Abstract

The majority of work on the perception of gloss has been performed using smooth surfaces (e.g., spheres). Previous studies that have employed more complex surfaces reported that increasing mesoscale roughness increases perceived gloss [Psychol. Sci. 19, 196 (2008), J. Vis. 10(9), 13 (2010), Curr. Biol. 22, 1909 (2012)]. We show that the use of realistic rendering conditions is important and that, in contrast to [Psychol. Sci. 19, 196 (2008), J. Vis. 10(9), 13 (2010)], after a certain point increasing roughness further actually reduces glossiness. We investigate five image statistics of estimated highlights and show that for our stimuli, one in particular, which we term “percentage of highlight area,” is highly correlated with perceived gloss. We investigate a simple model that explains the unimodal, nonmonotonic relationship between mesoscale roughness and percentage highlight area.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. E. H. Adelson, “On seeing stuff: the perception of materials by humans and machines,” Proc. SPIE 4299, 1–12 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  2. F. Pellacini, J. A. Ferwerda, and D. P. Greenberg, “Toward a psychophysically-based light reflection model for image synthesis,” in SIGGRAPH ‘00: Proceedings of the 27th Annual Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques (ACM/Addison-Wesley, 2000), pp. 55–64.
  3. W. Fleming, R. O. Dror, and E. H. Adelson, “How do humans determine reflectance properties under unknown illumination,” in Proceedings of CVPR Workshop on Identifying Objects Across Variations in Lighting: Psychophysics and Computation (2001), pp. 347–368.
  4. B. Xiao and D. H. Brainard, “Surface gloss and color perception of 3D objects,” Vis. Neurosci. 25, 371–385 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. W. A. Wijntjes and S. C. Pont, “Illusory gloss on Lambertian surfaces,” J. Vis. 10(9):13, 1–12 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Nishida and M. Shinya, “Use of image-based information in judgments of surface-reflectance properties,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 2951–2965 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. Wendt, F. Faul, and R. Mausfeld, “Highlight disparity contributes to the authenticity and strength of perceived glossiness,” J. Vis. 8(1):14, 1–10 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. Ho, M. Landy, and L. Maloney, “Conjoint measurement of gloss and surface texture,” Psychol. Sci. 19, 196–204 (2008).
  9. R. W. Fleming, R. O. Dror, and E. H. Adelson, “Real-world illumination and the perception of surface reflectance properties,” J. Vis. 3(5):3, 347–368 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. O. Dror, A. S. Willsky, and E. H. Adelson, “Statistical characterization of real-world illumination,” J. Vis. 4(9):11, 821–837 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. K. Doerschner, H. Boyaci, and L. T. Maloney, “Estimating the glossiness transfer function induced by illumination change and testing its transitivity,” J. Vis. 10(4):8, 1–9 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Olkkonen and D. H. Brainard, “Perceived glossiness and lightness under real-world illumination,” J. Vis. 10(9):5, 1–19 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Olkkonen and D. H. Brainard, “Joint effects of illumination geometry and object shape in the perception of surface reflectance,” i-Perception 2, 1014–1034 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  14. P. Vangorp, J. Laurijssen, and P. Dutré, “The influence of shape on the perception of material reflectance,” in SIGGRAPH ‘07: ACM SIGGRAPH 2007 Papers (ACM, 2007), p. 77.
  15. P. Marlow, K. Juno, and B. L. Anderson, “The perception and misperception of specular surface reflectance,” Curr. Biol. 22, 1909–1913 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. Padilla, “Mathematical models for perceived roughness of three-dimensional surface textures,” Ph.D. thesis (Heriot-Watt University, 2008).
  17. P. Kube and A. Pentland, “On the imaging of fractal surfaces,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 10, 704–707 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  18. W. Ji, M. R. Pointer, R. M. Luo, and J. Dakin, “Gloss as an aspect of the measurement of appearance,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 22–33 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  19. S. Padilla, O. Drbohlav, P. R. Green, A. Spence, and M. J. Chantler, “Perceived roughness of 1/fβ noise surfaces,” Vis. Res. 48, 1791–1797 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  20. P. E. Debevec and J. Malik, “Recovering high dynamic range radiance maps from photographs,” in SIGGRAPH ‘97: Proceedings of the 24th Annual Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques (ACM/Addison-Wesley, 1997), pp. 369–378.
  21. M. Ashikhmin and P. Shirley, “An anisotropic phong BRDF model,” J. Graph. Tools 5, 25–32 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  22. We did not choose the Ward model that Ho et al. used in [8] because of the different rendering software we employed. These two models are similar in terms of form and rendering outcome. We believe this will not influence our stimuli and experiment.
  23. J. A. Ferwerda, F. Pellacini, and D. P. Greenberg, “A psychophysically-based model of surface gloss perception,” Proc. SPIE 4299, pp. 291–301 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  24. J. Beck and S. Prazdny, “Highlights and the perception of glossiness,” Atten. Percept. Psychophys. 30, 407–410 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  25. A. Blake and H. H. Bülthoff, “Does the brain know the physics of specular reflection?” Nature 343, 165–168 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  26. J. Kim, P. Marlow, and B. L. Anderson, “The perception of gloss depends on highlight congruence with surface shading,” J. Vis. 11(9):4, 1–19 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  27. P. Marlow, J. Kim, and B. L. Anderson, “The role of brightness and orientation congruence in the perception of surface gloss,” J. Vis. 11(9):16, 1–12 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  28. F. B. Leloup, M. R. Pointer, P. Dutré, and P. Hanselaer, “Luminance-based specular gloss characterization,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 28, 1322–1330 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  29. J. Berzhanskaya, G. Swaminathan, J. Beck, and E. Mingolla, “Remote effects of highlights on gloss perception,” Perception 34, 565–575 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  30. J. B. Phillips, J. A. Ferwerda, and A. Nunziata, “Gloss discrimination and eye movements,” Proc. SPIE 7527, 75270Z (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  31. B. L. Anderson and J. Kim, “Image statistics do not explain the perception of gloss and lightness,” J. Vis. 9(11):10, 1–17 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  32. M. Oren and S. Nayar, “Generalization of the Lambertian model and implications for machine vision,” Int. J. Comput. Vis. 14, 227–251 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  33. J. Löw, J. Kronander, A. Ynnerman, and J. Unger, “BRDF models for accurate and efficient rendering of glossy surfaces,” ACM Trans. Graph. 31, 1–14 (2012).
    [CrossRef]

