Abstract

A perfect three-dimensional (3D) display that satisfies all depth cues in human vision is possible if a light field can be reproduced exactly as it appeared when it emerged from a real object. The light field can be generated based on either light ray or wavefront reconstruction, with the latter known as holography. This paper first provides an overview of the advances of ray-based and wavefront-based 3D display technologies, including integral photography and holography, and the integration of those technologies with digital information systems. Hardcopy displays have already been used in some applications, whereas the electronic display of a light field is under active investigation. Next, a fundamental question in this technology field is addressed: what is the difference between ray-based and wavefront-based methods for light-field 3D displays? In considering this question, it is of particular interest to look at the technology of holographic stereograms. The phase information in holography contributes to the resolution of a reconstructed image, especially for deep 3D images. Moreover, issues facing the electronic display system of light fields are discussed, including the resolution of the spatial light modulator, the computational techniques of holography, and the speckle in holographic images.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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2016 (2)

2015 (4)

2014 (7)

2013 (5)

2012 (6)

2011 (6)

L. Onural, F. Yaras, and H. Kang, “Digital holographic three-dimensional video displays,” Proc. IEEE 99, 576–589 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Yamaguchi, “Ray-based and wavefront-based holographic displays for high-density light-field reproduction,” Proc. SPIE 8043, 804306 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, N. Collings, J. Chen, B. Crossland, D. Chu, and J. Xie, “Full parallax three-dimensional display with occlusion effect using computer generated hologram,” Opt. Eng. 50, 074003 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Wakunami and M. Yamaguchi, “Calculation for computer generated hologram using ray-sampling plane,” Opt. Express 19, 9086–9101 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. F. Hsu and C. F. Yeh, “Speckle suppression in holographic projection displays using temporal integration of speckle images from diffractive optical elements,” Appl. Opt. 50, H50–H55 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Takaki and M. Yokouchi, “Speckle-free and grayscale hologram reconstruction using time-multiplexing technique,” Opt. Express 19, 7567–7579 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

J. Arai, F. Okano, M. Kawakita, M. Okui, Y. Haino, M. Yoshimura, M. Furuya, and M. Sato, “Integral three-dimensional television using a 33-megapixel imaging system,” J. Display Technol. 6, 422–430 (2010).
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D. Lanman, M. Hirsch, Y. Kim, and R. Raskar, “Content-adaptive parallax barriers: optimizing dual-layer 3D displays using low-rank light field factorization,” ACM Trans. Graph. 29, 163 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. A. Blanche, A. Bablumian, R. Voorakaranam, C. Christenson, W. Lin, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, W. Y. Hsieh, and M. Kathaperumal, “Holographic three-dimensional telepresence using large-area photorefractive polymer,” Nature 468, 80–83 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (4)

2008 (5)

2007 (3)

2006 (5)

T. Balogh, “The HoloVizio system,” Proc. SPIE 6055, 60550U (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Stern and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional image sensing, visualization, and processing using integral imaging,” Proc. IEEE 94, 591–607 (2006).
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Y. Kim, J. H. Park, H. Choi, J. Kim, S. W. Cho, and B. Lee, “Depth-enhanced three-dimensional integral imaging by use of multilayered display devices,” Appl. Opt. 45, 4334–4343 (2006).
[Crossref]

W. Plesniak, M. Halle, V. M. Bove, J. Barabas, and R. Pappu, “Reconfigurable image projection holograms,” Opt. Eng. 45, 115801 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Mishina, M. Okui, and F. Okano, “Calculation of holograms from elemental images captured by integral photography,” Appl. Opt. 45, 4026–4036 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (5)

R. Martínez-Cuenca, G. Saavedra, M. Martínez-Corral, and B. Javidi, “Extended depth-of-field 3-D display and visualization by combination of amplitude-modulated microlenses and deconvolution tools,” J. Display Technol. 1, 321–327 (2005).
[Crossref]

C. Slinger, C. Cameron, and M. Stanley, “Computer-generated holography as a generic display technology,” Computer 38, 46–53 (2005).
[Crossref]

K. Matsushima, “Exact hidden-surface removal in digitally synthetic full-parallax holograms,” Proc. SPIE 5742, 25–32 (2005).

