W. Yu, A. F. Boden, P. J. Dumont, J. Gubler, C. D. Koresko, S. R. Kulkarni, B. F. Lane, D. W. Mobley, and G. T. van Belle, “The Palomar testbed interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 510, 505–521 (1999).
[Crossref]

Euro. J. Control (1)

G. Agapito, F. Quirós-Pacheco, P. Tesi, A. Riccardi, and S. Esposito, “Observer-based control techniques for the LBT adaptive optics under telescope vibrations,” Euro. J. Control 17, 316–326 (2011).
[Crossref]

IEEE Access (1)

O. K. Kjerstad and R. Skjetne, “Disturbance rejection by acceleration feedforward for marine surface vessels,” IEEE Access 4, 2656–2669 (2016).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Autom. Control (1)

D. S. Bayard, “A general theory of linear time-invariant adaptive feedforward systems with harmonic regressors,” IEEE Trans. Autom. Control 45, 1983–1996 (2000).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Contr. Syst. Technol. (1)

M. Böhm, J.-U. Pott, M. Kürster, O. Sawodny, D. Defrére, and P. Hinz, “Delay compensation for real time disturbance estimation at extremely large telescopes,” IEEE Trans. Contr. Syst. Technol. PP, 1–10 (2016).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. (1)

L. M. Belmonte, R. Morales, A. Fernández-Caballero, and J. A. Somolinos, “A tandem active disturbance rejection control for a laboratory helicopter with variable-speed rotors,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 63, 6395–6406 (2016).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Mil. Electron. (1)

D. Luenberger, “Observing the state of a linear system,” IEEE Trans. Mil. Electron. 8, 74–80 (1964).
[Crossref]

IFAC Proc. Vol. (1)

A. Keck, “Accelerometer-based online reconstruction of vibrations in extremely large telescopes,” IFAC Proc. Vol. 47, 7467–7473 (2014).
[Crossref]

Internat. J. Adapt. Control Signal Process. (1)

W. Messner and M. Bodson, “Design of adaptive feedforward algorithms using internal model equivalence,” Internat. J. Adapt. Control Signal Process. 9, 199–212 (1995).
[Crossref]

Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. (1)

M. Böhm, J.-U. Pott, O. Sawodny, T. Herbst, and M. Kürster, “Real-time vibration compensation for large telescopes,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 442, 2446–2455 (2014).
[Crossref]

Precis. Eng. (1)

M. F. Byl, S. J. Ludwick, and D. L. Trumper, “A loop shaping perspective for tuning controllers with adaptive feedforward cancellation,” Precis. Eng. 29, 27–40 (2005).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (10)

A. Keck, J.-U. Pott, and O. Sawodny, “Accelerometer-based online reconstruction of fast telescope vibrations from delayed measurements,” Proc. SPIE 9906, 990630 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Defrère, P. Hinz, E. Downey, D. Ashby, V. Bailey, G. Brusa, J. Christou, W. C. Danchi, P. Grenz, J. M. Hill, W. F. Hoffmann, J. Leisenring, J. Lozi, T. McMahon, B. Mennesson, R. Millan-Gabet, M. Montoya, K. Powell, A. Skemer, V. Vaitheeswaran, A. Vaz, and C. Veillet, “Co-phasing the Large Binocular Telescope: status and performance of LBTI/PHASECam,” Proc. SPIE 9146, 914609 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Petit, J.-F. Sauvage, T. Fusco, A. Sevin, M. Suarez, A. Costille, A. Vigan, C. Soenke, D. Perret, S. Rochat, A. Barrufolo, B. Salasnich, J.-L. Beuzit, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, P. Puget, F. Wildi, M. Kasper, J.-M. Conan, C. Kulcsár, and H.-F. Raynaudand, “Sphere extreme AO control scheme: final performance assessment and on sky validation of the first auto-tuned LQG based operational system,” Proc. SPIE 9148, 91480O (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Defrère, P. Hinz, E. Downey, M. Böhm, W. C. Danchi, O. Durney, S. Ertel, J. M. Hill, W. F. Hoffmann, B. Mennesson, R. Millan-Gabet, M. Montoya, J.-U. Pott, A. Skemer, E. Spalding, J. Stone, and A. Vaz, “Simultaneous water vapor and dry air optical path length measurements and compensation with the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 9907, 99071G (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Keck, J.-U. Pott, and O. Sawodny, “Accelerometer-based position reconstruction for the feedforward compensation of fast telescope vibrations in the E-ELT/MICADO,” Proc. SPIE 9145, 91454H (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Vasisht, A. J. Booth, M. M. Colavita, R. L. Johnson, E. R. Ligon, J. D. Moore, and D. L. Palmer, “Performance and verification of the Keck interferometer fringe detection and tracking system,” Proc. SPIE 4838, 824–834 (2003).
[Crossref]