2012

P. Marlow, K. Juno, and B. L. Anderson, “The perception and misperception of specular surface reflectance,” Curr. Biol. 22, 1909–1913 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Löw, J. Kronander, A. Ynnerman, and J. Unger, “BRDF models for accurate and efficient rendering of glossy surfaces,” ACM Trans. Graph. 31, 1–14 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

F. B. Leloup, M. R. Pointer, P. Dutré, and P. Hanselaer, “Luminance-based specular gloss characterization,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 28, 1322–1330 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Olkkonen and D. H. Brainard, “Joint effects of illumination geometry and object shape in the perception of surface reflectance,” i-Perception 2, 1014–1034 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Kim, P. Marlow, and B. L. Anderson, “The perception of gloss depends on highlight congruence with surface shading,” J. Vis. 11(9):4, 1–19 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Marlow, J. Kim, and B. L. Anderson, “The role of brightness and orientation congruence in the perception of surface gloss,” J. Vis. 11(9):16, 1–12 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

K. Doerschner, H. Boyaci, and L. T. Maloney, “Estimating the glossiness transfer function induced by illumination change and testing its transitivity,” J. Vis. 10(4):8, 1–9 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Olkkonen and D. H. Brainard, “Perceived glossiness and lightness under real-world illumination,” J. Vis. 10(9):5, 1–19 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. W. A. Wijntjes and S. C. Pont, “Illusory gloss on Lambertian surfaces,” J. Vis. 10(9):13, 1–12 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Phillips, J. A. Ferwerda, and A. Nunziata, “Gloss discrimination and eye movements,” Proc. SPIE 7527, 75270Z (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

