Abstract

The main objective of this work was to test the performance of major formulas for assessment of small suprathreshold color differences in the blue region. The models examined include CIELAB color space based equations, including CIELAB, CIE94, CIEDE2000, CMC (l:c), BFD (l:c), and formulas based on more uniform color spaces, such as DIN99d, CAM02-SCD, CAM02-UCS, OSA-GP, and OSA-Eu in comparison against data obtained via visual assessments. For this purpose, a dataset around the CIE high-chroma blue color center, hereafter called NCSU-B2, was developed. The NCSU-B2 dataset comprised 65 textile substrates and a standard, with a mean ΔEab* color difference of 2.72, ranging from 0.54–5.72. Samples were visually assessed by 26 subjects against the reference gray scale in three separate trials with at least 24 h between assessments. A total of 5070 assessments were obtained. The standardized residual sum of squares (STRESS) index was used to examine the performance of various formulas for this dataset, as well as a previously developed NCSU-B1 low-chroma blue dataset [Color Res. Appl. 36, 27, 2011], and blue centers from other established visual datasets. Results show that formulas based on more recent uniform color spaces provide better agreement with perceptual data compared with models based on CIELAB space.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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2012 (1)

2011 (4)

S. G. Lee, R. Shamey, D. Hinks, and W. Jasper, “Development of a comprehensive visual dataset based on a CIE blue color center: assessment of color difference formulae using various statistical methods,” Color Res. Appl. 36, 27–41 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Kirchner and N. Dekker, “Performance measures of color-difference equations: correlation coefficient versus standardized residual sum of squares,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 28, 1841–1848 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Melgosa, P. A. García, L. Gómez-Robledo, R. Shamey, D. Hinks, G. Cui, and M. R. Luo, “Notes on the application of the standardized residual sum of squares index for the assessment of intra- and inter-observer variability in color-difference experiments,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 28, 949–953 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Shen and R. S. Berns, “Color-difference formula performance for several datasets of small color differences based on visual uncertainty,” Color Res. Appl. 36, 15–26 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

2009 (3)

S. Morillas, L. Gómez-Robledo, R. Huertas, and M. Melgosa, “Fuzzy analysis for detection of inconsistent data in experimental datasets employed in the development of the CIEDE2000 colour-difference formula,” J. Mod. Opt. 56, 1447–1456 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Shen and R. S. Berns, “Evaluating color difference equation performance incorporating visual uncertainty,” Color Res. Appl. 34, 375–390 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Oleari, M. Melgosa, and R. Huertas, “Euclidean color-difference formula for small-medium color differences in log-compressed OSA–UCS space,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26, 121–134 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

2007 (2)

2006 (2)

2004 (1)

2002 (1)

G. Cui, M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, G. Roesler, and K. Witt, “Uniform colour spaces based on the DIN99 colour-difference formula,” Color Res. Appl. 27, 282–290 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and B. Rigg, “The development of the CIE 2000 colour-difference formula: CIEDE2000,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 340–350 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

K. Witt, “Geometric relations between scales of small colour differences,” Color Res. Appl. 24, 78–92 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

M. Melgosa, E. Hita, A. J. Poza, D. H. Alman, and R. S. Berns, “Suprathreshold color-difference ellipsoids for surface colors,” Color Res. Appl. 22, 148–155 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

K. Witt, “CIE guidelines for coordinated future work on industrial colour-difference evaluation,” Color Res. Appl. 20, 399–403 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

M. Melgosa, E. Hita, J. Romero, and L. J. Delbarco, “Color-discrimination thresholds translated from the CIE (x,y,Y) space to the CIE 1976 (L*, a*, b*),” Color Res. Appl. 19, 10–18 (1994).

1991 (1)

R. Berns, D. H. Alman, L. Reniff, G. D. Snyder, and M. R. Balonon-Rosen, “Visual determination of suprathreshold color-difference tolerances using probit analysis,” Color Res. Appl. 16, 297–316 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

D. H. Alman, R. S. Berns, G. D. Snyder, and W. A. Larsen, “Performance testing of color-difference metrics using a color tolerance dataset,” Color Res. Appl. 14, 139–151 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987 (3)

K. Witt, “Three-dimensional threshold of color-difference perceptibility in painted samples: variability of observers in four CIE color regions,” Color Res. Appl. 12, 128–134 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Luo and B. Rigg, “BFD (l:c) colour-difference formula part 1-development of the formula,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 103, 86–94 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Luo and B. Rigg, “BFD (l:c) colour-difference formula part 2-performance of the formula,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 103, 126–132 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (2)

M. Cheung and B. Rigg, “Colour-difference ellipsoids for five CIE colour centres,” Color Res. Appl. 11, 185–195 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Luo and B. Rigg, “Chromaticity-discrimination ellipses for surface colours,” Color Res. Appl. 11, 25–42 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

