Abstract

The purpose of the present work was to estimate the changes in spatial distribution and optical density of macular pigment (MP) with age. A fundus imaging system with high spatial and spectral resolution was adapted to form an indirect ophthalmoscope. The double optical density at 490 nm of the MP as a function of the location in the retina was obtained for 33 healthy subjects (ages: 21–60 years). There was an increase in spatial extent and decrease in double optical density with age. Furthermore, the spatial distribution of MP showed central areas with irregular shapes and a tendency toward asymmetry.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. D. M. Snodderly, P. K. Brown, F. C. Delori, and J. D. Auran, “The macular pigment. 1. absorbance spectra, localization, and discrimination from other yellow pigments in primate retinas,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 25, 660–673 (1984).
  2. R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, and S. L. Tarsis, “Preliminary identification of the human macular pigment,” Vis. Res. 25, 1531–1535 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, and A. Cains, “Optical-density spectra of the macular pigment in vivo and in vitro,” Vis. Res. 32, 105–110 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, eds., Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae (Wiley, 1982).
  5. P. S. Bernstein, F. Khachik, L. S. Carvalho, G. J. Muir, D. Y. Zhao, and N. B. Katz, “Identification and quantitation of carotenoids and their metabolites in the tissues of the human eye,” Exp. Eye Res. 72, 215–223 (2001).
  6. V. M. Reading and R. A. Weale, “Macular pigment and chromatic aberration,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 231–234 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. M. Snodderly, “Evidence for protection against age-related macular degeneration by carotenoids and antioxidant vitamins,” Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 62, 1448S–1461S (1995).
  8. J. M. Nolan, J. Stack, O. O’Donovan, E. Loane, and S. Beatty, “Risk factors for age-related maculopathy are associated with a relative lack of macular pigment,” Exp. Eye Res. 84, 61–74 (2007).
  9. S. Kaya, G. Weigert, B. Pemp, S. Sacu, R. M. Werkmeister, N. Dragostinoff, G. Garhoefer, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and L. Schmetterer, “Comparison of macular pigment in patients with age-related macular degeneration and healthy control subjects—a study using spectral fundus reflectance,” Acta Ophthalmol. 90, e399–e403 (2012).
  10. B. R. Hammond, E. J. Johnson, R. M. Russell, N. I. Krinsky, K. J. Yeum, R. B. Edwards, and D. M. Snodderly, “Dietary modification of human macular pigment density,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 38, 1795–1801 (1997).
  11. T. Berendschot, R. A. Goldbohm, W. A. A. Klopping, J. van de Kraats, J. van Norel, and D. van Norren, “Influence of lutein supplementation on macular pigment, assessed with two objective techniques,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 41, 3322–3326 (2000).
  12. H. H. Koh, I. J. Murray, D. Nolan, D. Carden, J. Feather, and S. Beatty, “Plasma and macular response to lutein supplement in subjects with and without age-related maculopathy: a pilot study,” Exp. Eye Res. 79, 21–27 (2004).
  13. W. Schalch, W. Cohn, F. M. Barker, W. Kopcke, J. Mellerio, A. C. Bird, A. G. Robson, F. F. Fitzke, and F. J. G. M. van Kuijk, “Xanthophyll accumulation in the human retina during supplementation with lutein or zeaxanthin—the LUXEA (LUtein Xanthophyll Eye Accumulation) study,” Arch. Biochem. Biophys 458, 128–135 (2007).
  14. R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, Y. Cao, A. N. Howard, and F. Alvarez-Calderon, “Macular pigment response to a supplement containing meso-zeaxanthin, lutein and zeaxanthin,” Nutr. Metab. 4, 12–20 (2007).
