Abstract

This study investigated the perception of colorful ensembles and the effect of categories and perceptual similarity on their representation. We briefly presented ensembles of two hues and tested hue recognition with a range of seen and unseen hues. The average hue was familiar, even though it never appeared in the ensembles. Increasing the perceptual difference of ensemble hues inhibited this mean bias, and the categorical relationship of hues also affected the distribution of familiarity. The findings suggest there is an ensemble perception of hue, but this is affected by the categorical and metric relationships of the elements in the ensemble.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  53. B. Bauer, “The danger of trial-by-trial knowledge of results in perceptual averaging studies,” Atten. Percept. Psychophys. 71, 655–665 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  54. L. E. Crawford, J. Huttenlocher, and P. H. Engebretson, “Category effects on estimates of stimuli: perception or reconstruction?” Psychol. Sci. 11, 280–284 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  55. J. E. Corbett and C. Oriet, “The whole is indeed more than the sum of its parts: perceptual averaging in the absence of individual item representation,” Acta Psychol. 138, 289–301 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  56. A. P. Marchant and J. W. de Fockert, “Priming by the mean representation of a set,” Q. J. Exp. Psychol. 62, 1889–1895 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  57. T. F. Brady and G. A. Alvarez, “Hierarchical encoding in visual working memory: ensemble statistics bias memory for individual items,” Psychol. Sci. 22, 384–392 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  58. G. A. Collier, “Further evidence for universal color categories,” Language 52, 884–890 (1976).
  59. P. Kay and T. Regier, “Resolving the question of color naming universals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 9085–9089 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  60. D. T. Lindsey and A. M. Brown, “World color survey color naming reveals universal motifs and their within-language diversity,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106, 19785–19790 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  61. R. O. Brown and D. I. A. MacLeod, “Color appearance depends on the variance of surround colors,” Curr. Biol. 7, 844–849 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  62. J. Romero, E. Hita, and L. J. Delbarco, “A comparative-study of successive and simultaneous methods in color discrimination,” Vis. Res. 26, 471–476 (1986).
    [Crossref]
  63. K. Uchikawa and M. Ikeda, “Temporal Deterioration of wavelength discrimination with successive comparison method,” Vis. Res. 21, 591–595 (1981).
    [Crossref]

2013 (6)

A. P. Marchant, D. J. Simons, and J. W. de Fockert, “Ensemble representations: effects of set size and item heterogeneity on average size perception,” Acta Psychol. 142, 245–250 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Baijal, C. Nakatani, C. van Leeuwen, and N. Srinivasan, “Processing statistics: an examination of focused and distributed attention using event related potentials,” Vis. Res. 85, 20–25 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Y. Leib, J. Fischer, Y. Liu, D. Whitney, and L. Robertson, “Ensemble crowd perception: a viewpoint invariant mechanism to represent average crowd identity,” J. Vis. 13(9):,424 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Oriet and J. Brand, “Size averaging of irrelevant stimuli cannot be prevented,” Vis. Res. 79, 8–16 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Witzel and K. R. Gegenfurtner, “Categorical sensitivity to color differences,” J. Vis. 13(7):1 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. L. Komarova and K. A. Jameson, “A quantitative theory of human color choices,” PLoS One 8, e55986 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

A. Clifford, A. Franklin, A. Holmes, V. G. Drivonikou, E. Ozgen, and I. R. L. Davies, “Neural correlates of acquired color category effects,” Brain Cogn. 80, 126–143 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. C. McDermott and M. A. Webster, “Uniform color spaces and natural image statistics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29, A182–A187 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Y. Leib, A. M. Puri, J. Fischer, S. Bentin, D. Whitney, and L. Robertson, “Crowd perception in prosopagnosia,” Neuropsychologia 50, 1698–1707 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

G. A. Alvarez, “Representing multiple objects as an ensemble enhances visual cognition,” Trends Cogn. Sci. 15, 122–131 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. E. Corbett and C. Oriet, “The whole is indeed more than the sum of its parts: perceptual averaging in the absence of individual item representation,” Acta Psychol. 138, 289–301 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. F. Brady and G. A. Alvarez, “Hierarchical encoding in visual working memory: ensemble statistics bias memory for individual items,” Psychol. Sci. 22, 384–392 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