F. J. J. Clarke, R. McDonald, and B. Rigg, “Modification to the JPC79 colour–difference formula,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 100, 128–132 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (2)

K. Witt and G. Döring, “Parametric variations in a threshold color-difference ellipsoid for green painted samples,” Color Res. Appl. 8, 153–163 (1983).
[CrossRef]

D. Strocka, A. Brockes, and W. Paffhausen, “Influence of experimental parameters on the evaluation of color-difference ellipsoids,” Color Res. Appl. 8, 169–175 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

C. Alder, “A Monte Carlo method for the validation of discrimination ellipse data,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 97, 514–517 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

R. McDonald, “Industrial pass/fail colour matching part 1-preparation of visual colour-matching data,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 96, 372–376 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

A. R. Robertson, “CIE guidelines for coordinated research on color-difference evaluation,” Color Res. Appl. 2, 149–152 (1978).

1974 (2)

R. McDonald, “The effect of non–uniformity in ANLAB colour space interpretation of visual colour differences on the interpretation of visual colour differences,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 90, 189–198 (1974).
[CrossRef]

D. L. MacAdam, “Uniform color scales,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 1691–1702 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Alder, C.

C. Alder, “A Monte Carlo method for the validation of discrimination ellipse data,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 97, 514–517 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Alman, D. H.

M. Melgosa, E. Hita, A. J. Poza, D. H. Alman, and R. S. Berns, “Suprathreshold color-difference ellipsoids for surface colors,” Color Res. Appl. 22, 148–155 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Berns, D. H. Alman, L. Reniff, G. D. Snyder, and M. R. Balonon-Rosen, “Visual determination of suprathreshold color-difference tolerances using probit analysis,” Color Res. Appl. 16, 297–316 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Alman, R. S. Berns, G. D. Snyder, and W. A. Larsen, “Performance testing of color-difference metrics using a color tolerance dataset,” Color Res. Appl. 14, 139–151 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Balonon-Rosen, M. R.

R. Berns, D. H. Alman, L. Reniff, G. D. Snyder, and M. R. Balonon-Rosen, “Visual determination of suprathreshold color-difference tolerances using probit analysis,” Color Res. Appl. 16, 297–316 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Berns, R.

R. Berns, D. H. Alman, L. Reniff, G. D. Snyder, and M. R. Balonon-Rosen, “Visual determination of suprathreshold color-difference tolerances using probit analysis,” Color Res. Appl. 16, 297–316 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. Berns, “The mathematical development of CIE TC 1-29 proposed color difference equation: CIELCH,” in Proceedings AIC Colour 93 (1993), pp. C19-11–C19-14.

Berns, R. S.

S. Shen and R. S. Berns, “Color-difference formula performance for several datasets of small color differences based on visual uncertainty,” Color Res. Appl. 36, 15–26 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Shen and R. S. Berns, “Evaluating color difference equation performance incorporating visual uncertainty,” Color Res. Appl. 34, 375–390 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Melgosa, R. Huertas, and R. S. Berns, “Performance of recent advanced color-difference formulas using the standardized residual sum of squares index,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 1828–1834 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Melgosa, E. Hita, A. J. Poza, D. H. Alman, and R. S. Berns, “Suprathreshold color-difference ellipsoids for surface colors,” Color Res. Appl. 22, 148–155 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Alman, R. S. Berns, G. D. Snyder, and W. A. Larsen, “Performance testing of color-difference metrics using a color tolerance dataset,” Color Res. Appl. 14, 139–151 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Brockes, A.

D. Strocka, A. Brockes, and W. Paffhausen, “Influence of experimental parameters on the evaluation of color-difference ellipsoids,” Color Res. Appl. 8, 169–175 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Cardenas, L. M.

Cárdenas, L.

R. Shamey, D. Hinks, M. Melgosa, R. Luo, G. Cui, R. Huertas, L. Cárdenas, and S. G. Lee, “Evaluation of performance of twelve color-difference formulae using two NCSU experimental datasets,” in The 5th European Conference on Colour in Graphics, Imaging, and Vision and the 12th International Symposium on Multispectral Colour Science, Joensuu, 2010, pp. 423–428.

Cheung, M.

M. Cheung and B. Rigg, “Colour-difference ellipsoids for five CIE colour centres,” Color Res. Appl. 11, 185–195 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Clarke, F. J. J.

F. J. J. Clarke, R. McDonald, and B. Rigg, “Modification to the JPC79 colour–difference formula,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 100, 128–132 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Cui, G.

