Abstract

Visual adaptation (and especially dark adaptation) has been studied extensively in the past, however, mainly addressing adaptation to fully dark backgrounds. At this stage, it is unclear whether these results are not too simple to be applied to complex situations, such as predicting adaptation of a motorist driving at night. To fill this gap we set up a study investigating how spatially complex backgrounds influence temporal dark adaptation. Our results showed that dark adaptation to spatially complex backgrounds leads to much longer adaptation times than dark adaptation to spatially uniform backgrounds. We conclude therefore that the adaptation models based on past studies overestimate the visual system’s sensitivity to detect luminance variations in spatially complex environments. Our results also showed large variations in adaptation times when varying the degree of spatial complexity of the background. Hence, we may conclude that it is important to take into account models that are based on spatially complex backgrounds when predicting dark adaptation for complex environments.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. C. Hood and M. A. Finkelstein, “Sensitivity to light,” in Handbook of Perception and Visual Performance, Volume 1: Sensory Processes and Perception, K. Boff, L. Kaufman, and J. Thomas, eds. (Wiley, 1986), pp. 5.1–5.66.
  2. H. Aubert, “Pysiologie der Netzhant,” Morgenstern xii, 394 (1865).
  3. S. Hecht, C. Haig, and A. M. Chase, “The influence of light adaptation on subsequent dark adaptation of the eye,” J. Gen. Physiol. 20, 831–850 (1937).
    [CrossRef]
  4. F. A. Mote and A. J. Riopelle, “The effect of varying intensity and the duration of pre-exposure upon foveal dark adaptation,” J. Gen. Physiol. 34, 657–674 (1951).
    [CrossRef]
  5. F. A. Mote and A. J. Riopelle, “The effect of varying the intensity and the duration of pre-exposure on subsequent dark adaptation in the human eye,” J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 46, 49–55 (1953).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Hecht, C. Haig, and G. Wald, “The dark adaptation of retinal fields of different size and location,” J. Gen. Physiol. 19, 321–337 (1935).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. Wald and A. Clark, “Visual adaptation and the chemistry of the rods,” J. Gen. Physiol. 21, 93–105 (1937).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. Haig, “The course of rod dark adaptation as influenced by the intensity and duration of pre-adaptation to light,” J. Gen. Physiol. 24, 735–751 (1941).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. D. Baker, “The instantaneous threshold and early dark adaptation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 798–803 (1953).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. D. Baker, “Initial stages of dark and light adaptation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 98–103 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  11. N. R. Bartlett, “Dark adaptation and light adaptation,” in Vision and Visual Perception, C. H. Graham, ed. (Wiley, 1965), Chap. 8, p. 187.
  12. A. B. Watson and J. I. Yellott, “A unified formula for light-adapted pupil size,” J. Vis. 12(10):12, 1–12 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. G. de Groot and J. W. Gebhard, “Pupil size as determined by adapting luminance,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 492–495 (1952).
    [CrossRef]
  14. I. Heynderickx, J. Ciocoiu, and X. Y. Zhu, “Estimating eye adaptation for typical luminance values in the field of view while driving in urban streets,” in Proceedings of CIE Centenary Conference “Towards a New Century of Light” (2013), pp. 41–47.
  15. S. Plainis, I. J. Murray, and W. N. Charman, “The role of retinal adaptation in night driving,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 82, 682–688 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  16. T. Uchida and Y. Ohno, “An experimental approach to a definition of the mesopic adaptation field,” in Proceedings of CIE (2012), pp. 71–76.
  17. L. L. Holladay, “The fundamentals of glare and visibility,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 12, 271–319 (1926).
    [CrossRef]
  18. K. Narisada, “Visual perception in non-uniform fields,” J. Light Visual Environ. 16, 33–40 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  19. T. Uchida and Y. Ohno, “Effect of high luminance sources to peripheral adaptation state in mesopic range,” in Proceedings of CIE Centenary Conference “Towards a New Century of Light” (2013), pp. 529–536.
  20. W. S. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, “The effect of a glaring light source on extrafoveal vision,” Proc. R. Soc. London B 122, 255–280 (1937).
    [CrossRef]
  21. M. J. Murdoch and I. Heynderickx, “Veiling glare and perceived black in high dynamic range displays,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29, 559–566 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  22. CIE 135/1, “Research note: disability glare,” Vis. Colour Phys. Meas. Light Radiat. 135, 6 (1999).
  23. L. Eriksson, Design of Experiments: Principles and Applications (Umea: Umetrics AB, 2008).
  24. C. E. McCulloch and S. R. Searle, Generalized, Linear, and Mixed Models (Wiley, 2001).