B. L. Anderson and J. Kim, “Image statistics do not explain the perception of gloss and lightness,” J. Vis. 9(11):10, 1–17 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

G. Wendt, F. Faul, and R. Mausfeld, “Highlight disparity contributes to the authenticity and strength of perceived glossiness,” J. Vis. 8(1):14, 1–10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ho, M. Landy, and L. Maloney, “Conjoint measurement of gloss and surface texture,” Psychol. Sci. 19, 196–204 (2008).

B. Xiao and D. H. Brainard, “Surface gloss and color perception of 3D objects,” Vis. Neurosci. 25, 371–385 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Padilla, O. Drbohlav, P. R. Green, A. Spence, and M. J. Chantler, “Perceived roughness of 1/fβ noise surfaces,” Vis. Res. 48, 1791–1797 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006

2005

J. Berzhanskaya, G. Swaminathan, J. Beck, and E. Mingolla, “Remote effects of highlights on gloss perception,” Perception 34, 565–575 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

R. O. Dror, A. S. Willsky, and E. H. Adelson, “Statistical characterization of real-world illumination,” J. Vis. 4(9):11, 821–837 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

R. W. Fleming, R. O. Dror, and E. H. Adelson, “Real-world illumination and the perception of surface reflectance properties,” J. Vis. 3(5):3, 347–368 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

J. A. Ferwerda, F. Pellacini, and D. P. Greenberg, “A psychophysically-based model of surface gloss perception,” Proc. SPIE 4299, pp. 291–301 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. H. Adelson, “On seeing stuff: the perception of materials by humans and machines,” Proc. SPIE 4299, 1–12 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

M. Ashikhmin and P. Shirley, “An anisotropic phong BRDF model,” J. Graph. Tools 5, 25–32 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

1995

M. Oren and S. Nayar, “Generalization of the Lambertian model and implications for machine vision,” Int. J. Comput. Vis. 14, 227–251 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1990

A. Blake and H. H. Bülthoff, “Does the brain know the physics of specular reflection?” Nature 343, 165–168 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988

P. Kube and A. Pentland, “On the imaging of fractal surfaces,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 10, 704–707 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1981

J. Beck and S. Prazdny, “Highlights and the perception of glossiness,” Atten. Percept. Psychophys. 30, 407–410 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Adelson, E. H.

R. O. Dror, A. S. Willsky, and E. H. Adelson, “Statistical characterization of real-world illumination,” J. Vis. 4(9):11, 821–837 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Fleming, R. O. Dror, and E. H. Adelson, “Real-world illumination and the perception of surface reflectance properties,” J. Vis. 3(5):3, 347–368 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. H. Adelson, “On seeing stuff: the perception of materials by humans and machines,” Proc. SPIE 4299, 1–12 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. Fleming, R. O. Dror, and E. H. Adelson, “How do humans determine reflectance properties under unknown illumination,” in Proceedings of CVPR Workshop on Identifying Objects Across Variations in Lighting: Psychophysics and Computation (2001), pp. 347–368.

Anderson, B. L.

P. Marlow, K. Juno, and B. L. Anderson, “The perception and misperception of specular surface reflectance,” Curr. Biol. 22, 1909–1913 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Kim, P. Marlow, and B. L. Anderson, “The perception of gloss depends on highlight congruence with surface shading,” J. Vis. 11(9):4, 1–19 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Marlow, J. Kim, and B. L. Anderson, “The role of brightness and orientation congruence in the perception of surface gloss,” J. Vis. 11(9):16, 1–12 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. L. Anderson and J. Kim, “Image statistics do not explain the perception of gloss and lightness,” J. Vis. 9(11):10, 1–17 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ashikhmin, M.