K. Matsushima, “Computer-generated holograms for three-dimensional surface objects with shade and texture,” Appl. Opt. 44, 4607–4614 (2005).
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Y. Takaki, “Thin-type natural three-dimensional display with 72 directional images,” Proc. SPIE 5664, 56–63 (2005).
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2004 (2)

W. Matusik and H. Pfister, “3D TV: a scalable system for real-time acquisition, transmission, and autostereoscopic display of dynamic scenes,” ACM Trans. Graph. 23, 814–824 (2004).
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H. H. Song, Y. Nakashima, Y. Momonoi, and T. Honda, “Development of 40-in hybrid hologram screen for auto-stereoscopic video display,” Proc. SPIE 5290, 190–199 (2004).

2003 (4)

J. Arai, H. Hoshino, M. Okui, and F. Okano, “Effects of focusing on the resolution characteristics of integral photography,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 996–1004 (2003).
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J. S. Jang, F. Jin, and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional integral imaging with large depth of focus by use of real and virtual image fields,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1421–1423 (2003).
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S. W. Min, B. Javidi, and B. Lee, “Enhanced three-dimensional integral imaging system by use of double display devices,” Appl. Opt. 42, 4186–4195 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. Stanley, R. W. Bannister, C. D. Cameron, S. D. Coomber, I. G. Cresswell, J. R. Hughes, V. Hui, P. O. Jackson, K. A. Milham, R. J. Miller, D. A. Payne, J. Quarrel, D. C. Scattergood, A. P. Smith, M. A. G. Smith, D. L. Tipton, P. J. Watson, P. J. Webber, and C. W. Slinger, “100-megapixel computer-generated holographic images from active tiling: a dynamic and scalable electro-optic modulator system,” Proc. SPIE 5005, 247–258 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

1998 (2)

1997 (3)

M. A. Klug, A. Klein, W. J. Plesniak, A. B. Kropp, and B. Chen, “Optics for full-parallax holographic stereograms,” Proc. SPIE 3011, 78–88 (1997).

I. Yamaguchi and T. Zhang, “Phase-shifting digital holography,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1268–1270 (1997).
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J. S. Underkoffler, “Occlusion processing and smooth surface shading for fully computed synthetic holography,” Proc. SPIE 3011, 19–30 (1997).

1996 (1)

K. Maeno, N. Fukaya, O. Nishikawa, K. Sato, and T. Honda, “Electro-holographic display using 15mega pixels LCD,” Proc. SPIE 2652, 15–23 (1996).
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1995 (3)

H. Yoshikawa and H. Kameyama, “Integral holography,” Proc. SPIE 2406, 226–234 (1995).

M. Brewin, M. Forman, and N. Davies, “Electronic capture and display of full parallax 3D images,” Proc. SPIE 2409, 118–124 (1995).
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M. W. Thie, J. T. Lukins, and D. A. Gregory, “Optically addressed SLM-based holographic display,” Proc. SPIE 2488, 408–416 (1995).
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1994 (3)

M. Yamaguchi, H. Endoh, T. Honda, and N. Ohyama, “High-quality recording of a full-parallax holographic stereogram with a digital diffuser,” Opt. Lett. 19, 135–137 (1994).
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M. Yamaguchi, T. Koyama, N. Ohyama, and T. Honda, “A stereographic display using reflection holographic screen,” Opt. Rev. 1, 191–194 (1994).
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G. R. Little, S. C. Gustafson, and V. E. Nikolaou, “Multiperspective autostereoscopic display,” Proc. SPIE 2219, 388–394 (1994).