  15. A. Iannaccone, M. Mura, K. T. Gallaher, E. J. Johnson, W. A. Todd, E. Kenyon, T. L. Harris, T. Harris, S. Satterfield, K. C. Johnson, S. B. Kritchevsky, and A. B. C. S. Health, “Macular pigment optical density in the elderly: findings in a large biracial midsouth population sample,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48, 1458–1465 (2007).
  16. A. Pipis, E. Touliou, and A. J. Augustin, “Macular pigment optical density in a Central European population,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging Retina 44, 260–267 (2013).
  17. F. C. Delori, D. G. Goger, B. R. Hammond, D. M. Snodderly, and S. A. Burns, “Macular pigment density measured by autofluorescence spectrometry: comparison with reflectometry and heterochromatic flicker photometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 1212–1230 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  18. T. Berendschot, J. J. M. Willemse-Assink, M. Bastiaanse, P. de Jong, and D. van Norren, “Macular pigment and melanin in age-related maculopathy in a general population,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43, 1928–1932 (2002).
  19. S. F. Chen, Y. Chang, and J. C. Wu, “The spatial distribution of macular pigment in humans,” Curr. Eye Res. 23, 422–434 (2001).
  20. T. Berendschot and D. van Norren, “Objective determination of the macular pigment optical density using fundus reflectance spectroscopy,” Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 430, 149–155 (2004).
  21. T. T. Berendschot and D. van Norren, “On the age dependency of the macular pigment optical density,” Exp. Eye Res. 81, 602–609 (2005).
  22. B. R. Hammond, B. R. Wooten, and D. M. Snodderly, “Density of the human crystalline lens is related to the macular pigment carotenoids, lutein and zeaxanthin,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 74, 499–504 (1997).
  23. B. R. Hammond and M. Caruso-Avery, “Macular pigment optical density in a southwestern sample,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 41, 1492–1497 (2000).
  24. S. Beatty, I. J. Murray, D. B. Henson, D. Carden, H. H. Koh, and M. E. Boulton, “Macular pigment and risk for age-related macular degeneration in subjects from a Northern European population,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 42, 439–446 (2001).
  25. J. Yu, E. J. Johnson, F. Shang, A. Lim, H. Zhou, L. Cui, J. Xu, T. Snellingen, X. Liu, N. Wang, and N. Liu, “Measurement of macular pigment optical density in a healthy Chinese population sample,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53, 2106–2111 (2012).
  26. J. S. Werner, S. K. Donnelly, and R. Kliegl, “Aging and human macular pigment density. Appended with translations from the work of Max Schultze and Ewald Hering,” Vis. Res. 27, 257–268 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  27. R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, L. Fernandez, and S. L. Tarsis, “Analysis of the macular pigment by HPLC: retinal distribution and age study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 29, 843–849 (1988).
  28. D. van Norren and L. F. Tiemeijer, “Spectral reflectance of the human eye,” Vis. Res. 26, 313–320 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  29. J. van de Kraats, T. Berendschot, and D. van Norren, “The pathways of light measured in fundus reflectometry,” Vis. Res. 36, 2229–2247 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  30. S. H. Hardarson, A. Harris, R. A. Karlsson, G. H. Halldorsson, L. Kagemann, E. Rechtman, G. M. Zoega, T. Eysteinsson, J. A. Benediktsson, A. Thorsteinsson, P. K. Jensen, J. Beach, and E. Stefansson, “Automatic retinal oximetry,” Invest. Ophthalmol.Vis. Sci. 47, 5011–5016 (2006).
  31. V. Nourrit, J. Denniss, M. M. Muqit, I. Schiessl, C. Fenerty, P. E. Stanga, and D. B. Henson, “High-resolution hyperspectral imaging of the retina with a modified fundus camera,” J. Fr. Ophtalmol. 33, 686–692 (2010).