M. Ashikhmin and P. Shirley, “An anisotropic phong BRDF model,” J. Graph. Tools 5, 25–32 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Beck, J.

J. Berzhanskaya, G. Swaminathan, J. Beck, and E. Mingolla, “Remote effects of highlights on gloss perception,” Perception 34, 565–575 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Beck and S. Prazdny, “Highlights and the perception of glossiness,” Atten. Percept. Psychophys. 30, 407–410 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Berzhanskaya, J.

J. Berzhanskaya, G. Swaminathan, J. Beck, and E. Mingolla, “Remote effects of highlights on gloss perception,” Perception 34, 565–575 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Blake, A.

A. Blake and H. H. Bülthoff, “Does the brain know the physics of specular reflection?” Nature 343, 165–168 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Boyaci, H.

K. Doerschner, H. Boyaci, and L. T. Maloney, “Estimating the glossiness transfer function induced by illumination change and testing its transitivity,” J. Vis. 10(4):8, 1–9 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Brainard, D. H.

M. Olkkonen and D. H. Brainard, “Joint effects of illumination geometry and object shape in the perception of surface reflectance,” i-Perception 2, 1014–1034 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Olkkonen and D. H. Brainard, “Perceived glossiness and lightness under real-world illumination,” J. Vis. 10(9):5, 1–19 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Xiao and D. H. Brainard, “Surface gloss and color perception of 3D objects,” Vis. Neurosci. 25, 371–385 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bülthoff, H. H.

A. Blake and H. H. Bülthoff, “Does the brain know the physics of specular reflection?” Nature 343, 165–168 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Chantler, M. J.

S. Padilla, O. Drbohlav, P. R. Green, A. Spence, and M. J. Chantler, “Perceived roughness of 1/fβ noise surfaces,” Vis. Res. 48, 1791–1797 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dakin, J.

Debevec, P. E.

P. E. Debevec and J. Malik, “Recovering high dynamic range radiance maps from photographs,” in SIGGRAPH ‘97: Proceedings of the 24th Annual Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques (ACM/Addison-Wesley, 1997), pp. 369–378.

Doerschner, K.

K. Doerschner, H. Boyaci, and L. T. Maloney, “Estimating the glossiness transfer function induced by illumination change and testing its transitivity,” J. Vis. 10(4):8, 1–9 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Drbohlav, O.

S. Padilla, O. Drbohlav, P. R. Green, A. Spence, and M. J. Chantler, “Perceived roughness of 1/fβ noise surfaces,” Vis. Res. 48, 1791–1797 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dror, R. O.

R. O. Dror, A. S. Willsky, and E. H. Adelson, “Statistical characterization of real-world illumination,” J. Vis. 4(9):11, 821–837 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Fleming, R. O. Dror, and E. H. Adelson, “Real-world illumination and the perception of surface reflectance properties,” J. Vis. 3(5):3, 347–368 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Fleming, R. O. Dror, and E. H. Adelson, “How do humans determine reflectance properties under unknown illumination,” in Proceedings of CVPR Workshop on Identifying Objects Across Variations in Lighting: Psychophysics and Computation (2001), pp. 347–368.

Dutré, P.

F. B. Leloup, M. R. Pointer, P. Dutré, and P. Hanselaer, “Luminance-based specular gloss characterization,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 28, 1322–1330 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Vangorp, J. Laurijssen, and P. Dutré, “The influence of shape on the perception of material reflectance,” in SIGGRAPH ‘07: ACM SIGGRAPH 2007 Papers (ACM, 2007), p. 77.

Faul, F.

G. Wendt, F. Faul, and R. Mausfeld, “Highlight disparity contributes to the authenticity and strength of perceived glossiness,” J. Vis. 8(1):14, 1–10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ferwerda, J. A.

