Abstract

A Monte Carlo numerical simulation for computing the received power for an underwater optical communication system is discussed and validated. Power loss between receiver and transmitter is simulated for a variety of receiver aperture sizes and fields of view. Additionally, pointing-and-tracking losses are simulated.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. V. F. Weisskopf, “Neutron diffusion,” in The Science and Engineering of Nuclear Power, C. Goodman, ed., 2nd ed. (Addison-Wesley, 1952), Chap. 3, pp. 87–97.
  2. R. M. Lerner and J. D. Summers, “Monte Carlo description of time- and space-resolved multiple forward scatter in natural water,” Appl. Opt. 21, 861–869 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  3. B. Cochenour and L. Mullen, “Free space optical communications underwater,” in Advanced Optical Wireless Communication Systems, S. Arnon, J. Barry, G. Karagiannidis, R. Schober, and M. Uysal, eds. (Cambridge University, 2012), Chap. 9.
  4. W. Hou, S. Woods, E. Jarosz, W. Goode, and A. Weidemann, “Optical turbulence on underwater image degradation in natural environments,” Appl. Opt. 51, 2678–2686 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  5. W. C. Cox, “Simulation, modeling, and design of underwater optical communication systems,” Ph.D. thesis (North Carolina State University, 2012).
  6. B. Cochenour, L. J. Mullen, and A. E. Laux, “Characterization of the beam-spread function for underwater wireless optical communications links,” IEEE J. Ocean. Eng. 33, 513–521 (2008).
  7. E. Berrocal, “Multiple scattering of light in optical diagnostics of dense sprays and other complex turbid media,” Ph.D. thesis (Cranfield University, 2006).
  8. A. Laux, R. Billmers, L. Mullen, B. Concannon, J. Davis, J. Prentice, and V. Contarino, “The a, b, c s of oceanographic lidar predictions: a significant step toward closing the loop between theory and experiment,” J. Mod. Opt. 49, 439–451 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. Gray and A. Weidemann, “Evaluating realistic volume scattering functions on underwater imaging system performance,” (2008).
  10. J. M. Kahn and J. R. Barry, “Wireless infrared communications,” Proc. IEEE 85, 265–298 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. Yang, J. W. M. Bergmans, T. C. W. Schenk, J. Linnartz, and R. Rietman, “An analytical model for the illuminance distribution of a power LED,” Opt. Express 16, 21641–21646 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  12. F. R. Gfeller and U. Bapst, “Wireless in-house data communication via diffuse infrared radiation,” Proc. IEEE 67, 1474–1486 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  13. N. G. Jerlov, “Part II—Underwater radiant energy,” in Optical Oceanography (Elsevier, 1968), pp. 51–62, 118–126.
  14. T. J. Petzold, “Paper SIO Reference,” (Scripps Institute of Oceanography, 1972).
  15. W. C. Cox, “Photonator,” computer software (2012), https://github.com/gallamine/Photonator .

2012 (1)

2008 (2)

B. Cochenour, L. J. Mullen, and A. E. Laux, “Characterization of the beam-spread function for underwater wireless optical communications links,” IEEE J. Ocean. Eng. 33, 513–521 (2008).

H. Yang, J. W. M. Bergmans, T. C. W. Schenk, J. Linnartz, and R. Rietman, “An analytical model for the illuminance distribution of a power LED,” Opt. Express 16, 21641–21646 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

A. Laux, R. Billmers, L. Mullen, B. Concannon, J. Davis, J. Prentice, and V. Contarino, “The a, b, c s of oceanographic lidar predictions: a significant step toward closing the loop between theory and experiment,” J. Mod. Opt. 49, 439–451 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

J. M. Kahn and J. R. Barry, “Wireless infrared communications,” Proc. IEEE 85, 265–298 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

1979 (1)

F. R. Gfeller and U. Bapst, “Wireless in-house data communication via diffuse infrared radiation,” Proc. IEEE 67, 1474–1486 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Bapst, U.

F. R. Gfeller and U. Bapst, “Wireless in-house data communication via diffuse infrared radiation,” Proc. IEEE 67, 1474–1486 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Barry, J. R.