  32. A. A. Fawzi, N. Lee, J. H. Acton, A. F. Laine, and R. T. Smith, “Recovery of macular pigment spectrum in vivo using hyperspectral image analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 106008 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  33. M. Alpern, F. Maaseidv, and N. Ohba, “Kinetics of cone visual pigments in man,” Vis. Res. 11, 539–549 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  34. W. Hunold and P. Malessa, “Spectrophotometric determination of melanin pigmentation of human ocular fundus in vivo,” Ophthalmic Res. 6, 355–362 (1974).
  35. U. Stabell and B. Stabell, “Variation in density of macular pigmentation and in short-wave cone sensitivity with eccentricity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 706–711 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  36. P. E. Kilbride, K. R. Alexander, M. Fishman, and G. A. Fishman, “Human macular pigment assessed by imaging fundus reflectometry,” Vis. Res. 29, 663–674 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  37. J. D. Moreland, A. G. Robson, N. Soto-Leon, and J. J. Kulikowski, “Macular pigment and the colour-specificity of visual evoked potentials,” Vis. Res. 38, 3241–3245 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  38. L. J. Bour, L. Koo, F. C. Delori, P. Apkarian, and A. B. Fulton, “Fundus photography for measurement of macular pigment density distribution in children,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43, 1450–1455 (2002).
  39. T. A. Ciulla, J. Curran-Celantano, D. A. Cooper, B. R. Hammond, R. P. Danis, L. M. Pratt, K. A. Riccardi, and T. G. Filloon, “Macular pigment optical density in a Midwestern sample,” Ophthalmology 108, 730–737 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  40. P. L. Pease and A. J. Adams, “Macular pigment difference spectrum from sensitivity measures of a single cone mechanism,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 60, 667–672 (1983).
  41. H. Wustemeyer, A. Moessner, C. Jahn, and S. Wolf, “Macular pigment density in healthy subjects quantified with a modified confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Graef. Arch. Clin. Exp. 241, 647–651 (2003).
  42. F. C. Delori and K. P. Pflibsen, “Spectral reflectance of the human ocular fundus,” Appl. Opt. 28, 1061–1077 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  43. T. Berendschot and D. van Norren, “Macular pigment shows ringlike structures,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 709–714 (2006).
  44. S. Richer, J. Devenport, and J. C. Lang, “LAST II: differential temporal responses of macular pigment optical density in patients with atrophic age-related macular degeneration to dietary supplementation with xanthophylls,” Optometry 78, 213–219 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  45. J. M. Stringham and B. R. Hammond, “Macular pigment and visual performance under glare conditions,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 85, 82–88 (2008).
  46. R. L. van der Veen, T. T. Berendschot, M. Makridaki, F. Hendrikse, D. Carden, and I. J. Murray, “Correspondence between retinal reflectometry and a flicker-based technique in the measurement of macular pigment spatial profiles,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 064046 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  47. M. L. Bieber and J. S. Werner, “The spatial distribution of human macular pigment,” in Vision Science and Its Applications, Vol. 1 of 1998 OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 1998), pp. 10–13.
  48. Y. Chang, F. L. Lee, S. J. Chen, and S. F. Chen, “Optical measurement of human retinal macular pigment and its spatial distribution with age,” Med. Phys. 29, 2621–2628 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  49. L. C. Norden, “Spectral reflectance photography of the ocular fundus,” Am J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 56, 586–591 (1979).
  50. F. C. Delori, E. S. Gragoudas, R. Francisco, and R. C. Pruett, “Monochromatic ophthalmoscopy and fundus photography: normal fundus,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 95, 861–868 (1977).