M. Huang, H. Liu, G. Cui, M. R. Luo, and M. Melgosa, “Evaluation of threshold color differences using printed samples,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29, 883–891 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Melgosa, P. A. García, L. Gómez-Robledo, R. Shamey, D. Hinks, G. Cui, and M. R. Luo, “Notes on the application of the standardized residual sum of squares index for the assessment of intra- and inter-observer variability in color-difference experiments,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 28, 949–953 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Garcia, R. Huertas, M. Melgosa, and G. Cui, “Measurement of the relationship between perceived and computed color differences,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1823–1829 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and C. Li, “Uniform colour spaces based on CIECAM02 colour appearance model,” Color Res. Appl. 31, 320–330 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Cui, M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, G. Roesler, and K. Witt, “Uniform colour spaces based on the DIN99 colour-difference formula,” Color Res. Appl. 27, 282–290 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and B. Rigg, “The development of the CIE 2000 colour-difference formula: CIEDE2000,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 340–350 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Shamey, D. Hinks, M. Melgosa, R. Luo, G. Cui, R. Huertas, L. Cárdenas, and S. G. Lee, “Evaluation of performance of twelve color-difference formulae using two NCSU experimental datasets,” in The 5th European Conference on Colour in Graphics, Imaging, and Vision and the 12th International Symposium on Multispectral Colour Science, Joensuu, 2010, pp. 423–428.

Dekker, N.

Delbarco, L. J.

M. Melgosa, E. Hita, J. Romero, and L. J. Delbarco, “Color-discrimination thresholds translated from the CIE (x,y,Y) space to the CIE 1976 (L*, a*, b*),” Color Res. Appl. 19, 10–18 (1994).

Döring, G.

K. Witt and G. Döring, “Parametric variations in a threshold color-difference ellipsoid for green painted samples,” Color Res. Appl. 8, 153–163 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Fang, G.

R. Shamey, J. Lin, W. Sawatwarakul, and G. Fang, “Evaluation of performance of several color-difference formulae using a new NCSU black experimental dataset,” in Color and Imaging Conference (2012), pp. 185–190.

Garcia, P. A.

García, P. A.

Gómez-Robledo, L.

M. Melgosa, P. A. García, L. Gómez-Robledo, R. Shamey, D. Hinks, G. Cui, and M. R. Luo, “Notes on the application of the standardized residual sum of squares index for the assessment of intra- and inter-observer variability in color-difference experiments,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 28, 949–953 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Morillas, L. Gómez-Robledo, R. Huertas, and M. Melgosa, “Fuzzy analysis for detection of inconsistent data in experimental datasets employed in the development of the CIEDE2000 colour-difference formula,” J. Mod. Opt. 56, 1447–1456 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hinks, D.

M. Melgosa, P. A. García, L. Gómez-Robledo, R. Shamey, D. Hinks, G. Cui, and M. R. Luo, “Notes on the application of the standardized residual sum of squares index for the assessment of intra- and inter-observer variability in color-difference experiments,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 28, 949–953 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Lee, R. Shamey, D. Hinks, and W. Jasper, “Development of a comprehensive visual dataset based on a CIE blue color center: assessment of color difference formulae using various statistical methods,” Color Res. Appl. 36, 27–41 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Shamey, L. M. Cardenas, D. Hinks, and R. Woodard, “Comparison of naïve and expert subjects in the assessment of small color differences,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 27, 1482–1489 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Shamey, D. Hinks, M. Melgosa, R. Luo, G. Cui, R. Huertas, L. Cárdenas, and S. G. Lee, “Evaluation of performance of twelve color-difference formulae using two NCSU experimental datasets,” in The 5th European Conference on Colour in Graphics, Imaging, and Vision and the 12th International Symposium on Multispectral Colour Science, Joensuu, 2010, pp. 423–428.

Hita, E.

M. Melgosa, E. Hita, A. J. Poza, D. H. Alman, and R. S. Berns, “Suprathreshold color-difference ellipsoids for surface colors,” Color Res. Appl. 22, 148–155 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Melgosa, E. Hita, J. Romero, and L. J. Delbarco, “Color-discrimination thresholds translated from the CIE (x,y,Y) space to the CIE 1976 (L*, a*, b*),” Color Res. Appl. 19, 10–18 (1994).

Huang, M.

Huertas, R.