1993 (5)

M. Yamaguchi, T. Honda, and N. Ohyama, “Imaging characteristics of holographic stereograms,” Jpn. J. Opt. 22, 714–720 (1993), in Japanese.

M. E. Lucente, “Interactive computation of holograms using a look-up table,” J. Electron. Imaging 2, 28–34 (1993).
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M. A. Klug, M. W. Halle, M. E. Lucente, and W. J. Plesniak, “Compact prototype one-step ultragram printer,” Proc. SPIE 1914, 15–24 (1993).
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M. Yamaguchi, H. Hoshino, T. Honda, and N. Ohyama, “Phase-added stereogram: calculation of hologram using computer graphics technique,” Proc. SPIE 1914, 25–31 (1993).
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S. C. Gustafson, G. R. Little, T. P. Staub, J. S. Loomis, J. M. Brown, and N. F. O’Brien, “Design of a real-time unskeletonized autostereoscopic display system enabled by new technology,” Proc. SPIE 1970, 150–159 (1993).
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1992 (4)

H. Isono, M. Yasuda, D. Takemori, H. Kanayama, C. Yamada, and K. Chiba, “50-inch autostereoscopic full-color 3D TV display system,” Proc. SPIE 1669, 176–185 (1992).
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P. S. Hilaire, S. A. Benton, M. Lucente, and P. M. Hubel, “Color images with the MIT holographic video display,” Proc. SPIE 1667, 73–84 (1992).
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A. D. Stein, Z. Wang, and J. J. S. Leigh, “Computer-generated holograms: a simplified ray-tracing approach,” Comput. Phys. 6, 389–392 (1992).
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M. Yamaguchi, N. Ohyama, and T. Honda, “Holographic three-dimensional printer: new method,” Appl. Opt. 31, 217–222 (1992).
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1990 (4)

P. St. Hilaire, S. A. Benton, M. Lucente, M. L. Jepsen, J. Kollin, and H. Yoshikawa, “Electronic display system for computational holography,” Proc. SPIE 1212, 174–182 (1990).
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M. Yamaguchi, N. Ohyama, and T. Honda, “Holographic 3-D printer,” Proc. SPIE 1212, 84–92 (1990).
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D. K. Kang, M. Yamaguchi, T. Honda, and N. Ohyama, “Image processing technique for arbitrary image positioning in holographic stereogram,” Opt. Commun. 80, 7–12 (1990).
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J. B. Eichenlaub, “Autostereoscopic display for use with a personal computer,” Proc. SPIE 1256, 156–163 (1990).
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1989 (3)

T. Honda, M. Yamaguchi, D. K. Kang, K. Shimura, J. Tsujiuchi, and N. Ohyama, “Printing of holographic stereogram using liquid-crystal TV,” Proc. SPIE 1051, 186–191 (1989).

Y. S. Cheng and J. Y. Lin, “Experimental use of a low cost liquid crystal TV in multiplex holography,” Appl. Opt. 28, 829–830 (1989).
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K. Okada, S. Yoshii, Y. Yamaji, J. Tsujiuchi, and T. Ose, “Conical holographic stereograms,” Opt. Commun. 73, 347–350 (1989).
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1988 (1)

J. R. Andrews, B. Tuttle, M. Rainsdon, R. Damm, K. Thomas, and W. E. Haas, “Holographic stereograms generated with a liquid crystal spatial light modulator,” Proc. SPIE 902, 92–94 (1988).