2012 (2)

A. B. Watson and J. I. Yellott, “A unified formula for light-adapted pupil size,” J. Vis. 12(10):12, 1–12 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Murdoch and I. Heynderickx, “Veiling glare and perceived black in high dynamic range displays,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29, 559–566 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

S. Plainis, I. J. Murray, and W. N. Charman, “The role of retinal adaptation in night driving,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 82, 682–688 (2005).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

CIE 135/1, “Research note: disability glare,” Vis. Colour Phys. Meas. Light Radiat. 135, 6 (1999).

1992 (1)

K. Narisada, “Visual perception in non-uniform fields,” J. Light Visual Environ. 16, 33–40 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1963 (1)

1953 (2)

H. D. Baker, “The instantaneous threshold and early dark adaptation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 798–803 (1953).
[CrossRef]

F. A. Mote and A. J. Riopelle, “The effect of varying the intensity and the duration of pre-exposure on subsequent dark adaptation in the human eye,” J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 46, 49–55 (1953).
[CrossRef]

1952 (1)

1951 (1)

F. A. Mote and A. J. Riopelle, “The effect of varying intensity and the duration of pre-exposure upon foveal dark adaptation,” J. Gen. Physiol. 34, 657–674 (1951).
[CrossRef]

1941 (1)

C. Haig, “The course of rod dark adaptation as influenced by the intensity and duration of pre-adaptation to light,” J. Gen. Physiol. 24, 735–751 (1941).
[CrossRef]

1937 (3)

G. Wald and A. Clark, “Visual adaptation and the chemistry of the rods,” J. Gen. Physiol. 21, 93–105 (1937).
[CrossRef]

S. Hecht, C. Haig, and A. M. Chase, “The influence of light adaptation on subsequent dark adaptation of the eye,” J. Gen. Physiol. 20, 831–850 (1937).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, “The effect of a glaring light source on extrafoveal vision,” Proc. R. Soc. London B 122, 255–280 (1937).
[CrossRef]

1935 (1)

S. Hecht, C. Haig, and G. Wald, “The dark adaptation of retinal fields of different size and location,” J. Gen. Physiol. 19, 321–337 (1935).
[CrossRef]

1926 (1)

1865 (1)

H. Aubert, “Pysiologie der Netzhant,” Morgenstern xii, 394 (1865).

Aubert, H.

H. Aubert, “Pysiologie der Netzhant,” Morgenstern xii, 394 (1865).

Baker, H. D.

Bartlett, N. R.

N. R. Bartlett, “Dark adaptation and light adaptation,” in Vision and Visual Perception, C. H. Graham, ed. (Wiley, 1965), Chap. 8, p. 187.

Charman, W. N.

S. Plainis, I. J. Murray, and W. N. Charman, “The role of retinal adaptation in night driving,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 82, 682–688 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chase, A. M.

S. Hecht, C. Haig, and A. M. Chase, “The influence of light adaptation on subsequent dark adaptation of the eye,” J. Gen. Physiol. 20, 831–850 (1937).
[CrossRef]

Ciocoiu, J.

I. Heynderickx, J. Ciocoiu, and X. Y. Zhu, “Estimating eye adaptation for typical luminance values in the field of view while driving in urban streets,” in Proceedings of CIE Centenary Conference “Towards a New Century of Light” (2013), pp. 41–47.

Clark, A.

G. Wald and A. Clark, “Visual adaptation and the chemistry of the rods,” J. Gen. Physiol. 21, 93–105 (1937).
[CrossRef]

Crawford, B. H.

W. S. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, “The effect of a glaring light source on extrafoveal vision,” Proc. R. Soc. London B 122, 255–280 (1937).
[CrossRef]

de Groot, S. G.