A. R. Albrecht and B. J. Scholl, “Perceptually averaging in a continuous visual world: extracting statistical summary representations over time,” Psychol. Sci. 21, 560–567 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Haberman and D. Whitney, “The visual system discounts emotional deviants when extracting average expression,” Atten. Percept. Psychophys. 72, 1825–1838 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Olkkonen, C. Witzel, T. Hansen, and K. R. Gegenfurtner, “Categorical color constancy for real surfaces,” J. Vis. 10(9):16 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (6)

G. A. Alvarez and A. Oliva, “Spatial ensemble statistics are efficient codes that can be represented with reduced attention,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106, 7345–7350 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. P. Marchant and J. W. de Fockert, “Priming by the mean representation of a set,” Q. J. Exp. Psychol. 62, 1889–1895 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. T. Lindsey and A. M. Brown, “World color survey color naming reveals universal motifs and their within-language diversity,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106, 19785–19790 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. Thierry, P. Athanasopoulos, A. Wiggett, B. Dering, and J. R. Kuipers, “Unconscious effects of language-specific terminology on preattentive color perception,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106, 4567–4570 (2009).
[Crossref]

B. Bauer, “The danger of trial-by-trial knowledge of results in perceptual averaging studies,” Atten. Percept. Psychophys. 71, 655–665 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Olkkonen, T. Hansen, and K. R. Gegenfurtner, “Categorical color constancy for simulated surfaces,” J. Vis. 9(12):6 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (7)

N. Demeyere, A. Rzeskiewicz, K. A. Humphreys, and G. W. Humphreys, “Automatic statistical processing of visual properties in simultanagnosia,” Neuropsychologia 46, 2861–2864 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. Myczek and D. J. Simons, “Better than average: alternatives to statistical summary representations for rapid judgments of average size,” Percept. Psychophys. 70, 772–788 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. J. Simons and K. Myczek, “Average size perception and the allure of a new mechanism,” Percept. Psychophys. 70, 1335–1336 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. Ariely, “Better than average? When can we say that subsampling of items is better than statistical summary representations?” Percept. Psychophys. 70, 1325–1326 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. A. Alvarez and A. Oliva, “The representation of simple ensemble visual features outside the focus of attention,” Psychol. Sci. 19, 392–398 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. K. Shevell and F. A. A. Kingdom, “Color in complex scenes,” Annu. Rev. Psychol. 59, 143–166 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. Roberson, H. Pak, and J. R. Hanley, “Categorical perception of colour in the left and right visual field is verbally mediated: evidence from Korean,” Cognition 107, 752–762 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (4)

M. A. Webster, Y. Mizokami, and S. M. Webster, “Seasonal variations in the color statistics of natural images,” Network 18, 213–233 (2007).
[Crossref]

L. Huang, A. Treisman, and H. Pashler, “Characterizing the limits of human visual awareness,” Science 317, 823–825 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Winawer, N. Witthoft, M. C. Frank, L. Wu, A. R. Wade, and L. Boroditsky, “Russian blues reveal effects of language on color discrimination,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 7780–7785 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Kleiner, D. Brainard, and D. Pelli, “What’s new in Psychtoolbox-3?” Perception 36, 14 (2007).

2006 (2)

A. L. Gilbert, T. Regier, P. Kay, and R. B. Ivry, “Whorf hypothesis is supported in the right visual field but not the left,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 489–494 (2006).
[Crossref]

C. A. Daoutis, M. Pilling, and I. R. L. Davies, “Categorical effects in visual search for colour,” Vis. Cogn. 14, 217–240 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

T. Regier, P. Kay, and R. S. Cook, “Focal colors are universal after all,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 8386–8391 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

I. Kuriki, “Testing the possibility of average-color perception from multi-colored patterns,” Opt. Rev. 11, 249–257 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (3)

S. C. Chong and A. Treisman, “Representation of statistical properties,” Vis. Res. 43, 393–404 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. Pilling, A. Wiggett, E. Ozgen, and I. R. L. Davies, “Is color ‘categorical perception’ really perceptual?” Mem. Cogn. 31, 538–551 (2003).