S. Morillas, L. Gómez-Robledo, R. Huertas, and M. Melgosa, “Fuzzy analysis for detection of inconsistent data in experimental datasets employed in the development of the CIEDE2000 colour-difference formula,” J. Mod. Opt. 56, 1447–1456 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Oleari, M. Melgosa, and R. Huertas, “Euclidean color-difference formula for small-medium color differences in log-compressed OSA–UCS space,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26, 121–134 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Melgosa, R. Huertas, and R. S. Berns, “Performance of recent advanced color-difference formulas using the standardized residual sum of squares index,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 1828–1834 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Garcia, R. Huertas, M. Melgosa, and G. Cui, “Measurement of the relationship between perceived and computed color differences,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1823–1829 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Huertas, M. Melgosa, and C. Oleari, “Performance of a color-difference formula based on OSA–UCS space using small-medium color differences,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 2077–2084 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Shamey, D. Hinks, M. Melgosa, R. Luo, G. Cui, R. Huertas, L. Cárdenas, and S. G. Lee, “Evaluation of performance of twelve color-difference formulae using two NCSU experimental datasets,” in The 5th European Conference on Colour in Graphics, Imaging, and Vision and the 12th International Symposium on Multispectral Colour Science, Joensuu, 2010, pp. 423–428.

Jasper, W.

S. G. Lee, R. Shamey, D. Hinks, and W. Jasper, “Development of a comprehensive visual dataset based on a CIE blue color center: assessment of color difference formulae using various statistical methods,” Color Res. Appl. 36, 27–41 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. H.

D. H. Kim and J. H. Nobbs, “New weighting function for color difference formula,” AIC Color 97: Proceedings of the 8th Congress of the International Color Association, Kyoto, Japan, 1997, Vol. 1, p. 446.

Kirchner, E.

Kuehni, R. G.

R. G. Kuehni, “Color difference formulas: an unsatisfactory state of affairs,” Color Res. Appl. 33, 324–326 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Larsen, W. A.

D. H. Alman, R. S. Berns, G. D. Snyder, and W. A. Larsen, “Performance testing of color-difference metrics using a color tolerance dataset,” Color Res. Appl. 14, 139–151 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. G.

S. G. Lee, R. Shamey, D. Hinks, and W. Jasper, “Development of a comprehensive visual dataset based on a CIE blue color center: assessment of color difference formulae using various statistical methods,” Color Res. Appl. 36, 27–41 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Lee, “Assessment of metrics in color spaces,” Master’s Thesis (North Carolina State University, 2007).

R. Shamey, D. Hinks, M. Melgosa, R. Luo, G. Cui, R. Huertas, L. Cárdenas, and S. G. Lee, “Evaluation of performance of twelve color-difference formulae using two NCSU experimental datasets,” in The 5th European Conference on Colour in Graphics, Imaging, and Vision and the 12th International Symposium on Multispectral Colour Science, Joensuu, 2010, pp. 423–428.

Li, C.

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and C. Li, “Uniform colour spaces based on CIECAM02 colour appearance model,” Color Res. Appl. 31, 320–330 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J.

R. Shamey, J. Lin, W. Sawatwarakul, and G. Fang, “Evaluation of performance of several color-difference formulae using a new NCSU black experimental dataset,” in Color and Imaging Conference (2012), pp. 185–190.

Liu, H.

Luo, M. R.

M. Huang, H. Liu, G. Cui, M. R. Luo, and M. Melgosa, “Evaluation of threshold color differences using printed samples,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29, 883–891 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Melgosa, P. A. García, L. Gómez-Robledo, R. Shamey, D. Hinks, G. Cui, and M. R. Luo, “Notes on the application of the standardized residual sum of squares index for the assessment of intra- and inter-observer variability in color-difference experiments,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 28, 949–953 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and C. Li, “Uniform colour spaces based on CIECAM02 colour appearance model,” Color Res. Appl. 31, 320–330 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Cui, M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, G. Roesler, and K. Witt, “Uniform colour spaces based on the DIN99 colour-difference formula,” Color Res. Appl. 27, 282–290 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and B. Rigg, “The development of the CIE 2000 colour-difference formula: CIEDE2000,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 340–350 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Luo and B. Rigg, “BFD (l:c) colour-difference formula part 2-performance of the formula,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 103, 126–132 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Luo and B. Rigg, “BFD (l:c) colour-difference formula part 1-development of the formula,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 103, 86–94 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Luo and B. Rigg, “Chromaticity-discrimination ellipses for surface colours,” Color Res. Appl. 11, 25–42 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Luo, R.

R. Shamey, D. Hinks, M. Melgosa, R. Luo, G. Cui, R. Huertas, L. Cárdenas, and S. G. Lee, “Evaluation of performance of twelve color-difference formulae using two NCSU experimental datasets,” in The 5th European Conference on Colour in Graphics, Imaging, and Vision and the 12th International Symposium on Multispectral Colour Science, Joensuu, 2010, pp. 423–428.

MacAdam, D. L.

McDonald, R.

F. J. J. Clarke, R. McDonald, and B. Rigg, “Modification to the JPC79 colour–difference formula,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 100, 128–132 (1984).
[CrossRef]

R. McDonald, “Industrial pass/fail colour matching part 1-preparation of visual colour-matching data,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 96, 372–376 (1980).
[CrossRef]

R. McDonald, “The effect of non–uniformity in ANLAB colour space interpretation of visual colour differences on the interpretation of visual colour differences,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 90, 189–198 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Melgosa, M.