1987 (6)

S. A. Benton, ““Alcove” holograms for computer-aided design,” Proc. SPIE 761, 53–63 (1987).
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C. Newswanger, C. Outwater, and D. Coons, “Holographic stereograms from computer generated images,” Proc. SPIE 812, 139–146 (1987).
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R. B. Collender, “Methods for electronic 3-D moving pictures without glasses,” Proc. SPIE 0761, 2–22 (1987).
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R. Borner, “Progress in projection of parallax-panoramagrams onto wide-angle lenticular screens,” Proc. SPIE 0761, 35–43 (1987).
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R. C. Bolles, H. H. Baker, and D. H. Marimont, “Epipolar-plane image analysis: an approach to determining structure from motion,” Int. J. Comput. Vis. 1, 7–55 (1987).
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J. Drinkwater and S. Hart, “Multiplex holography for the display of three-dimensional information,” Proc. SPIE 0812, 128–134 (1987).
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1986 (1)

1983 (3)

K. Okada, T. Honda, and J. Tsujiuchi, “A method of distortion compensation of multiplex holograms,” Opt. Commun. 48, 167–170 (1983).
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K. M. Johnson, L. Hesselink, and J. W. Goodman, “Multiple exposure holographic display of CT medical data,” Proc. SPIE 0367, 149–154 (1983).
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B. Lane, “Stereoscopic displays,” Proc. SPIE 0367, 20–32 (1983).

1980 (2)

L. Huff and R. L. Fusek, “Color holographic stereograms,” Opt. Eng. 19, 195691 (1980).
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T. Okoshi, “Three-dimensional displays,” Proc. IEEE 68, 548–564 (1980).
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1978 (1)

1977 (3)

M. Ueda and H. Nakayama, “TV transmission of three-dimensional scenes by using fly’s eye lenses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 16, 1269–1270 (1977).
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H. B. Tilton, “An autostereoscopic CRT display,” Proc. SPIE 120, 68–72 (1977).
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R. L. de Montebello, “The synthalyzer for three-dimensional synthesis, and analysis by optical dissection,” Proc. SPIE 120, 184–191 (1977).
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1974 (1)

T. Yatagai, “Three-dimensional displays using computer-generated holograms,” Opt. Commun. 12, 43–45 (1974).
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1972 (1)

1971 (2)

T. Okoshi, “Optimum design and depth resolution of lens-sheet and projection-type three-dimensional displays,” Appl. Opt. 10, 2284–2291 (1971).
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J. D. Lewis, C. M. Verber, and R. B. McGhee, “A true three-dimensional display,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 18, 724–732 (1971).
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1970 (1)

1969 (2)

D. J. DeBitetto, “Holographic panoramic stereograms synthesized from white light recordings,” Appl. Opt. 8, 1740–1741 (1969).
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S. A. Benton, “Hologram reconstructions with extended incoherent sources,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 1545–1546 (1969). (Abstract only, in the Program of the 1969 Annual Meeting of the Optical Society of America.)

1968 (5)

1967 (5)

1966 (5)

A. A. Friesem and R. J. Fedorowicz, “Recent advances in multicolor wavefront reconstruction,” Appl. Opt. 5, 1085–1086 (1966).
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D. J. DeBitetto, “White-light viewing of surface holograms by simple dispersion compensation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 417–418 (1966).
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B. R. Brown and A. W. Lohmann, “Complex spatial filtering with binary masks,” Appl. Opt. 5, 967–969 (1966).
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J. P. Waters, “Holographic image synthesis utilizing theoretical methods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 405–407 (1966).
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L. H. Enloe, J. A. Murphy, and C. B. Rubinstein, “Hologram transmission via television,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 45, 335–339 (1966).
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1965 (2)

E. N. Leith, J. Upatnieks, B. P. Hildebrand, and K. Haines, “Requirements for a wavefront reconstruction television facsimile system,” J. Soc. Motion Pict. Telev. Eng. 74, 893–896 (1965).
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K. S. Pennington and L. H. Lin, “Multicolor wavefront reconstruction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 7, 56–57 (1965).
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1964 (1)

1963 (1)

1962 (2)

E. N. Leith and J. Upatnieks, “Reconstructed wavefronts and communication theory,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 1123–1130 (1962).
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1961 (1)

J. C. Muirhead, “Variable focal length mirrors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 32, 210–211 (1961).
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1956 (1)

A. Lohmann, “Optische Einseitenbandubertragung angewandt auf das Gabor-Mikroskop,” Opt. Acta 3, 97–99 (1956).
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1948 (1)

D. Gabor, “A new microscopic principles,” Nature 161, 777–778 (1948).
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1939 (1)

A. Gershun, “The light field,” J. Math. Phys. 18, 51–151 (1939), Translated by P. Moon and G. Timoshenko.
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1908 (1)

G. Lippmann, “Epreuves reversible. Photographies integrals,” C. R. Acad. Sci. 146, 446–451 (1908).

Adelson, E. H.