P. Kay and T. Regier, “Resolving the question of color naming universals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 9085–9089 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

L. Parkes, J. Lund, A. Angelucci, J. A. Solomon, and M. Morgan, “Compulsory averaging of crowded orientation signals in human vision,” Nat. Neurosci. 4, 739–744 (2001).
[Crossref]

D. Ariely, “Seeing sets: representation by statistical properties,” Psychol. Sci. 12, 157–162 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (4)

D. Roberson and J. Davidoff, “The categorical perception of colors and facial expressions: the effect of verbal interference,” Mem. Cogn. 28, 977–986 (2000).
[Crossref]

D. Roberson, I. Davies, and J. Davidoff, “Color categories are not universal: replications and new evidence from a stone-age culture,” J. Exp. Psychol. Gen. 129, 369–398 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Huttenlocher, L. V. Hedges, and J. L. Vevea, “Why do categories affect stimulus judgment?” J. Exp. Psychol. Gen. 129, 220–241 (2000).

L. E. Crawford, J. Huttenlocher, and P. H. Engebretson, “Category effects on estimates of stimuli: perception or reconstruction?” Psychol. Sci. 11, 280–284 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

J. Davidoff, I. Davies, and D. Roberson, “Colour categories in a stone-age tribe,” Nature 398, 203–204 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (4)

M. A. Webster and J. D. Mollon, “Adaptation and the color statistics of natural images,” Vis. Res. 37, 3283–3298 (1997).
[Crossref]

D. G. Pelli, “The VideoToolbox software for visual psychophysics: transforming numbers into movies,” Spat. Vis. 10, 437–442 (1997).
[Crossref]

D. H. Brainard, “The psychophysics toolbox,” Spat. Vis. 10, 433–436 (1997).
[Crossref]

R. O. Brown and D. I. A. MacLeod, “Color appearance depends on the variance of surround colors,” Curr. Biol. 7, 844–849 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

A. J. Calder, A. W. Young, D. I. Perrett, N. L. Etcoff, and D. Rowland, “Categorical perception of morphed facial expressions,” Visual Cogn. 3, 81–117 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

M. A. Webster and J. D. Mollon, “Color constancy influenced by contrast adaptation,” Nature 373, 694–698 (1995).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

J. Romero, E. Hita, and L. J. Delbarco, “A comparative-study of successive and simultaneous methods in color discrimination,” Vis. Res. 26, 471–476 (1986).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

A. M. Derrington, J. Krauskopf, and P. Lennie, “Chromatic mechanisms in lateral geniculate-nucleus of macaque,” J. Physiol. 357, 241–265 (1984).

1982 (1)

J. Krauskopf, D. R. Williams, and D. W. Heeley, “Cardinal directions of color space,” Vis. Res. 22, 1123–1131 (1982).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

K. Uchikawa and M. Ikeda, “Temporal Deterioration of wavelength discrimination with successive comparison method,” Vis. Res. 21, 591–595 (1981).
[Crossref]

1976 (1)

G. A. Collier, “Further evidence for universal color categories,” Language 52, 884–890 (1976).

1972 (1)

E. R. Heider, “Universals in color naming and memory,” J. Exp. Psychol. 93, 10–20 (1972).
[Crossref]

Albrecht, A. R.

A. R. Albrecht and B. J. Scholl, “Perceptually averaging in a continuous visual world: extracting statistical summary representations over time,” Psychol. Sci. 21, 560–567 (2010).
[Crossref]

Alvarez, G. A.

G. A. Alvarez, “Representing multiple objects as an ensemble enhances visual cognition,” Trends Cogn. Sci. 15, 122–131 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. F. Brady and G. A. Alvarez, “Hierarchical encoding in visual working memory: ensemble statistics bias memory for individual items,” Psychol. Sci. 22, 384–392 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. A. Alvarez and A. Oliva, “Spatial ensemble statistics are efficient codes that can be represented with reduced attention,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106, 7345–7350 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. A. Alvarez and A. Oliva, “The representation of simple ensemble visual features outside the focus of attention,” Psychol. Sci. 19, 392–398 (2008).
[Crossref]

Angelucci, A.

L. Parkes, J. Lund, A. Angelucci, J. A. Solomon, and M. Morgan, “Compulsory averaging of crowded orientation signals in human vision,” Nat. Neurosci. 4, 739–744 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ariely, D.

D. Ariely, “Better than average? When can we say that subsampling of items is better than statistical summary representations?” Percept. Psychophys. 70, 1325–1326 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. Ariely, “Seeing sets: representation by statistical properties,” Psychol. Sci. 12, 157–162 (2001).
[Crossref]

Athanasopoulos, P.