J. M. Kahn and J. R. Barry, “Wireless infrared communications,” Proc. IEEE 85, 265–298 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bergmans, J. W. M.

Berrocal, E.

E. Berrocal, “Multiple scattering of light in optical diagnostics of dense sprays and other complex turbid media,” Ph.D. thesis (Cranfield University, 2006).

Billmers, R.

A. Laux, R. Billmers, L. Mullen, B. Concannon, J. Davis, J. Prentice, and V. Contarino, “The a, b, c s of oceanographic lidar predictions: a significant step toward closing the loop between theory and experiment,” J. Mod. Opt. 49, 439–451 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cochenour, B.

B. Cochenour, L. J. Mullen, and A. E. Laux, “Characterization of the beam-spread function for underwater wireless optical communications links,” IEEE J. Ocean. Eng. 33, 513–521 (2008).

B. Cochenour and L. Mullen, “Free space optical communications underwater,” in Advanced Optical Wireless Communication Systems, S. Arnon, J. Barry, G. Karagiannidis, R. Schober, and M. Uysal, eds. (Cambridge University, 2012), Chap. 9.

Concannon, B.

A. Laux, R. Billmers, L. Mullen, B. Concannon, J. Davis, J. Prentice, and V. Contarino, “The a, b, c s of oceanographic lidar predictions: a significant step toward closing the loop between theory and experiment,” J. Mod. Opt. 49, 439–451 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Contarino, V.

A. Laux, R. Billmers, L. Mullen, B. Concannon, J. Davis, J. Prentice, and V. Contarino, “The a, b, c s of oceanographic lidar predictions: a significant step toward closing the loop between theory and experiment,” J. Mod. Opt. 49, 439–451 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cox, W. C.

W. C. Cox, “Simulation, modeling, and design of underwater optical communication systems,” Ph.D. thesis (North Carolina State University, 2012).

Davis, J.

A. Laux, R. Billmers, L. Mullen, B. Concannon, J. Davis, J. Prentice, and V. Contarino, “The a, b, c s of oceanographic lidar predictions: a significant step toward closing the loop between theory and experiment,” J. Mod. Opt. 49, 439–451 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gfeller, F. R.

F. R. Gfeller and U. Bapst, “Wireless in-house data communication via diffuse infrared radiation,” Proc. IEEE 67, 1474–1486 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Goode, W.

Gray, D.

D. Gray and A. Weidemann, “Evaluating realistic volume scattering functions on underwater imaging system performance,” (2008).

Hou, W.

Jarosz, E.

Jerlov, N. G.

N. G. Jerlov, “Part II—Underwater radiant energy,” in Optical Oceanography (Elsevier, 1968), pp. 51–62, 118–126.

Kahn, J. M.

J. M. Kahn and J. R. Barry, “Wireless infrared communications,” Proc. IEEE 85, 265–298 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Laux, A.

A. Laux, R. Billmers, L. Mullen, B. Concannon, J. Davis, J. Prentice, and V. Contarino, “The a, b, c s of oceanographic lidar predictions: a significant step toward closing the loop between theory and experiment,” J. Mod. Opt. 49, 439–451 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Laux, A. E.

B. Cochenour, L. J. Mullen, and A. E. Laux, “Characterization of the beam-spread function for underwater wireless optical communications links,” IEEE J. Ocean. Eng. 33, 513–521 (2008).

Lerner, R. M.

Linnartz, J.

Mullen, L.

A. Laux, R. Billmers, L. Mullen, B. Concannon, J. Davis, J. Prentice, and V. Contarino, “The a, b, c s of oceanographic lidar predictions: a significant step toward closing the loop between theory and experiment,” J. Mod. Opt. 49, 439–451 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Cochenour and L. Mullen, “Free space optical communications underwater,” in Advanced Optical Wireless Communication Systems, S. Arnon, J. Barry, G. Karagiannidis, R. Schober, and M. Uysal, eds. (Cambridge University, 2012), Chap. 9.

Mullen, L. J.

B. Cochenour, L. J. Mullen, and A. E. Laux, “Characterization of the beam-spread function for underwater wireless optical communications links,” IEEE J. Ocean. Eng. 33, 513–521 (2008).

Petzold, T. J.