2013 (1)

A. Pipis, E. Touliou, and A. J. Augustin, “Macular pigment optical density in a Central European population,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging Retina 44, 260–267 (2013).

2012 (2)

S. Kaya, G. Weigert, B. Pemp, S. Sacu, R. M. Werkmeister, N. Dragostinoff, G. Garhoefer, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and L. Schmetterer, “Comparison of macular pigment in patients with age-related macular degeneration and healthy control subjects—a study using spectral fundus reflectance,” Acta Ophthalmol. 90, e399–e403 (2012).

J. Yu, E. J. Johnson, F. Shang, A. Lim, H. Zhou, L. Cui, J. Xu, T. Snellingen, X. Liu, N. Wang, and N. Liu, “Measurement of macular pigment optical density in a healthy Chinese population sample,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53, 2106–2111 (2012).

2011 (1)

A. A. Fawzi, N. Lee, J. H. Acton, A. F. Laine, and R. T. Smith, “Recovery of macular pigment spectrum in vivo using hyperspectral image analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 106008 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

V. Nourrit, J. Denniss, M. M. Muqit, I. Schiessl, C. Fenerty, P. E. Stanga, and D. B. Henson, “High-resolution hyperspectral imaging of the retina with a modified fundus camera,” J. Fr. Ophtalmol. 33, 686–692 (2010).

2009 (1)

R. L. van der Veen, T. T. Berendschot, M. Makridaki, F. Hendrikse, D. Carden, and I. J. Murray, “Correspondence between retinal reflectometry and a flicker-based technique in the measurement of macular pigment spatial profiles,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 064046 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

J. M. Stringham and B. R. Hammond, “Macular pigment and visual performance under glare conditions,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 85, 82–88 (2008).

2007 (5)

S. Richer, J. Devenport, and J. C. Lang, “LAST II: differential temporal responses of macular pigment optical density in patients with atrophic age-related macular degeneration to dietary supplementation with xanthophylls,” Optometry 78, 213–219 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Nolan, J. Stack, O. O’Donovan, E. Loane, and S. Beatty, “Risk factors for age-related maculopathy are associated with a relative lack of macular pigment,” Exp. Eye Res. 84, 61–74 (2007).

W. Schalch, W. Cohn, F. M. Barker, W. Kopcke, J. Mellerio, A. C. Bird, A. G. Robson, F. F. Fitzke, and F. J. G. M. van Kuijk, “Xanthophyll accumulation in the human retina during supplementation with lutein or zeaxanthin—the LUXEA (LUtein Xanthophyll Eye Accumulation) study,” Arch. Biochem. Biophys 458, 128–135 (2007).

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, Y. Cao, A. N. Howard, and F. Alvarez-Calderon, “Macular pigment response to a supplement containing meso-zeaxanthin, lutein and zeaxanthin,” Nutr. Metab. 4, 12–20 (2007).

A. Iannaccone, M. Mura, K. T. Gallaher, E. J. Johnson, W. A. Todd, E. Kenyon, T. L. Harris, T. Harris, S. Satterfield, K. C. Johnson, S. B. Kritchevsky, and A. B. C. S. Health, “Macular pigment optical density in the elderly: findings in a large biracial midsouth population sample,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48, 1458–1465 (2007).

2006 (2)

S. H. Hardarson, A. Harris, R. A. Karlsson, G. H. Halldorsson, L. Kagemann, E. Rechtman, G. M. Zoega, T. Eysteinsson, J. A. Benediktsson, A. Thorsteinsson, P. K. Jensen, J. Beach, and E. Stefansson, “Automatic retinal oximetry,” Invest. Ophthalmol.Vis. Sci. 47, 5011–5016 (2006).

T. Berendschot and D. van Norren, “Macular pigment shows ringlike structures,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 709–714 (2006).

2005 (1)

T. T. Berendschot and D. van Norren, “On the age dependency of the macular pigment optical density,” Exp. Eye Res. 81, 602–609 (2005).

2004 (2)

H. H. Koh, I. J. Murray, D. Nolan, D. Carden, J. Feather, and S. Beatty, “Plasma and macular response to lutein supplement in subjects with and without age-related maculopathy: a pilot study,” Exp. Eye Res. 79, 21–27 (2004).

T. Berendschot and D. van Norren, “Objective determination of the macular pigment optical density using fundus reflectance spectroscopy,” Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 430, 149–155 (2004).

2003 (1)

H. Wustemeyer, A. Moessner, C. Jahn, and S. Wolf, “Macular pigment density in healthy subjects quantified with a modified confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Graef. Arch. Clin. Exp. 241, 647–651 (2003).

2002 (3)

L. J. Bour, L. Koo, F. C. Delori, P. Apkarian, and A. B. Fulton, “Fundus photography for measurement of macular pigment density distribution in children,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43, 1450–1455 (2002).