G. Thierry, P. Athanasopoulos, A. Wiggett, B. Dering, and J. R. Kuipers, “Unconscious effects of language-specific terminology on preattentive color perception,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106, 4567–4570 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. Athanasopoulos, “Color and bilingual cognition,” in Language and Bilingual Cognition, V. Cook and B. Bassetti, eds. (Psychology Press, 2011), pp. 241–261.

Baijal, S.

S. Baijal, C. Nakatani, C. van Leeuwen, and N. Srinivasan, “Processing statistics: an examination of focused and distributed attention using event related potentials,” Vis. Res. 85, 20–25 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bauer, B.

B. Bauer, “The danger of trial-by-trial knowledge of results in perceptual averaging studies,” Atten. Percept. Psychophys. 71, 655–665 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bentin, S.

A. Y. Leib, A. M. Puri, J. Fischer, S. Bentin, D. Whitney, and L. Robertson, “Crowd perception in prosopagnosia,” Neuropsychologia 50, 1698–1707 (2012).
[Crossref]

Berlin, B.

P. Kay, B. Berlin, L. Maffi, W. R. Merrifield, and R. Cook, The World Color Survey (Center for the Study of Language & Information, 2011).

Boroditsky, L.

J. Winawer, N. Witthoft, M. C. Frank, L. Wu, A. R. Wade, and L. Boroditsky, “Russian blues reveal effects of language on color discrimination,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 7780–7785 (2007).
[Crossref]

Brady, T. F.

T. F. Brady and G. A. Alvarez, “Hierarchical encoding in visual working memory: ensemble statistics bias memory for individual items,” Psychol. Sci. 22, 384–392 (2011).
[Crossref]

Brainard, D.

M. Kleiner, D. Brainard, and D. Pelli, “What’s new in Psychtoolbox-3?” Perception 36, 14 (2007).

Brainard, D. H.

D. H. Brainard, “The psychophysics toolbox,” Spat. Vis. 10, 433–436 (1997).
[Crossref]

Brand, J.

C. Oriet and J. Brand, “Size averaging of irrelevant stimuli cannot be prevented,” Vis. Res. 79, 8–16 (2013).
[Crossref]

Brown, A. M.

D. T. Lindsey and A. M. Brown, “World color survey color naming reveals universal motifs and their within-language diversity,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106, 19785–19790 (2009).
[Crossref]

Brown, R. O.

R. O. Brown and D. I. A. MacLeod, “Color appearance depends on the variance of surround colors,” Curr. Biol. 7, 844–849 (1997).
[Crossref]

Calder, A. J.

A. J. Calder, A. W. Young, D. I. Perrett, N. L. Etcoff, and D. Rowland, “Categorical perception of morphed facial expressions,” Visual Cogn. 3, 81–117 (1996).
[Crossref]

Chong, S. C.

S. C. Chong and A. Treisman, “Representation of statistical properties,” Vis. Res. 43, 393–404 (2003).
[Crossref]

Clifford, A.

A. Clifford, A. Franklin, A. Holmes, V. G. Drivonikou, E. Ozgen, and I. R. L. Davies, “Neural correlates of acquired color category effects,” Brain Cogn. 80, 126–143 (2012).
[Crossref]

Collier, G. A.

G. A. Collier, “Further evidence for universal color categories,” Language 52, 884–890 (1976).

Cook, R.

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A. Y. Leib, J. Fischer, Y. Liu, D. Whitney, and L. Robertson, “Ensemble crowd perception: a viewpoint invariant mechanism to represent average crowd identity,” J. Vis. 13(9):,424 (2013).
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A. P. Marchant, D. J. Simons, and J. W. de Fockert, “Ensemble representations: effects of set size and item heterogeneity on average size perception,” Acta Psychol. 142, 245–250 (2013).
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L. Parkes, J. Lund, A. Angelucci, J. A. Solomon, and M. Morgan, “Compulsory averaging of crowded orientation signals in human vision,” Nat. Neurosci. 4, 739–744 (2001).
[Crossref]

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S. Baijal, C. Nakatani, C. van Leeuwen, and N. Srinivasan, “Processing statistics: an examination of focused and distributed attention using event related potentials,” Vis. Res. 85, 20–25 (2013).
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G. Thierry, P. Athanasopoulos, A. Wiggett, B. Dering, and J. R. Kuipers, “Unconscious effects of language-specific terminology on preattentive color perception,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106, 4567–4570 (2009).
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K. Uchikawa and M. Ikeda, “Temporal Deterioration of wavelength discrimination with successive comparison method,” Vis. Res. 21, 591–595 (1981).
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S. Baijal, C. Nakatani, C. van Leeuwen, and N. Srinivasan, “Processing statistics: an examination of focused and distributed attention using event related potentials,” Vis. Res. 85, 20–25 (2013).
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J. Huttenlocher, L. V. Hedges, and J. L. Vevea, “Why do categories affect stimulus judgment?” J. Exp. Psychol. Gen. 129, 220–241 (2000).