E. H. Adelson and J. R. Bergen, “The plenoptic function and the elements of early vision,” in Computational Models of Visual Processing (MIT, 1991), pp. 3–20.

Aggoun, A.

M. McCormick, N. Davies, A. Aggoun, and M. Brewin, “Examination of the requirements for autostereoscopic, full parallax 3D-TV,” in International Broadcasting Convention 1994 (1994), pp. 477–482.

Ajito, T.

M. Yamaguchi, M. Nakano, T. Ajito, and N. Ohyama, “Image capturing for head-mounted 3-D display by electronic holographic stereogram,” in Proceedings of 3D Image Conference (1999), Vol. 99, pp. 75–80.

Andrews, J. R.

J. R. Andrews, B. Tuttle, M. Rainsdon, R. Damm, K. Thomas, and W. E. Haas, “Holographic stereograms generated with a liquid crystal spatial light modulator,” Proc. SPIE 902, 92–94 (1988).

Arai, J.

Bablumian, A.

P. A. Blanche, A. Bablumian, R. Voorakaranam, C. Christenson, W. Lin, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, W. Y. Hsieh, and M. Kathaperumal, “Holographic three-dimensional telepresence using large-area photorefractive polymer,” Nature 468, 80–83 (2010).
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Baker, H. H.

R. C. Bolles, H. H. Baker, and D. H. Marimont, “Epipolar-plane image analysis: an approach to determining structure from motion,” Int. J. Comput. Vis. 1, 7–55 (1987).
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Balogh, T.

T. Balogh, “The HoloVizio system,” Proc. SPIE 6055, 60550U (2006).
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Bannister, R. W.

M. Stanley, R. W. Bannister, C. D. Cameron, S. D. Coomber, I. G. Cresswell, J. R. Hughes, V. Hui, P. O. Jackson, K. A. Milham, R. J. Miller, D. A. Payne, J. Quarrel, D. C. Scattergood, A. P. Smith, M. A. G. Smith, D. L. Tipton, P. J. Watson, P. J. Webber, and C. W. Slinger, “100-megapixel computer-generated holographic images from active tiling: a dynamic and scalable electro-optic modulator system,” Proc. SPIE 5005, 247–258 (2003).
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Barabas, J.

D. E. Smalley, Q. Y. J. Smithwick, V. M. Bove, J. Barabas, and S. Jolly, “Anisotropic leaky-mode modulator for holographic video displays,” Nature 498, 313–317 (2013).
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W. Plesniak, M. Halle, V. M. Bove, J. Barabas, and R. Pappu, “Reconfigurable image projection holograms,” Opt. Eng. 45, 115801 (2006).
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Benton, S. A.

P. S. Hilaire, S. A. Benton, M. Lucente, and P. M. Hubel, “Color images with the MIT holographic video display,” Proc. SPIE 1667, 73–84 (1992).
[Crossref]

P. St. Hilaire, S. A. Benton, M. Lucente, M. L. Jepsen, J. Kollin, and H. Yoshikawa, “Electronic display system for computational holography,” Proc. SPIE 1212, 174–182 (1990).
[Crossref]

S. A. Benton, ““Alcove” holograms for computer-aided design,” Proc. SPIE 761, 53–63 (1987).
[Crossref]

S. A. Benton, “Hologram reconstructions with extended incoherent sources,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 1545–1546 (1969). (Abstract only, in the Program of the 1969 Annual Meeting of the Optical Society of America.)