J. B. Phillips, J. A. Ferwerda, and A. Nunziata, “Gloss discrimination and eye movements,” Proc. SPIE 7527, 75270Z (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Ferwerda, F. Pellacini, and D. P. Greenberg, “A psychophysically-based model of surface gloss perception,” Proc. SPIE 4299, pp. 291–301 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Pellacini, J. A. Ferwerda, and D. P. Greenberg, “Toward a psychophysically-based light reflection model for image synthesis,” in SIGGRAPH ‘00: Proceedings of the 27th Annual Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques (ACM/Addison-Wesley, 2000), pp. 55–64.

Fleming, R. W.

R. W. Fleming, R. O. Dror, and E. H. Adelson, “Real-world illumination and the perception of surface reflectance properties,” J. Vis. 3(5):3, 347–368 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fleming, W.

W. Fleming, R. O. Dror, and E. H. Adelson, “How do humans determine reflectance properties under unknown illumination,” in Proceedings of CVPR Workshop on Identifying Objects Across Variations in Lighting: Psychophysics and Computation (2001), pp. 347–368.

Green, P. R.

S. Padilla, O. Drbohlav, P. R. Green, A. Spence, and M. J. Chantler, “Perceived roughness of 1/fβ noise surfaces,” Vis. Res. 48, 1791–1797 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Greenberg, D. P.

J. A. Ferwerda, F. Pellacini, and D. P. Greenberg, “A psychophysically-based model of surface gloss perception,” Proc. SPIE 4299, pp. 291–301 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Pellacini, J. A. Ferwerda, and D. P. Greenberg, “Toward a psychophysically-based light reflection model for image synthesis,” in SIGGRAPH ‘00: Proceedings of the 27th Annual Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques (ACM/Addison-Wesley, 2000), pp. 55–64.

Hanselaer, P.

Ho, Y.

Y. Ho, M. Landy, and L. Maloney, “Conjoint measurement of gloss and surface texture,” Psychol. Sci. 19, 196–204 (2008).

Ji, W.

Juno, K.

P. Marlow, K. Juno, and B. L. Anderson, “The perception and misperception of specular surface reflectance,” Curr. Biol. 22, 1909–1913 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

J. Kim, P. Marlow, and B. L. Anderson, “The perception of gloss depends on highlight congruence with surface shading,” J. Vis. 11(9):4, 1–19 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Marlow, J. Kim, and B. L. Anderson, “The role of brightness and orientation congruence in the perception of surface gloss,” J. Vis. 11(9):16, 1–12 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. L. Anderson and J. Kim, “Image statistics do not explain the perception of gloss and lightness,” J. Vis. 9(11):10, 1–17 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kronander, J.

J. Löw, J. Kronander, A. Ynnerman, and J. Unger, “BRDF models for accurate and efficient rendering of glossy surfaces,” ACM Trans. Graph. 31, 1–14 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kube, P.

P. Kube and A. Pentland, “On the imaging of fractal surfaces,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 10, 704–707 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Landy, M.

Y. Ho, M. Landy, and L. Maloney, “Conjoint measurement of gloss and surface texture,” Psychol. Sci. 19, 196–204 (2008).

Laurijssen, J.

P. Vangorp, J. Laurijssen, and P. Dutré, “The influence of shape on the perception of material reflectance,” in SIGGRAPH ‘07: ACM SIGGRAPH 2007 Papers (ACM, 2007), p. 77.

Leloup, F. B.

Löw, J.

J. Löw, J. Kronander, A. Ynnerman, and J. Unger, “BRDF models for accurate and efficient rendering of glossy surfaces,” ACM Trans. Graph. 31, 1–14 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Luo, R. M.

Malik, J.

P. E. Debevec and J. Malik, “Recovering high dynamic range radiance maps from photographs,” in SIGGRAPH ‘97: Proceedings of the 24th Annual Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques (ACM/Addison-Wesley, 1997), pp. 369–378.

Maloney, L.

Y. Ho, M. Landy, and L. Maloney, “Conjoint measurement of gloss and surface texture,” Psychol. Sci. 19, 196–204 (2008).

Maloney, L. T.