M. Huang, H. Liu, G. Cui, M. R. Luo, and M. Melgosa, “Evaluation of threshold color differences using printed samples,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29, 883–891 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Melgosa, P. A. García, L. Gómez-Robledo, R. Shamey, D. Hinks, G. Cui, and M. R. Luo, “Notes on the application of the standardized residual sum of squares index for the assessment of intra- and inter-observer variability in color-difference experiments,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 28, 949–953 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Morillas, L. Gómez-Robledo, R. Huertas, and M. Melgosa, “Fuzzy analysis for detection of inconsistent data in experimental datasets employed in the development of the CIEDE2000 colour-difference formula,” J. Mod. Opt. 56, 1447–1456 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Oleari, M. Melgosa, and R. Huertas, “Euclidean color-difference formula for small-medium color differences in log-compressed OSA–UCS space,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26, 121–134 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Melgosa, R. Huertas, and R. S. Berns, “Performance of recent advanced color-difference formulas using the standardized residual sum of squares index,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 1828–1834 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Garcia, R. Huertas, M. Melgosa, and G. Cui, “Measurement of the relationship between perceived and computed color differences,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1823–1829 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Melgosa, “Request for existing experimental datasets on color differences,” Color Res. Appl. 32, 159 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Huertas, M. Melgosa, and C. Oleari, “Performance of a color-difference formula based on OSA–UCS space using small-medium color differences,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 2077–2084 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Melgosa, E. Hita, A. J. Poza, D. H. Alman, and R. S. Berns, “Suprathreshold color-difference ellipsoids for surface colors,” Color Res. Appl. 22, 148–155 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Melgosa, E. Hita, J. Romero, and L. J. Delbarco, “Color-discrimination thresholds translated from the CIE (x,y,Y) space to the CIE 1976 (L*, a*, b*),” Color Res. Appl. 19, 10–18 (1994).

R. Shamey, D. Hinks, M. Melgosa, R. Luo, G. Cui, R. Huertas, L. Cárdenas, and S. G. Lee, “Evaluation of performance of twelve color-difference formulae using two NCSU experimental datasets,” in The 5th European Conference on Colour in Graphics, Imaging, and Vision and the 12th International Symposium on Multispectral Colour Science, Joensuu, 2010, pp. 423–428.

Morillas, S.

S. Morillas, L. Gómez-Robledo, R. Huertas, and M. Melgosa, “Fuzzy analysis for detection of inconsistent data in experimental datasets employed in the development of the CIEDE2000 colour-difference formula,” J. Mod. Opt. 56, 1447–1456 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Neitz, J.

J. Neitz, P. Summerfelt, and M. Neitz, “Neitz test for color vision” (Western Psychological Services, 2001).

Neitz, M.

J. Neitz, P. Summerfelt, and M. Neitz, “Neitz test for color vision” (Western Psychological Services, 2001).

Nobbs, J. H.

D. H. Kim and J. H. Nobbs, “New weighting function for color difference formula,” AIC Color 97: Proceedings of the 8th Congress of the International Color Association, Kyoto, Japan, 1997, Vol. 1, p. 446.

Oleari, C.

Paffhausen, W.

D. Strocka, A. Brockes, and W. Paffhausen, “Influence of experimental parameters on the evaluation of color-difference ellipsoids,” Color Res. Appl. 8, 169–175 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Poza, A. J.

M. Melgosa, E. Hita, A. J. Poza, D. H. Alman, and R. S. Berns, “Suprathreshold color-difference ellipsoids for surface colors,” Color Res. Appl. 22, 148–155 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Reniff, L.

R. Berns, D. H. Alman, L. Reniff, G. D. Snyder, and M. R. Balonon-Rosen, “Visual determination of suprathreshold color-difference tolerances using probit analysis,” Color Res. Appl. 16, 297–316 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Rigg, B.

G. Cui, M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, G. Roesler, and K. Witt, “Uniform colour spaces based on the DIN99 colour-difference formula,” Color Res. Appl. 27, 282–290 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and B. Rigg, “The development of the CIE 2000 colour-difference formula: CIEDE2000,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 340–350 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Luo and B. Rigg, “BFD (l:c) colour-difference formula part 2-performance of the formula,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 103, 126–132 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Luo and B. Rigg, “BFD (l:c) colour-difference formula part 1-development of the formula,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 103, 86–94 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. Cheung and B. Rigg, “Colour-difference ellipsoids for five CIE colour centres,” Color Res. Appl. 11, 185–195 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Luo and B. Rigg, “Chromaticity-discrimination ellipses for surface colours,” Color Res. Appl. 11, 25–42 (1986).
[CrossRef]

F. J. J. Clarke, R. McDonald, and B. Rigg, “Modification to the JPC79 colour–difference formula,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 100, 128–132 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Robertson, A. R.