S. A. Benton and V. M. Bove, Holographic Imaging (Wiley, 2008).

Bergen, J. R.

E. H. Adelson and J. R. Bergen, “The plenoptic function and the elements of early vision,” in Computational Models of Visual Processing (MIT, 1991), pp. 3–20.

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Figures (16)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Display of (a) a virtual image and (b) a real image by a light-field reproduction.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Light-ray-based and (b) wavefront-based light-field displays.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Recording and reconstruction of point objects in (a) IP and (b) pinhole camera stereograms.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Reconstruction of real and virtual images by an InI display.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Autostereoscopic display using multiple projectors.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Autostereoscopic display using a rotating screen and a high-speed projector.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Reconstruction of a point image by a stack of transmission SLMs.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Two-step recording method of holography. (a) Recording of an MH. (b) Recording the reconstructed wave from the MH as an H2. (c) The reconstruction of the H2, “image-type” hologram.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. (a) The optical system for recording the HPO HS. (b) The observation of the reconstructed image from the HS plane. (c) The observation of H2 HS recorded by the two-step procedure.
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. Optical system for full-parallax HS recording.
Fig. 11.
Fig. 11. (a) The full parallax recorded by the optical system of Fig. 10 consists of a 2D array of small elementary holograms. (b) The generation of the image for exposure. (c) The generation of the image for exposure from the parallax images captured by a camera with 2D scanning.
Fig. 12.
Fig. 12. Resolution of the ray-based light-field display. (a) Geometry of the observation. RIm, reconstructed image; ScP, display screen plane; VeP, viewer plane (camera plane); ImP, reconstructed image plane. (b) Ray sampling at the screen plane. (c) Ray sampling at the viewer plane. (d) Diffraction at the screen plane.
Fig. 13.
Fig. 13. Observation of a point image reconstructed by a hologram.
Fig. 14.
Fig. 14. Geometry of recording the elemental image at ( x j , y j ) for a point ( x o , y o , z o ) of an object g ( x , y , z ) and reconstructing the light ray.
Fig. 15.
Fig. 15. Schematic illustrations of the wavefront reconstructing point image by (a) hologram ( φ 1 + φ 2 + φ 3 ) , (b) IP or HS ( φ 2 ) , and (c) PAS ( φ 2 + φ 3 ) .
Fig. 16.
Fig. 16. Depth range of the image reproduced by ray-based light-field displays against the resolution on the screen when the observation distance = 500    mm . The upper figure shows the geometry of observation. The wavefront-based display has an unlimited depth range if reconstructed by a monochromatic point source.

Equations (17)

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Δ v = z v δ θ .
Δ d = | z i | δ θ .
Δ s = | z i | z v p s ,
Δ a = | z i | δ θ .
tan δ θ s 2 tan Φ 2 N .
δ θ d = λ a ,
w = z i z v z i d e .
Δ r = | z i | δ θ r ,
δ θ r = Δ λ λ sin θ C ,
Δ x s = x s x j , Δ y s = y s y j , Δ x o = x x j , Δ y o = y y j ,
U h ( x j + Δ x s , y j + Δ y s ) = C w 1 j λ z exp ( j 2 π z λ ) g ( x , y , z ) exp { j ( φ 1 + φ 2 + φ 3 ) } d x d y d z ,
φ 1 = π λ z ( Δ x s 2 + Δ y s 2 ) , φ 2 = 2 π λ z ( Δ x o Δ x s + Δ y o Δ y s ) , φ 3 = π λ z ( Δ x o 2 + Δ y o 2 ) .
U r ( x j + Δ x s , y j + Δ y s ) = C r g ( x j + Δ x o , y j + Δ y o , z ) exp ( j φ 2 ) d Δ x o d Δ y o d z ,
δ v p s z v ,
f max = 1 λ sin Φ 2 ,
SBP 1 D = 2 D λ sin Φ 2 .
p h = λ 2 sin Φ 2 .

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