Y. Chang, F. L. Lee, S. J. Chen, and S. F. Chen, “Optical measurement of human retinal macular pigment and its spatial distribution with age,” Med. Phys. 29, 2621–2628 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Berendschot, J. J. M. Willemse-Assink, M. Bastiaanse, P. de Jong, and D. van Norren, “Macular pigment and melanin in age-related maculopathy in a general population,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43, 1928–1932 (2002).

2001 (5)

S. F. Chen, Y. Chang, and J. C. Wu, “The spatial distribution of macular pigment in humans,” Curr. Eye Res. 23, 422–434 (2001).

F. C. Delori, D. G. Goger, B. R. Hammond, D. M. Snodderly, and S. A. Burns, “Macular pigment density measured by autofluorescence spectrometry: comparison with reflectometry and heterochromatic flicker photometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 1212–1230 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Bernstein, F. Khachik, L. S. Carvalho, G. J. Muir, D. Y. Zhao, and N. B. Katz, “Identification and quantitation of carotenoids and their metabolites in the tissues of the human eye,” Exp. Eye Res. 72, 215–223 (2001).

S. Beatty, I. J. Murray, D. B. Henson, D. Carden, H. H. Koh, and M. E. Boulton, “Macular pigment and risk for age-related macular degeneration in subjects from a Northern European population,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 42, 439–446 (2001).

T. A. Ciulla, J. Curran-Celantano, D. A. Cooper, B. R. Hammond, R. P. Danis, L. M. Pratt, K. A. Riccardi, and T. G. Filloon, “Macular pigment optical density in a Midwestern sample,” Ophthalmology 108, 730–737 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

B. R. Hammond and M. Caruso-Avery, “Macular pigment optical density in a southwestern sample,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 41, 1492–1497 (2000).

T. Berendschot, R. A. Goldbohm, W. A. A. Klopping, J. van de Kraats, J. van Norel, and D. van Norren, “Influence of lutein supplementation on macular pigment, assessed with two objective techniques,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 41, 3322–3326 (2000).

1998 (1)

J. D. Moreland, A. G. Robson, N. Soto-Leon, and J. J. Kulikowski, “Macular pigment and the colour-specificity of visual evoked potentials,” Vis. Res. 38, 3241–3245 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

B. R. Hammond, E. J. Johnson, R. M. Russell, N. I. Krinsky, K. J. Yeum, R. B. Edwards, and D. M. Snodderly, “Dietary modification of human macular pigment density,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 38, 1795–1801 (1997).

B. R. Hammond, B. R. Wooten, and D. M. Snodderly, “Density of the human crystalline lens is related to the macular pigment carotenoids, lutein and zeaxanthin,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 74, 499–504 (1997).

1996 (1)

J. van de Kraats, T. Berendschot, and D. van Norren, “The pathways of light measured in fundus reflectometry,” Vis. Res. 36, 2229–2247 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

D. M. Snodderly, “Evidence for protection against age-related macular degeneration by carotenoids and antioxidant vitamins,” Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 62, 1448S–1461S (1995).

1992 (1)

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, and A. Cains, “Optical-density spectra of the macular pigment in vivo and in vitro,” Vis. Res. 32, 105–110 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

F. C. Delori and K. P. Pflibsen, “Spectral reflectance of the human ocular fundus,” Appl. Opt. 28, 1061–1077 (1989).
[CrossRef]

P. E. Kilbride, K. R. Alexander, M. Fishman, and G. A. Fishman, “Human macular pigment assessed by imaging fundus reflectometry,” Vis. Res. 29, 663–674 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, L. Fernandez, and S. L. Tarsis, “Analysis of the macular pigment by HPLC: retinal distribution and age study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 29, 843–849 (1988).

1987 (1)

J. S. Werner, S. K. Donnelly, and R. Kliegl, “Aging and human macular pigment density. Appended with translations from the work of Max Schultze and Ewald Hering,” Vis. Res. 27, 257–268 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

D. van Norren and L. F. Tiemeijer, “Spectral reflectance of the human eye,” Vis. Res. 26, 313–320 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, and S. L. Tarsis, “Preliminary identification of the human macular pigment,” Vis. Res. 25, 1531–1535 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

D. M. Snodderly, P. K. Brown, F. C. Delori, and J. D. Auran, “The macular pigment. 1. absorbance spectra, localization, and discrimination from other yellow pigments in primate retinas,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 25, 660–673 (1984).