Eriksson, L.

L. Eriksson, Design of Experiments: Principles and Applications (Umea: Umetrics AB, 2008).

Finkelstein, M. A.

D. C. Hood and M. A. Finkelstein, “Sensitivity to light,” in Handbook of Perception and Visual Performance, Volume 1: Sensory Processes and Perception, K. Boff, L. Kaufman, and J. Thomas, eds. (Wiley, 1986), pp. 5.1–5.66.

Gebhard, J. W.

Haig, C.

C. Haig, “The course of rod dark adaptation as influenced by the intensity and duration of pre-adaptation to light,” J. Gen. Physiol. 24, 735–751 (1941).
[CrossRef]

S. Hecht, C. Haig, and A. M. Chase, “The influence of light adaptation on subsequent dark adaptation of the eye,” J. Gen. Physiol. 20, 831–850 (1937).
[CrossRef]

S. Hecht, C. Haig, and G. Wald, “The dark adaptation of retinal fields of different size and location,” J. Gen. Physiol. 19, 321–337 (1935).
[CrossRef]

Hecht, S.

S. Hecht, C. Haig, and A. M. Chase, “The influence of light adaptation on subsequent dark adaptation of the eye,” J. Gen. Physiol. 20, 831–850 (1937).
[CrossRef]

S. Hecht, C. Haig, and G. Wald, “The dark adaptation of retinal fields of different size and location,” J. Gen. Physiol. 19, 321–337 (1935).
[CrossRef]

Heynderickx, I.

M. J. Murdoch and I. Heynderickx, “Veiling glare and perceived black in high dynamic range displays,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29, 559–566 (2012).
[CrossRef]

I. Heynderickx, J. Ciocoiu, and X. Y. Zhu, “Estimating eye adaptation for typical luminance values in the field of view while driving in urban streets,” in Proceedings of CIE Centenary Conference “Towards a New Century of Light” (2013), pp. 41–47.

Holladay, L. L.

Hood, D. C.

D. C. Hood and M. A. Finkelstein, “Sensitivity to light,” in Handbook of Perception and Visual Performance, Volume 1: Sensory Processes and Perception, K. Boff, L. Kaufman, and J. Thomas, eds. (Wiley, 1986), pp. 5.1–5.66.

McCulloch, C. E.

C. E. McCulloch and S. R. Searle, Generalized, Linear, and Mixed Models (Wiley, 2001).

Mote, F. A.

F. A. Mote and A. J. Riopelle, “The effect of varying the intensity and the duration of pre-exposure on subsequent dark adaptation in the human eye,” J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 46, 49–55 (1953).
[CrossRef]

F. A. Mote and A. J. Riopelle, “The effect of varying intensity and the duration of pre-exposure upon foveal dark adaptation,” J. Gen. Physiol. 34, 657–674 (1951).
[CrossRef]

Murdoch, M. J.

Murray, I. J.

S. Plainis, I. J. Murray, and W. N. Charman, “The role of retinal adaptation in night driving,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 82, 682–688 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Narisada, K.

K. Narisada, “Visual perception in non-uniform fields,” J. Light Visual Environ. 16, 33–40 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ohno, Y.

T. Uchida and Y. Ohno, “Effect of high luminance sources to peripheral adaptation state in mesopic range,” in Proceedings of CIE Centenary Conference “Towards a New Century of Light” (2013), pp. 529–536.

T. Uchida and Y. Ohno, “An experimental approach to a definition of the mesopic adaptation field,” in Proceedings of CIE (2012), pp. 71–76.

Plainis, S.

S. Plainis, I. J. Murray, and W. N. Charman, “The role of retinal adaptation in night driving,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 82, 682–688 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Riopelle, A. J.

F. A. Mote and A. J. Riopelle, “The effect of varying the intensity and the duration of pre-exposure on subsequent dark adaptation in the human eye,” J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 46, 49–55 (1953).
[CrossRef]

F. A. Mote and A. J. Riopelle, “The effect of varying intensity and the duration of pre-exposure upon foveal dark adaptation,” J. Gen. Physiol. 34, 657–674 (1951).
[CrossRef]

Searle, S. R.