K. Doerschner, H. Boyaci, and L. T. Maloney, “Estimating the glossiness transfer function induced by illumination change and testing its transitivity,” J. Vis. 10(4):8, 1–9 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Marlow, P.

P. Marlow, K. Juno, and B. L. Anderson, “The perception and misperception of specular surface reflectance,” Curr. Biol. 22, 1909–1913 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Kim, P. Marlow, and B. L. Anderson, “The perception of gloss depends on highlight congruence with surface shading,” J. Vis. 11(9):4, 1–19 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Marlow, J. Kim, and B. L. Anderson, “The role of brightness and orientation congruence in the perception of surface gloss,” J. Vis. 11(9):16, 1–12 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mausfeld, R.

G. Wendt, F. Faul, and R. Mausfeld, “Highlight disparity contributes to the authenticity and strength of perceived glossiness,” J. Vis. 8(1):14, 1–10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mingolla, E.

J. Berzhanskaya, G. Swaminathan, J. Beck, and E. Mingolla, “Remote effects of highlights on gloss perception,” Perception 34, 565–575 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nayar, S.

M. Oren and S. Nayar, “Generalization of the Lambertian model and implications for machine vision,” Int. J. Comput. Vis. 14, 227–251 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nishida, S.

Nunziata, A.

J. B. Phillips, J. A. Ferwerda, and A. Nunziata, “Gloss discrimination and eye movements,” Proc. SPIE 7527, 75270Z (2010).
[CrossRef]

Olkkonen, M.

M. Olkkonen and D. H. Brainard, “Joint effects of illumination geometry and object shape in the perception of surface reflectance,” i-Perception 2, 1014–1034 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Olkkonen and D. H. Brainard, “Perceived glossiness and lightness under real-world illumination,” J. Vis. 10(9):5, 1–19 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Oren, M.

M. Oren and S. Nayar, “Generalization of the Lambertian model and implications for machine vision,” Int. J. Comput. Vis. 14, 227–251 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Padilla, S.

S. Padilla, O. Drbohlav, P. R. Green, A. Spence, and M. J. Chantler, “Perceived roughness of 1/fβ noise surfaces,” Vis. Res. 48, 1791–1797 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Padilla, “Mathematical models for perceived roughness of three-dimensional surface textures,” Ph.D. thesis (Heriot-Watt University, 2008).

Pellacini, F.

J. A. Ferwerda, F. Pellacini, and D. P. Greenberg, “A psychophysically-based model of surface gloss perception,” Proc. SPIE 4299, pp. 291–301 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Pellacini, J. A. Ferwerda, and D. P. Greenberg, “Toward a psychophysically-based light reflection model for image synthesis,” in SIGGRAPH ‘00: Proceedings of the 27th Annual Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques (ACM/Addison-Wesley, 2000), pp. 55–64.

Pentland, A.

P. Kube and A. Pentland, “On the imaging of fractal surfaces,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 10, 704–707 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, J. B.

J. B. Phillips, J. A. Ferwerda, and A. Nunziata, “Gloss discrimination and eye movements,” Proc. SPIE 7527, 75270Z (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pointer, M. R.

Pont, S. C.

M. W. A. Wijntjes and S. C. Pont, “Illusory gloss on Lambertian surfaces,” J. Vis. 10(9):13, 1–12 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Prazdny, S.

J. Beck and S. Prazdny, “Highlights and the perception of glossiness,” Atten. Percept. Psychophys. 30, 407–410 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Shinya, M.

Shirley, P.

M. Ashikhmin and P. Shirley, “An anisotropic phong BRDF model,” J. Graph. Tools 5, 25–32 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Spence, A.

S. Padilla, O. Drbohlav, P. R. Green, A. Spence, and M. J. Chantler, “Perceived roughness of 1/fβ noise surfaces,” Vis. Res. 48, 1791–1797 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Swaminathan, G.