T. M. Herbst, R. Ragazzoni, A. Eckart, and G. Weigelt, “LINC-NIRVANA: achieving 10  mas imagery on the Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 812015 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. M. Hinz, T. Connors, T. McMahon, A. Cheng, C. Y. Peng, W. Hoffmann, D. McCarthy, and R. Angel, “Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer: the universal beam combiner,” Proc. SPIE 5491, 787–797 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. Kürster, T. Bertram, J. L. Borelli, M. Brix, W. Gässler, T. M. Herbst, V. Naranjo, J.-U. Pott, and J. Trowitzsch, “OVMS: the optical path difference and vibration monitoring system for the LBT and its interferometers,” Proc. SPIE 7734, 77342Y (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Böhm, J.-U. Pott, J. Borelli, P. Hinz, D. Defrére, E. Downey, J. Hill, K. Summers, A. Conrad, M. Kürster, T. Herbst, and O. Sawodny, “OVMS-plus at the LBT: disturbance compensation simplified,” Proc. SPIE 9906, 99062R (2016).
[Crossref]

Other (10)

M. Böhm, J.-U. Pott, M. Kürster, and O. Sawodny, “Modeling and identification of the optical path at ELTs–a case study at the LBT,” in Proceedings of the 6th IFAC Symposium on Mechatronic Systems (2013), Vol. 6, pp. 249–255.

N. Di Lieto, J. Sahlmann, A. Wallander, and G. Vasisht, “An approach to stabilizing large telescopes for stellar interferometry,” in Proceedings of ICALEPCS (2007), paper ROAA05.

F. Quirós-Pacheco, R. Briguglio, E. Pinna, A. Puglisi, A. Riccardi, and S. Esposito, “FLAO1 commissioning report,” Tech. Rep. (INAF–Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, 2011).

J. Trowitzsch, J. Borelli, J. Pott, and M. Kürster, “Software-centric view on OVMS for LBT,” in Astronomical Data Analysis Software and Systems XXI, P. Ballester, D. Egret, and N. P. F. Lorente, eds. (Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series, 2012), Vol. 461, pp. 229.

A. Keck, J.-U. Pott, and O. Sawodny, “Accelerometer-based online reconstruction of vibrations in extremely large telescopes,” in Proceedings of the 19th IFAC World Congress (2014), pp. 7467–7473.

M. Krstic, Delay Compensation for Nonlinear, Adaptive, and PDE Systems (Birkhäuser, 2009).

J. W. Hardy, Adaptive Optics for Astronomical Telescopes (Oxford University, 1998).

F. Roddier, Adaptive Optics in Astronomy, 1st ed. (Cambridge University, 1999).

D. Alloin and J.-M. Mariotti, Adaptive Optics for Astronomy, Nato Science Series C (Springer, 1994).

A. Keck, J.-U. Pott, and O. Sawodny, “Accelerometer-based online reconstruction of vibrations from delayed measurements,” in IEEE Conference on Control Applications (CCA) (2015), pp. 424–429.

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Figures (18)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Inner part of the LBT with its symmetrical layout.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Overview of the software architecture of OVMS (black) and OVMS+ (blue extension). While the software’s AD module is not altered, two new modules have been added. The initialization parses the config files to calculate the estimator structure, which is then used in the estimation module. The estimation is triggered by the AD module, whereas the initialization is called only once at startup.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Illustration of the sensor location and degrees of freedom in the coordinate frame of a single mirror.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Bode Diagram for the broadband filter GF(s), comparing the ideal double integrator (dashed–dotted blue) with the designed filter used for position estimation (solid dark). (a) Complete frequency range up to 500 Hz and (b) desired frequency range from 8 to 60 Hz.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Transformation of the observer scheme Eq. (6) into Eq. (8), and (b) extension to the full delay compensating observer scheme Eq. (11) featuring additional measurement delay (blue box 1) and the delay compensating extensions to the original observer feedback (blue box 2).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Position reconstructor based on an adaptive resonator (AR).