C. E. McCulloch and S. R. Searle, Generalized, Linear, and Mixed Models (Wiley, 2001).

Stiles, W. S.

W. S. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, “The effect of a glaring light source on extrafoveal vision,” Proc. R. Soc. London B 122, 255–280 (1937).
[CrossRef]

Uchida, T.

T. Uchida and Y. Ohno, “An experimental approach to a definition of the mesopic adaptation field,” in Proceedings of CIE (2012), pp. 71–76.

T. Uchida and Y. Ohno, “Effect of high luminance sources to peripheral adaptation state in mesopic range,” in Proceedings of CIE Centenary Conference “Towards a New Century of Light” (2013), pp. 529–536.

Wald, G.

G. Wald and A. Clark, “Visual adaptation and the chemistry of the rods,” J. Gen. Physiol. 21, 93–105 (1937).
[CrossRef]

S. Hecht, C. Haig, and G. Wald, “The dark adaptation of retinal fields of different size and location,” J. Gen. Physiol. 19, 321–337 (1935).
[CrossRef]

Watson, A. B.

A. B. Watson and J. I. Yellott, “A unified formula for light-adapted pupil size,” J. Vis. 12(10):12, 1–12 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yellott, J. I.

A. B. Watson and J. I. Yellott, “A unified formula for light-adapted pupil size,” J. Vis. 12(10):12, 1–12 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, X. Y.

I. Heynderickx, J. Ciocoiu, and X. Y. Zhu, “Estimating eye adaptation for typical luminance values in the field of view while driving in urban streets,” in Proceedings of CIE Centenary Conference “Towards a New Century of Light” (2013), pp. 41–47.

J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. (1)

F. A. Mote and A. J. Riopelle, “The effect of varying the intensity and the duration of pre-exposure on subsequent dark adaptation in the human eye,” J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 46, 49–55 (1953).
[CrossRef]

J. Gen. Physiol. (5)

S. Hecht, C. Haig, and G. Wald, “The dark adaptation of retinal fields of different size and location,” J. Gen. Physiol. 19, 321–337 (1935).
[CrossRef]

G. Wald and A. Clark, “Visual adaptation and the chemistry of the rods,” J. Gen. Physiol. 21, 93–105 (1937).
[CrossRef]

C. Haig, “The course of rod dark adaptation as influenced by the intensity and duration of pre-adaptation to light,” J. Gen. Physiol. 24, 735–751 (1941).
[CrossRef]

S. Hecht, C. Haig, and A. M. Chase, “The influence of light adaptation on subsequent dark adaptation of the eye,” J. Gen. Physiol. 20, 831–850 (1937).
[CrossRef]

F. A. Mote and A. J. Riopelle, “The effect of varying intensity and the duration of pre-exposure upon foveal dark adaptation,” J. Gen. Physiol. 34, 657–674 (1951).
[CrossRef]

J. Light Visual Environ. (1)

K. Narisada, “Visual perception in non-uniform fields,” J. Light Visual Environ. 16, 33–40 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (4)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Vis. (1)

A. B. Watson and J. I. Yellott, “A unified formula for light-adapted pupil size,” J. Vis. 12(10):12, 1–12 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Morgenstern (1)

H. Aubert, “Pysiologie der Netzhant,” Morgenstern xii, 394 (1865).

Optom. Vis. Sci. (1)

S. Plainis, I. J. Murray, and W. N. Charman, “The role of retinal adaptation in night driving,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 82, 682–688 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Proc. R. Soc. London B (1)

W. S. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, “The effect of a glaring light source on extrafoveal vision,” Proc. R. Soc. London B 122, 255–280 (1937).
[CrossRef]

Vis. Colour Phys. Meas. Light Radiat. (1)

CIE 135/1, “Research note: disability glare,” Vis. Colour Phys. Meas. Light Radiat. 135, 6 (1999).

Other (7)

L. Eriksson, Design of Experiments: Principles and Applications (Umea: Umetrics AB, 2008).

C. E. McCulloch and S. R. Searle, Generalized, Linear, and Mixed Models (Wiley, 2001).

T. Uchida and Y. Ohno, “An experimental approach to a definition of the mesopic adaptation field,” in Proceedings of CIE (2012), pp. 71–76.