A. R. Robertson, “CIE guidelines for coordinated research on color-difference evaluation,” Color Res. Appl. 2, 149–152 (1978).

Roesler, G.

G. Cui, M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, G. Roesler, and K. Witt, “Uniform colour spaces based on the DIN99 colour-difference formula,” Color Res. Appl. 27, 282–290 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Romero, J.

M. Melgosa, E. Hita, J. Romero, and L. J. Delbarco, “Color-discrimination thresholds translated from the CIE (x,y,Y) space to the CIE 1976 (L*, a*, b*),” Color Res. Appl. 19, 10–18 (1994).

Sawatwarakul, W.

R. Shamey, J. Lin, W. Sawatwarakul, and G. Fang, “Evaluation of performance of several color-difference formulae using a new NCSU black experimental dataset,” in Color and Imaging Conference (2012), pp. 185–190.

Shamey, R.

S. G. Lee, R. Shamey, D. Hinks, and W. Jasper, “Development of a comprehensive visual dataset based on a CIE blue color center: assessment of color difference formulae using various statistical methods,” Color Res. Appl. 36, 27–41 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Melgosa, P. A. García, L. Gómez-Robledo, R. Shamey, D. Hinks, G. Cui, and M. R. Luo, “Notes on the application of the standardized residual sum of squares index for the assessment of intra- and inter-observer variability in color-difference experiments,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 28, 949–953 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Shamey, L. M. Cardenas, D. Hinks, and R. Woodard, “Comparison of naïve and expert subjects in the assessment of small color differences,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 27, 1482–1489 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Shamey, J. Lin, W. Sawatwarakul, and G. Fang, “Evaluation of performance of several color-difference formulae using a new NCSU black experimental dataset,” in Color and Imaging Conference (2012), pp. 185–190.

R. Shamey, D. Hinks, M. Melgosa, R. Luo, G. Cui, R. Huertas, L. Cárdenas, and S. G. Lee, “Evaluation of performance of twelve color-difference formulae using two NCSU experimental datasets,” in The 5th European Conference on Colour in Graphics, Imaging, and Vision and the 12th International Symposium on Multispectral Colour Science, Joensuu, 2010, pp. 423–428.

Shen, S.

S. Shen and R. S. Berns, “Color-difference formula performance for several datasets of small color differences based on visual uncertainty,” Color Res. Appl. 36, 15–26 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Shen and R. S. Berns, “Evaluating color difference equation performance incorporating visual uncertainty,” Color Res. Appl. 34, 375–390 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Snyder, G. D.

R. Berns, D. H. Alman, L. Reniff, G. D. Snyder, and M. R. Balonon-Rosen, “Visual determination of suprathreshold color-difference tolerances using probit analysis,” Color Res. Appl. 16, 297–316 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Alman, R. S. Berns, G. D. Snyder, and W. A. Larsen, “Performance testing of color-difference metrics using a color tolerance dataset,” Color Res. Appl. 14, 139–151 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Strocka, D.

D. Strocka, A. Brockes, and W. Paffhausen, “Influence of experimental parameters on the evaluation of color-difference ellipsoids,” Color Res. Appl. 8, 169–175 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Summerfelt, P.

J. Neitz, P. Summerfelt, and M. Neitz, “Neitz test for color vision” (Western Psychological Services, 2001).

Witt, K.

G. Cui, M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, G. Roesler, and K. Witt, “Uniform colour spaces based on the DIN99 colour-difference formula,” Color Res. Appl. 27, 282–290 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Witt, “Geometric relations between scales of small colour differences,” Color Res. Appl. 24, 78–92 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Witt, “CIE guidelines for coordinated future work on industrial colour-difference evaluation,” Color Res. Appl. 20, 399–403 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Witt, “Three-dimensional threshold of color-difference perceptibility in painted samples: variability of observers in four CIE color regions,” Color Res. Appl. 12, 128–134 (1987).
[CrossRef]

K. Witt and G. Döring, “Parametric variations in a threshold color-difference ellipsoid for green painted samples,” Color Res. Appl. 8, 153–163 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Woodard, R.