1983 (1)

P. L. Pease and A. J. Adams, “Macular pigment difference spectrum from sensitivity measures of a single cone mechanism,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 60, 667–672 (1983).

1980 (1)

1979 (1)

L. C. Norden, “Spectral reflectance photography of the ocular fundus,” Am J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 56, 586–591 (1979).

1977 (1)

F. C. Delori, E. S. Gragoudas, R. Francisco, and R. C. Pruett, “Monochromatic ophthalmoscopy and fundus photography: normal fundus,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 95, 861–868 (1977).

1974 (2)

V. M. Reading and R. A. Weale, “Macular pigment and chromatic aberration,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 231–234 (1974).
[CrossRef]

W. Hunold and P. Malessa, “Spectrophotometric determination of melanin pigmentation of human ocular fundus in vivo,” Ophthalmic Res. 6, 355–362 (1974).

1971 (1)

M. Alpern, F. Maaseidv, and N. Ohba, “Kinetics of cone visual pigments in man,” Vis. Res. 11, 539–549 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Acton, J. H.

A. A. Fawzi, N. Lee, J. H. Acton, A. F. Laine, and R. T. Smith, “Recovery of macular pigment spectrum in vivo using hyperspectral image analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 106008 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Adams, A. J.

P. L. Pease and A. J. Adams, “Macular pigment difference spectrum from sensitivity measures of a single cone mechanism,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 60, 667–672 (1983).

Alexander, K. R.

P. E. Kilbride, K. R. Alexander, M. Fishman, and G. A. Fishman, “Human macular pigment assessed by imaging fundus reflectometry,” Vis. Res. 29, 663–674 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Alpern, M.

M. Alpern, F. Maaseidv, and N. Ohba, “Kinetics of cone visual pigments in man,” Vis. Res. 11, 539–549 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Alvarez-Calderon, F.

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, Y. Cao, A. N. Howard, and F. Alvarez-Calderon, “Macular pigment response to a supplement containing meso-zeaxanthin, lutein and zeaxanthin,” Nutr. Metab. 4, 12–20 (2007).

Apkarian, P.

L. J. Bour, L. Koo, F. C. Delori, P. Apkarian, and A. B. Fulton, “Fundus photography for measurement of macular pigment density distribution in children,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43, 1450–1455 (2002).

Augustin, A. J.

A. Pipis, E. Touliou, and A. J. Augustin, “Macular pigment optical density in a Central European population,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging Retina 44, 260–267 (2013).

Auran, J. D.

D. M. Snodderly, P. K. Brown, F. C. Delori, and J. D. Auran, “The macular pigment. 1. absorbance spectra, localization, and discrimination from other yellow pigments in primate retinas,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 25, 660–673 (1984).

Barker, F. M.

W. Schalch, W. Cohn, F. M. Barker, W. Kopcke, J. Mellerio, A. C. Bird, A. G. Robson, F. F. Fitzke, and F. J. G. M. van Kuijk, “Xanthophyll accumulation in the human retina during supplementation with lutein or zeaxanthin—the LUXEA (LUtein Xanthophyll Eye Accumulation) study,” Arch. Biochem. Biophys 458, 128–135 (2007).

Bastiaanse, M.

T. Berendschot, J. J. M. Willemse-Assink, M. Bastiaanse, P. de Jong, and D. van Norren, “Macular pigment and melanin in age-related maculopathy in a general population,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43, 1928–1932 (2002).

Beach, J.

S. H. Hardarson, A. Harris, R. A. Karlsson, G. H. Halldorsson, L. Kagemann, E. Rechtman, G. M. Zoega, T. Eysteinsson, J. A. Benediktsson, A. Thorsteinsson, P. K. Jensen, J. Beach, and E. Stefansson, “Automatic retinal oximetry,” Invest. Ophthalmol.Vis. Sci. 47, 5011–5016 (2006).