T. J. Petzold, “Paper SIO Reference,” (Scripps Institute of Oceanography, 1972).

Prentice, J.

A. Laux, R. Billmers, L. Mullen, B. Concannon, J. Davis, J. Prentice, and V. Contarino, “The a, b, c s of oceanographic lidar predictions: a significant step toward closing the loop between theory and experiment,” J. Mod. Opt. 49, 439–451 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rietman, R.

Schenk, T. C. W.

Summers, J. D.

Weidemann, A.

W. Hou, S. Woods, E. Jarosz, W. Goode, and A. Weidemann, “Optical turbulence on underwater image degradation in natural environments,” Appl. Opt. 51, 2678–2686 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Gray and A. Weidemann, “Evaluating realistic volume scattering functions on underwater imaging system performance,” (2008).

Weisskopf, V. F.

V. F. Weisskopf, “Neutron diffusion,” in The Science and Engineering of Nuclear Power, C. Goodman, ed., 2nd ed. (Addison-Wesley, 1952), Chap. 3, pp. 87–97.

Woods, S.

Yang, H.

Appl. Opt. (2)

IEEE J. Ocean. Eng. (1)

B. Cochenour, L. J. Mullen, and A. E. Laux, “Characterization of the beam-spread function for underwater wireless optical communications links,” IEEE J. Ocean. Eng. 33, 513–521 (2008).

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

A. Laux, R. Billmers, L. Mullen, B. Concannon, J. Davis, J. Prentice, and V. Contarino, “The a, b, c s of oceanographic lidar predictions: a significant step toward closing the loop between theory and experiment,” J. Mod. Opt. 49, 439–451 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Proc. IEEE (2)

F. R. Gfeller and U. Bapst, “Wireless in-house data communication via diffuse infrared radiation,” Proc. IEEE 67, 1474–1486 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Kahn and J. R. Barry, “Wireless infrared communications,” Proc. IEEE 85, 265–298 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (8)

V. F. Weisskopf, “Neutron diffusion,” in The Science and Engineering of Nuclear Power, C. Goodman, ed., 2nd ed. (Addison-Wesley, 1952), Chap. 3, pp. 87–97.

N. G. Jerlov, “Part II—Underwater radiant energy,” in Optical Oceanography (Elsevier, 1968), pp. 51–62, 118–126.

T. J. Petzold, “Paper SIO Reference,” (Scripps Institute of Oceanography, 1972).

W. C. Cox, “Photonator,” computer software (2012), https://github.com/gallamine/Photonator .

D. Gray and A. Weidemann, “Evaluating realistic volume scattering functions on underwater imaging system performance,” (2008).

E. Berrocal, “Multiple scattering of light in optical diagnostics of dense sprays and other complex turbid media,” Ph.D. thesis (Cranfield University, 2006).

W. C. Cox, “Simulation, modeling, and design of underwater optical communication systems,” Ph.D. thesis (North Carolina State University, 2012).

B. Cochenour and L. Mullen, “Free space optical communications underwater,” in Advanced Optical Wireless Communication Systems, S. Arnon, J. Barry, G. Karagiannidis, R. Schober, and M. Uysal, eds. (Cambridge University, 2012), Chap. 9.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (29)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Geometry defining the simulation direction cosines. The blue vector illustrates the direction the photon path is moving in the global coordinate frame.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Simulation output versus experimental data for measured power at a distance offset from the central beam. The data here are normalized to the maximum value and compare the MC simulation to data from [6].

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Photonator on-axis comparison to published data from [7] at an AL [original paper used to term “optical depth (OD)”] of 10 and 3×109 photons simulated. Images show the absolute difference between the two, along with cross-section comparisons.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Block diagram showing how the on-axis power was measured in order to validate the MC simulation.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

CDFs of several VSFs are plotted. The VSFs are integrated using a trapezoidal integration and normalized to a maximum value of 1. The dashed line indicates the 1/2 probability mark.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Experimental data (red) versus several simulations and Beer’s law.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Diagram showing the geometry of the receiver (on right) and transmitter (on left). The receiver’s area is reduced by the cosine of its pointing angle (γrx), and the source’s intensity is determined by the angle between it and the receiver (ϕtx+γrx).