Color Res. Appl. (20)

D. Strocka, A. Brockes, and W. Paffhausen, “Influence of experimental parameters on the evaluation of color-difference ellipsoids,” Color Res. Appl. 8, 169–175 (1983).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Luo and B. Rigg, “Chromaticity-discrimination ellipses for surface colours,” Color Res. Appl. 11, 25–42 (1986).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Alman, R. S. Berns, G. D. Snyder, and W. A. Larsen, “Performance testing of color-difference metrics using a color tolerance dataset,” Color Res. Appl. 14, 139–151 (1989).
[CrossRef]

R. Berns, D. H. Alman, L. Reniff, G. D. Snyder, and M. R. Balonon-Rosen, “Visual determination of suprathreshold color-difference tolerances using probit analysis,” Color Res. Appl. 16, 297–316 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Cheung and B. Rigg, “Colour-difference ellipsoids for five CIE colour centres,” Color Res. Appl. 11, 185–195 (1986).
[CrossRef]

K. Witt, “Three-dimensional threshold of color-difference perceptibility in painted samples: variability of observers in four CIE color regions,” Color Res. Appl. 12, 128–134 (1987).
[CrossRef]

K. Witt, “Geometric relations between scales of small colour differences,” Color Res. Appl. 24, 78–92 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Witt and G. Döring, “Parametric variations in a threshold color-difference ellipsoid for green painted samples,” Color Res. Appl. 8, 153–163 (1983).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and B. Rigg, “The development of the CIE 2000 colour-difference formula: CIEDE2000,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 340–350 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Melgosa, “Request for existing experimental datasets on color differences,” Color Res. Appl. 32, 159 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Kuehni, “Color difference formulas: an unsatisfactory state of affairs,” Color Res. Appl. 33, 324–326 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Witt, “CIE guidelines for coordinated future work on industrial colour-difference evaluation,” Color Res. Appl. 20, 399–403 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. Cui, M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, G. Roesler, and K. Witt, “Uniform colour spaces based on the DIN99 colour-difference formula,” Color Res. Appl. 27, 282–290 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Lee, R. Shamey, D. Hinks, and W. Jasper, “Development of a comprehensive visual dataset based on a CIE blue color center: assessment of color difference formulae using various statistical methods,” Color Res. Appl. 36, 27–41 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Robertson, “CIE guidelines for coordinated research on color-difference evaluation,” Color Res. Appl. 2, 149–152 (1978).

M. Melgosa, E. Hita, A. J. Poza, D. H. Alman, and R. S. Berns, “Suprathreshold color-difference ellipsoids for surface colors,” Color Res. Appl. 22, 148–155 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Shen and R. S. Berns, “Evaluating color difference equation performance incorporating visual uncertainty,” Color Res. Appl. 34, 375–390 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and C. Li, “Uniform colour spaces based on CIECAM02 colour appearance model,” Color Res. Appl. 31, 320–330 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Shen and R. S. Berns, “Color-difference formula performance for several datasets of small color differences based on visual uncertainty,” Color Res. Appl. 36, 15–26 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Melgosa, E. Hita, J. Romero, and L. J. Delbarco, “Color-discrimination thresholds translated from the CIE (x,y,Y) space to the CIE 1976 (L*, a*, b*),” Color Res. Appl. 19, 10–18 (1994).

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

S. Morillas, L. Gómez-Robledo, R. Huertas, and M. Melgosa, “Fuzzy analysis for detection of inconsistent data in experimental datasets employed in the development of the CIEDE2000 colour-difference formula,” J. Mod. Opt. 56, 1447–1456 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (9)

C. Oleari, “Color opponencies in the system of the uniform color scales of the Optical Society of America,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 677–682 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Huertas, M. Melgosa, and C. Oleari, “Performance of a color-difference formula based on OSA–UCS space using small-medium color differences,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 2077–2084 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Oleari, M. Melgosa, and R. Huertas, “Euclidean color-difference formula for small-medium color differences in log-compressed OSA–UCS space,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26, 121–134 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Garcia, R. Huertas, M. Melgosa, and G. Cui, “Measurement of the relationship between perceived and computed color differences,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1823–1829 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Kirchner and N. Dekker, “Performance measures of color-difference equations: correlation coefficient versus standardized residual sum of squares,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 28, 1841–1848 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Melgosa, P. A. García, L. Gómez-Robledo, R. Shamey, D. Hinks, G. Cui, and M. R. Luo, “Notes on the application of the standardized residual sum of squares index for the assessment of intra- and inter-observer variability in color-difference experiments,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 28, 949–953 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Melgosa, R. Huertas, and R. S. Berns, “Performance of recent advanced color-difference formulas using the standardized residual sum of squares index,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 1828–1834 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Shamey, L. M. Cardenas, D. Hinks, and R. Woodard, “Comparison of naïve and expert subjects in the assessment of small color differences,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 27, 1482–1489 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Huang, H. Liu, G. Cui, M. R. Luo, and M. Melgosa, “Evaluation of threshold color differences using printed samples,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29, 883–891 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Soc. Dyers Colour. (6)