J. Berzhanskaya, G. Swaminathan, J. Beck, and E. Mingolla, “Remote effects of highlights on gloss perception,” Perception 34, 565–575 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Unger, J.

J. Löw, J. Kronander, A. Ynnerman, and J. Unger, “BRDF models for accurate and efficient rendering of glossy surfaces,” ACM Trans. Graph. 31, 1–14 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Vangorp, P.

P. Vangorp, J. Laurijssen, and P. Dutré, “The influence of shape on the perception of material reflectance,” in SIGGRAPH ‘07: ACM SIGGRAPH 2007 Papers (ACM, 2007), p. 77.

Wendt, G.

G. Wendt, F. Faul, and R. Mausfeld, “Highlight disparity contributes to the authenticity and strength of perceived glossiness,” J. Vis. 8(1):14, 1–10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wijntjes, M. W. A.

M. W. A. Wijntjes and S. C. Pont, “Illusory gloss on Lambertian surfaces,” J. Vis. 10(9):13, 1–12 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Willsky, A. S.

R. O. Dror, A. S. Willsky, and E. H. Adelson, “Statistical characterization of real-world illumination,” J. Vis. 4(9):11, 821–837 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, B.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Stimulus images used in experiment 1. The four columns show rendered surfaces of increasing RMS height (σ=16, 32, 64, 128). The six rows show different rendering conditions. These conditions are combinations of frontal/oblique/environment lighting and 1/10 rendering bounces.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Perceived gloss from experiment 1 is plotted against surface RMS height. Different markers indicate the different rendering conditions.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a)–(n) The central image (wobble angle w=0°) of rendered surfaces with β varying from 1.5 to 2.8. (o) and (p) Surface with β=2.8 under wobble angle w=12° and w=12°, respectively. These images have been adjusted by a nonlinear gamma for display. Linear scaling was used for the stimuli shown to observers.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Means of normalized results from nine observers are plotted using blue circles. The error bars show ± standard errors. These data have been divided into three groups to aid later discussion. The dashed line is the regression result of perceived gloss and image processing properties reported in the general discussion.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) The cross sections of surfaces β=1.6,1.9,2.5. The surfaces were generated using an identical random-phase spectrum for ease of comparison by the reader. Stimuli generated for observers used different phase spectra. (b) Box-plots of absolute slope angle statistics of the stimuli surfaces used in the experiment. For each surface β, the green circles denote the mean absolute slope angle, the central red lines denote the median, the edges of the box are the 25th and 75th percentiles, and the whiskers extend to the most extreme data points (within 1.5 times the distance between 25th and 75th percentiles).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Percentage of highlight area (Pha) estimated using a global threshold of 50% luminance plotted against β.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a) Schematic illustration of a facet sampling the environment illumination map. Note that the facet can only sample the illumination hemisphere up to 90° with a 45° absolute slope angle. (b) The binary image (Els) is shown as highlighted yellow pixels which correspond to strong light sources (only the subarea θi90° was considered). The luminance of the environment map is also shown. The three red rings are circles of constant incident slant angle (θi=0°,45°,90°).

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

(a) The marginal angular distribution of strong light sources in the illumination map is shown as a blue bar chart against incident slant angle θi (bottom x axis) and the left y axis. Distributions of absolute slope angle (top x axis) for three surfaces (β=1.6,1.9,2.5) are plotted in red curves against the right y axis. (b) The predicted percentage of highlight areas (Pha*) for each surface, which is calculated using Eq. (3) and the distribution of environment lighting (Pe) and the distribution of absolute slope angle (Ps). As can be seen from (b), the predicted highlight area value peaks at β=1.9 when the distribution of the half-angle of the slope facet correlates most closely with the environment distribution [see β=1.9 curve in (a)].

Equations (3)

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H(f)=σN(β)fβ,
Pe(θi)=1N(θi)ϕi=0°360°Els(θi,ϕi),
Pha*(β)=θi=0°90°Ps(θi/2;β)·Pe(θi),

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