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Power loss from beam spreading for a Gaussian beam with 1.5 mrad of divergence integrated over various aperture sizes at various distances. The vertical dashed bars represent the distance, which corresponds to 30 AL for the various simulated water types.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Three VSFs as measured by Petzold [14], which show the VSF used for clear, coastal, and harbor water types.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Legend for subsequent images in Figs. 1120.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Harbor I: 1 in. aperture; received power normalized by transmit power, plotted versus receiver AL. The c value is fixed, and the distance is scaled. Error bars are plotted when the estimated error is greater than ±25%. Error bars represent 95% confidence for a binomial distribution, which should be slightly greater than the actual photon weight distribution.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Harbor I: 3 in. aperture received normalized power.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

Harbor IIL: 1 in. aperture received normalized power.

Fig. 14.
Fig. 14.

Harbor II: 3 in. aperture received normalized power.

Fig. 15.
Fig. 15.

Harbor III: 1 in. aperture normalized power.

Fig. 16.
Fig. 16.

Harbor III: 3 in. aperture normalized power.

Fig. 17.
Fig. 17.

Coastal water: 1 in. aperture received power.

Fig. 18.
Fig. 18.

Coastal water: 3 in. aperture received power.

Fig. 19.
Fig. 19.

Clear water: 1 in. aperture received power.

Fig. 20.
Fig. 20.

Clear water: 3 in. aperture received power.

Fig. 21.
Fig. 21.

Harbor II: received power at 16 ALs (7.3 m).

Fig. 22.
Fig. 22.

Harbor II: received power at 20 ALs (9.1 m).

Fig. 23.
Fig. 23.

Harbor II: received power at 25 ALs (11.3 m).

Fig. 24.
Fig. 24.

Harbor II received power normalized by the receiver area to show irradiance versus FOV for several apertures. At short lengths the beam has not experienced much spreading due to scatter, and as such, adding a larger aperture does not add benefit. At longer lengths the energy is spread over the receiver plane and the received power scales with area.

Fig. 25.
Fig. 25.

Harbor II, 10 AL: received power for 1 in. receiver aperture as a function of receiver offset from collinear.

Fig. 26.
Fig. 26.

Harbor II, 16 AL: received power for 1 in. receiver aperture as a function of receiver offset from collinear.

Fig. 27.
Fig. 27.

Harbor II, 20 AL: received power for 1 in. receiver aperture as a function of receiver offset from collinear.

Fig. 28.
Fig. 28.

Normalized received power for various apertures and FOVs, at a given offset distance from the center of the transmitted beam. This is for simulated data at 16 ALs in harbor II water, or approximately 7.3 m distance.

Fig. 29.
Fig. 29.

Normalized received power for various apertures and FOVs, at a given offset distance from the center of the transmitted beam. This is for simulated data at 20 ALs in harbor II water, or approximately 9 m distance.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Three General Water Types Based on Measured Data from Petzold [14]

Tables Icon

Table 2. Three Different Types of Harbor Water

Equations (23)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ω0=b/c,
b(λ)=2π0πβ(ψ;λ)sinψdψ,
cLD=ωo111cosθ,
cosθ=2π0πβ˜(θ)cosθsinθdθ,
dIdr=cI,
I=I0exp(cr),
dBloss=10log10(exp(cr))=4.34(cr),
μx=cosθx,
μy=cosθy,
μz=cosθz,
Pl(l)=1el,
r=1clogPl(l),
R=0θβ˜(θ)sinθdθ,
wi=F(cos1(μzi))wi,
log(w)log(ω0)=Ns,
Prx=Ptxτopticsτchannelτpointingτgeo,
τgeo={ArxR2Ψ0(ϕ)if0<ϕFOV/20ifϕ>FOV/2,
Ψ0(ϕ)=m+12πcosm(ϕ)
cosmϕ1/2=0.5,
m=ln2ln(cosϕ1/2).
τgeo={m+12πArxR2cosmϕtxcosγrxif0<ϕtxFOV/20ifϕ>FOV/2,
τgeo,Gaussian=1exp((2r2)W(z)2),
τ(d;z)geo,Gaussian=rrζζ2πW2(z)exp(2(xd)2+y2W2(z))dydx,

Metrics