Beatty, S.

J. M. Nolan, J. Stack, O. O’Donovan, E. Loane, and S. Beatty, “Risk factors for age-related maculopathy are associated with a relative lack of macular pigment,” Exp. Eye Res. 84, 61–74 (2007).

H. H. Koh, I. J. Murray, D. Nolan, D. Carden, J. Feather, and S. Beatty, “Plasma and macular response to lutein supplement in subjects with and without age-related maculopathy: a pilot study,” Exp. Eye Res. 79, 21–27 (2004).

S. Beatty, I. J. Murray, D. B. Henson, D. Carden, H. H. Koh, and M. E. Boulton, “Macular pigment and risk for age-related macular degeneration in subjects from a Northern European population,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 42, 439–446 (2001).

Benediktsson, J. A.

S. H. Hardarson, A. Harris, R. A. Karlsson, G. H. Halldorsson, L. Kagemann, E. Rechtman, G. M. Zoega, T. Eysteinsson, J. A. Benediktsson, A. Thorsteinsson, P. K. Jensen, J. Beach, and E. Stefansson, “Automatic retinal oximetry,” Invest. Ophthalmol.Vis. Sci. 47, 5011–5016 (2006).

Berendschot, T.

T. Berendschot and D. van Norren, “Macular pigment shows ringlike structures,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 709–714 (2006).

T. Berendschot and D. van Norren, “Objective determination of the macular pigment optical density using fundus reflectance spectroscopy,” Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 430, 149–155 (2004).

T. Berendschot, J. J. M. Willemse-Assink, M. Bastiaanse, P. de Jong, and D. van Norren, “Macular pigment and melanin in age-related maculopathy in a general population,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43, 1928–1932 (2002).

T. Berendschot, R. A. Goldbohm, W. A. A. Klopping, J. van de Kraats, J. van Norel, and D. van Norren, “Influence of lutein supplementation on macular pigment, assessed with two objective techniques,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 41, 3322–3326 (2000).

J. van de Kraats, T. Berendschot, and D. van Norren, “The pathways of light measured in fundus reflectometry,” Vis. Res. 36, 2229–2247 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Berendschot, T. T.

R. L. van der Veen, T. T. Berendschot, M. Makridaki, F. Hendrikse, D. Carden, and I. J. Murray, “Correspondence between retinal reflectometry and a flicker-based technique in the measurement of macular pigment spatial profiles,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 064046 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. T. Berendschot and D. van Norren, “On the age dependency of the macular pigment optical density,” Exp. Eye Res. 81, 602–609 (2005).

Bernstein, P. S.

P. S. Bernstein, F. Khachik, L. S. Carvalho, G. J. Muir, D. Y. Zhao, and N. B. Katz, “Identification and quantitation of carotenoids and their metabolites in the tissues of the human eye,” Exp. Eye Res. 72, 215–223 (2001).

Bieber, M. L.

M. L. Bieber and J. S. Werner, “The spatial distribution of human macular pigment,” in Vision Science and Its Applications, Vol. 1 of 1998 OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 1998), pp. 10–13.

Bird, A. C.

W. Schalch, W. Cohn, F. M. Barker, W. Kopcke, J. Mellerio, A. C. Bird, A. G. Robson, F. F. Fitzke, and F. J. G. M. van Kuijk, “Xanthophyll accumulation in the human retina during supplementation with lutein or zeaxanthin—the LUXEA (LUtein Xanthophyll Eye Accumulation) study,” Arch. Biochem. Biophys 458, 128–135 (2007).

Bone, R. A.

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, Y. Cao, A. N. Howard, and F. Alvarez-Calderon, “Macular pigment response to a supplement containing meso-zeaxanthin, lutein and zeaxanthin,” Nutr. Metab. 4, 12–20 (2007).

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, and A. Cains, “Optical-density spectra of the macular pigment in vivo and in vitro,” Vis. Res. 32, 105–110 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, L. Fernandez, and S. L. Tarsis, “Analysis of the macular pigment by HPLC: retinal distribution and age study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 29, 843–849 (1988).