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Position estimated by the adaptive resonator reconstructor (AR). Laboratory results: solid, estimation p^d; dotted, strain gauge measurement pd.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Calculated frequency response of the adaptive resonator reconstructor (AR): acceleration measurement a to estimated position p^d.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Position estimated by the adaptive resonator reconstructor (AR) from delayed acceleration measurements (Td=20  ms). Laboratory results: solid, estimation p^d; dotted, strain gauge measurement pd.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Position reconstructor based on an adaptive resonator with compensation of time delay (ARTD) with lead compensator.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Calculated frequency response of the ARTD with lead compensator: acceleration measurement a to estimated position p^d.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Position estimated by the ARTD from delayed acceleration measurements (Td=20  ms). Laboratory results: solid black, ARTD estimation p^d; dotted, strain gauge measurement pd. The estimation results provided by the AR without time delay compensation are included (gray line) for comparison.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

Time series and reversely cumulated power spectrum of the estimated OPD (blue) and the closed-loop residual error (black). On the left, there is pure feedback action; in the middle a combination of feedback and disturbance feedforward is used. On the right, the feedback integral gain is reduced by a factor of 10. Without OVMS+ feedforward, the RMS (shown as dashed lines) is reduced from 1560 to 545 nm (65%), while with OVMS+ feedforward the OPD residual is reduced from 1710 down to 394 nm (77%). Thus, the combination of both reduces the input disturbance RMS by about a factor of 4.5. Using OVMS+ feedforward but a much smaller feedback gain restores the performance of the original pure feedback system with a reduction from 1711 to 649 nm (62%). Note that the high-frequency parts between 20 and 60 Hz are actually reduced better with less feedback action from the PHASECam loop. Refer to Table 2 for an overview on the results. (a) OVMS+OFF, Ki=300, (b) OVMS+ON, Ki=300, and (c) OVMS+ON, Ki=30.

Fig. 14.
Fig. 14.

Amplitude spectrum of the estimated OPD (above) and the residual OPD (below) for comparison.

Fig. 15.
Fig. 15.

Simulated point spread function (PSF) for the three test scenarios using the measured OPD time series shown in Fig. 13. Top: PSF for the estimated OPD. Bottom: PSF for the OPD after applying the respective correction. (a) OVMS+ OFF, Ki=300; (b) OVMS+ ON, Ki=300; and (c) OVMS+ ON, Ki=30.

Fig. 16.
Fig. 16.

Classical AO system in large telescopes with an additional disturbance feedforward control system.

Fig. 17.
Fig. 17.

Simulation results of the Strehl ratio for a bright NGS 10.5 mag, different natural frequencies and vibration amplitudes, and the three control concepts: (a) integral FB, (b) LQG FB, and (c) DFF and integral FB.

Fig. 18.
Fig. 18.

Strehl ratio of the three control concepts (a) integral, (b) LQG, and (c) DFF for a faint NGS 14.6 mag, sample rate 200 Hz, and different natural frequencies and vibration amplitudes.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Timeline of OVMS Past and Future Development

Tables Icon

Table 2. Overview on the Testing Scenarios and the Respective Results

Tables Icon

Table 3. Simulation Parameters

Equations (18)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

si=z+yiφxxiφy,i{1,2,3}.
(s1s2s3)=(1y1x11y2x21y3x3)=T(zφxφy).
(zφxφy)=T+(s1s2s3).
GF(s)=GH(s)GL(s)GH(s)GL(s)GH(s)Gll,1(s)Gll,2(s)=GH3(s)GL2(s)Gll,1(s)Gll,2(s)=(ss+π)3(1s+3π)2s+10πs+0.6πs+98πs+103π.
Z(s)=GF(s)A(s).
ξ^˙(t)=Aξ^(t)+Ba(t),z(t)=Cξ^(t).
d(t)d^(t)=sin(ωt)sin(ωtωTd)=2cos(ωtTd2)sin  ωTd2.
ξ^˙(t)=(A+BCw)ξ^(t)+B(a(t)Cwξ^(t)),w^(t)=Cwξ^(t),z(t)=Cξ^(t),
ξ˙(t)=(A+BCw)ξ(t),w(t)=Cwξ(t).
ξ˙(t)=(A+BCw)ξ(t),u(Td,t)=Cwξ(t),tu(v,t)=vu(v,t),w(t)=u(0,t),
ξ^˙(t)=(A+BCw)ξ^(t)+e(A+BCw)TdB(a(t)w^(t)),tu^(v,t)=vu^(v,t)+Cwe(A+BCw)vB(a(t)w^(t)),u^(Td,t)=Cwξ^(t),w^(t)=u^(0,t).
zp(t)=Cξ^(t).
a^(t)=A^cos(ω0t)+B^sin(ω0t),
A^(t)=τ=0tga^err(τ)cos(ω0τ)dτ,B^(t)=τ=0tga^err(τ)sin(ω0τ)dτ.
HAR(s)=ZA(s)=gω02ss2+gs+ω02,
Glead(s)=ZpZ(s)=ατs+1ατs+1,
α=1sin(ω0Td)1+sin(ω0Td)andτ=1ω0α,
HARTD(s)=ZpA(s)=αgω02s(τs+1)(s2+gs+ω02)(ατs+1),

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