R. McDonald, “The effect of non–uniformity in ANLAB colour space interpretation of visual colour differences on the interpretation of visual colour differences,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 90, 189–198 (1974).
[CrossRef]

C. Alder, “A Monte Carlo method for the validation of discrimination ellipse data,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 97, 514–517 (1981).
[CrossRef]

R. McDonald, “Industrial pass/fail colour matching part 1-preparation of visual colour-matching data,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 96, 372–376 (1980).
[CrossRef]

F. J. J. Clarke, R. McDonald, and B. Rigg, “Modification to the JPC79 colour–difference formula,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 100, 128–132 (1984).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Luo and B. Rigg, “BFD (l:c) colour-difference formula part 1-development of the formula,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 103, 86–94 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Luo and B. Rigg, “BFD (l:c) colour-difference formula part 2-performance of the formula,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 103, 126–132 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Other (12)

R. Berns, “The mathematical development of CIE TC 1-29 proposed color difference equation: CIELCH,” in Proceedings AIC Colour 93 (1993), pp. C19-11–C19-14.

CIE, “Industrial colour-difference evaluation,” (CIE Central Bureau, 2001).

R. Shamey, D. Hinks, M. Melgosa, R. Luo, G. Cui, R. Huertas, L. Cárdenas, and S. G. Lee, “Evaluation of performance of twelve color-difference formulae using two NCSU experimental datasets,” in The 5th European Conference on Colour in Graphics, Imaging, and Vision and the 12th International Symposium on Multispectral Colour Science, Joensuu, 2010, pp. 423–428.

“DIN6176: Farbmetrische Bestimmung von Farbabstanden bei Koroerfarben nach der DIN99-Formael” (DIN: Deutsches Institut für Normung e.V., 2000).

“ http://home.comcast.net/~sharov/PopEcol/tables/f005.html ,” retrieved April, 2012.

International Organization of Standardization, “Tests for colour fastness—part A05: instrumental assessment of change in colour for determination of grey scale rating,” (ISO, 1996).

S. G. Lee, “Assessment of metrics in color spaces,” Master’s Thesis (North Carolina State University, 2007).

J. Neitz, P. Summerfelt, and M. Neitz, “Neitz test for color vision” (Western Psychological Services, 2001).

AATCC Evaluation Procedure 1-2007, “Gray scale for color change” (American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists, 2007).

CIE, “Parametric effects in color difference evaluation,” (CIE Central Bureau, 1993).

D. H. Kim and J. H. Nobbs, “New weighting function for color difference formula,” AIC Color 97: Proceedings of the 8th Congress of the International Color Association, Kyoto, Japan, 1997, Vol. 1, p. 446.

R. Shamey, J. Lin, W. Sawatwarakul, and G. Fang, “Evaluation of performance of several color-difference formulae using a new NCSU black experimental dataset,” in Color and Imaging Conference (2012), pp. 185–190.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Distribution of NCSU-B2 samples on CIEL * a * b * color space (red star represents the standard), as well as two samples mounted on gray plastic backing.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Visual assessment setup involving 45/0 illumination viewing geometry, and a custom made sample stand, painted in neutral gray, which housed the standard and test samples; as well as the AATCC gray scale used in this study.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Subject accuracy, expressed by STRESS.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Subject repeatability, expressed by STRESS.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Scatter plot of visual difference ( Δ V ) against calculated color difference ( Δ E ).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Unit contour perceptibility ellipses for various blue color centers on the a * b * plane.

Tables (6)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Relative Contributions of Lightness, Chroma, and Hue Differences to Overall Δ E a b * in NCSU-B2 Dataset

Tables Icon

Table 2. STRESS Values for Blue Color Pairs in Various Datasets Using Select Color-Difference Formulas at Different k L or l Settings a

Tables Icon

Table 3. Significance Test for the NCSU-B2 Dataset a

Tables Icon

Table 4. STRESS Values for CIEDE2000, CIE94, CMC, BFD, and Their Reduced Forms for NCSU-B2

Tables Icon

Table 5. Parameters of Ellipses Fitted for the Bluish Color Centers in the CIEL * a * b * > Space

Tables Icon

Table 6. Colorimetric Attributes of All High-Chroma Blue Samples and Mean Visual Difference with Their Standard Deviation (SD) a

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ V = 0.21 × G 3 + 2.684 × G 2 12.84 × G + 23.5 ,
S 2 = ( Δ V 2 Δ E 2 ) 2 ,
Δ E 2 = g 11 ( Δ a * ) 2 + g 22 ( Δ b * ) 2 + g 33 ( Δ L * ) 2 + 2 g 12 ( Δ a * ) ( Δ b * ) + 2 g 13 ( Δ a * ) ( Δ L * ) + 2 g 23 ( Δ b * ) ( Δ L * ) .

Metrics