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J. Winawer, N. Witthoft, M. C. Frank, L. Wu, A. R. Wade, and L. Boroditsky, “Russian blues reveal effects of language on color discrimination,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 7780–7785 (2007).
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M. A. Webster, Y. Mizokami, and S. M. Webster, “Seasonal variations in the color statistics of natural images,” Network 18, 213–233 (2007).
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A. Y. Leib, J. Fischer, Y. Liu, D. Whitney, and L. Robertson, “Ensemble crowd perception: a viewpoint invariant mechanism to represent average crowd identity,” J. Vis. 13(9):,424 (2013).
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J. Haberman and D. Whitney, “Ensemble perception: summarizing the scene and broadening the limits of visual processing,” in From Perception to Consciousness: Searching with Anne Treisman, J. Wolfe and L. Robertson, eds. (Oxford University, 2012), pp. 339–349.

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G. Thierry, P. Athanasopoulos, A. Wiggett, B. Dering, and J. R. Kuipers, “Unconscious effects of language-specific terminology on preattentive color perception,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106, 4567–4570 (2009).
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J. Krauskopf, D. R. Williams, and D. W. Heeley, “Cardinal directions of color space,” Vis. Res. 22, 1123–1131 (1982).
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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Possible patterns of results for the ensemble perception task. These graphs represent broad patterns of results for an ensemble where hues B and D (underlined) are present and hues A to E are tested with the question “Is this color part of the ensemble?” Top panels: the left panel represents a perfect observer with 100% accurate memory for which hues are present and which are not in the ensemble. The right panel shows general sensitivity to the range of hues present, but a failure to reject the middle hue (as seen for size in [6]). Middle panels: both represent shift-to-prototype in the green (left) and blue (right) category conditions, where in the green condition, test hue A is the closest to prototype, and in the blue E is closest to prototype. Familiarity responses are biased toward the more prototypical color and away from hues closer to the boundary. Bottom panels: these represent results that may occur in the different-category condition. The left panel shows results if the mean is encoded, resulting in a tendency to feel the mean hue is familiar, even though it was not in the ensemble. The right panel shows simultaneous shift-to-prototype toward the prototypical hue of both categories in the ensemble.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Results of the 2 deg color-naming experiment. These curves show the proportion of responses giving each hue the name either “blue” or “green” in a 2AFC task. The 5050 point indicated by the dotted lines falls very close to the hue identified as the boundary by Witzel and Gegenfurtner [43].

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Range of colors used in the study. Boundary and best example labels apply only to the row labeled “isoluminant” (i.e., of the same luminance as the background: 30cd/m2). Horizontally adjacent hues on the isoluminant row are each separated by 1.5 JNDs [43]. Sets of colors for each category condition are indicated by the brackets. In each set, A and E indicate the ends of the range used, with the other three hues in between being B, C, and D (see text). Refer to online version for approximate renderings of colors.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Structure of a single trial in the ensemble perception task. This example shows an ensemble in the different-category condition (containing blue and green elements), followed by a test color that is not part of the ensemble (refer to online version for color figure). Participants were required to respond on each trial whether the test color presented was part of the ensemble just seen or not (yes/no). Instructions reappeared on screen at the start of each block.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Familiarity data from Experiment 1. These curves show the proportion of “yes” responses to each test hue following presentation of two-color ensembles. Ensembles always contained hues B and D; therefore a “yes” response is correct for these hues, but is incorrect for A, C, and E, which do not appear in the ensembles.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Mean RT for correct responses to each test hue.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Mean familiarity for the end-point test hues for each condition showing the unequal response to the prototype compared to the boundary. *** denotes p<.001; * denotes p<.05; n.s. (not significant). Refer to online version for color.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Familiarity of test hues for Experiment 2 where adjacent hues are separated by 3 JNDs (solid gray line) and for the different-category condition of experiment 1.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. CIE (1931) xy Chromaticity Values for Stimuli Used in Experimentsa

Metrics