T. Uchida and Y. Ohno, “Effect of high luminance sources to peripheral adaptation state in mesopic range,” in Proceedings of CIE Centenary Conference “Towards a New Century of Light” (2013), pp. 529–536.

D. C. Hood and M. A. Finkelstein, “Sensitivity to light,” in Handbook of Perception and Visual Performance, Volume 1: Sensory Processes and Perception, K. Boff, L. Kaufman, and J. Thomas, eds. (Wiley, 1986), pp. 5.1–5.66.

I. Heynderickx, J. Ciocoiu, and X. Y. Zhu, “Estimating eye adaptation for typical luminance values in the field of view while driving in urban streets,” in Proceedings of CIE Centenary Conference “Towards a New Century of Light” (2013), pp. 41–47.

N. R. Bartlett, “Dark adaptation and light adaptation,” in Vision and Visual Perception, C. H. Graham, ed. (Wiley, 1965), Chap. 8, p. 187.

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Dark adaptation thresholds following different levels of preadaptation luminance values. Adapted from [11] after [3]. Estimates of the pupil size, necessary to convert the preadaptation luminance from trolands to cd/m2, were based on [12]. More specifically, the preadaptation luminance was calculated by means of the formula of de Groot and Gebhard (1952) [13], with a minimal diameter of 2 mm. For the dark adaptation period a diameter of 7.5 mm was used.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Photograph showing the experimental setup.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Examples of the spatially complex background as used in experiment E2. Both stimuli have a dark background containing a bright luminescent source (centered horizontally) and a dim target. The top image shows a luminescent source having a size of 1° at a distance of 5° from the target. The bottom image shows a 2° luminescent source at a distance of 10° from the target.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Graph showing the net adaptation time in seconds (on the x axis) for different the target luminance levels in cd/m2 (on the y axis) as measured for a target in a spatially uniform background (experiment E1).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Effect of size of the luminescent source on the net adaptation time for targets presented in a spatially complex background (experiment E2).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Effect of distance of the luminescent source on the net adaptation time for targets presented in a spatially complex background (experiment E2).

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Effect of luminance of the luminescent source on the net adaptation time for targets presented in a spatially complex background (experiment E2).

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Interaction effect between distance and luminance of the luminescent source on the net adaptation time (results of experiment E2).

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Net adaptation time in seconds (on the x axis) for different values of the target luminance (on the y axis) measured with the target in a spatially uniform background (experiment E1) or in a background with a low or high degree of complexity (experiment E2).

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Net adaptation time in seconds (on the x axis) for different values of the target luminance (on the y axis) measured with the target in a spatially uniform background without an orientation point (experiment E1) and with an orientation point (experiment E3).

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Net adaptation time in seconds (on the x axis) for different values of the target luminance (on the y axis) measured with the target in a background with either a low or high degree of complexity (experiment E2) or in a spatially uniform background with an orientation point (experiment E3).

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Estimated contribution of veiling luminance at the location of the target as a function of the distance between the target and the luminescent source, where the latter is characterized by its size and luminance value.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

Relationship between veiling luminance and adaptation time for the target with the lowest luminance value. (Pearson’s r=0.56, fitted curve R2=0.35).

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Target Luminance Values

Tables Icon

Table 2. Overview of the LMM Analyses Performed on the Data of the Three Experimentsa

Tables Icon

Table 3. Overview of the Output of Analysis LMM2 for the Data of Experiment E2, Regarding the Spatially Complex Background

Tables Icon

Table 4. Overview of the Estimated Marginal Mean (over all Target Luminance Values) and the Corresponding Standard Error of the Net Adaptation Time Measured for a Spatially Uniform Background (for Both Experiments E1 and E3) and for Two Variations of a Spatially Complex Background (of Experiment E2)

Equations (1)

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LeqEgl=10/(ϑ3+[5/(ϑ3+0.1*p/ϑ)])*{1+[A/(62.5)]4}+2.5*10(3)*p.

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