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, and S. L. Tarsis, “Preliminary identification of the human macular pigment,” Vis. Res. 25, 1531–1535 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Boulton, M. E.

S. Beatty, I. J. Murray, D. B. Henson, D. Carden, H. H. Koh, and M. E. Boulton, “Macular pigment and risk for age-related macular degeneration in subjects from a Northern European population,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 42, 439–446 (2001).

Bour, L. J.

L. J. Bour, L. Koo, F. C. Delori, P. Apkarian, and A. B. Fulton, “Fundus photography for measurement of macular pigment density distribution in children,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43, 1450–1455 (2002).

Brown, P. K.

D. M. Snodderly, P. K. Brown, F. C. Delori, and J. D. Auran, “The macular pigment. 1. absorbance spectra, localization, and discrimination from other yellow pigments in primate retinas,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 25, 660–673 (1984).

Burns, S. A.

Cains, A.

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, and A. Cains, “Optical-density spectra of the macular pigment in vivo and in vitro,” Vis. Res. 32, 105–110 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Cao, Y.

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, Y. Cao, A. N. Howard, and F. Alvarez-Calderon, “Macular pigment response to a supplement containing meso-zeaxanthin, lutein and zeaxanthin,” Nutr. Metab. 4, 12–20 (2007).

Carden, D.

R. L. van der Veen, T. T. Berendschot, M. Makridaki, F. Hendrikse, D. Carden, and I. J. Murray, “Correspondence between retinal reflectometry and a flicker-based technique in the measurement of macular pigment spatial profiles,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 064046 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Koh, I. J. Murray, D. Nolan, D. Carden, J. Feather, and S. Beatty, “Plasma and macular response to lutein supplement in subjects with and without age-related maculopathy: a pilot study,” Exp. Eye Res. 79, 21–27 (2004).

S. Beatty, I. J. Murray, D. B. Henson, D. Carden, H. H. Koh, and M. E. Boulton, “Macular pigment and risk for age-related macular degeneration in subjects from a Northern European population,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 42, 439–446 (2001).

Caruso-Avery, M.

B. R. Hammond and M. Caruso-Avery, “Macular pigment optical density in a southwestern sample,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 41, 1492–1497 (2000).

Carvalho, L. S.

P. S. Bernstein, F. Khachik, L. S. Carvalho, G. J. Muir, D. Y. Zhao, and N. B. Katz, “Identification and quantitation of carotenoids and their metabolites in the tissues of the human eye,” Exp. Eye Res. 72, 215–223 (2001).

Chang, Y.

Y. Chang, F. L. Lee, S. J. Chen, and S. F. Chen, “Optical measurement of human retinal macular pigment and its spatial distribution with age,” Med. Phys. 29, 2621–2628 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. F. Chen, Y. Chang, and J. C. Wu, “The spatial distribution of macular pigment in humans,” Curr. Eye Res. 23, 422–434 (2001).

Chen, S. F.

Y. Chang, F. L. Lee, S. J. Chen, and S. F. Chen, “Optical measurement of human retinal macular pigment and its spatial distribution with age,” Med. Phys. 29, 2621–2628 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. F. Chen, Y. Chang, and J. C. Wu, “The spatial distribution of macular pigment in humans,” Curr. Eye Res. 23, 422–434 (2001).

Chen, S. J.

Y. Chang, F. L. Lee, S. J. Chen, and S. F. Chen, “Optical measurement of human retinal macular pigment and its spatial distribution with age,” Med. Phys. 29, 2621–2628 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ciulla, T. A.

T. A. Ciulla, J. Curran-Celantano, D. A. Cooper, B. R. Hammond, R. P. Danis, L. M. Pratt, K. A. Riccardi, and T. G. Filloon, “Macular pigment optical density in a Midwestern sample,” Ophthalmology 108, 730–737 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cohn, W.

W. Schalch, W. Cohn, F. M. Barker, W. Kopcke, J. Mellerio, A. C. Bird, A. G. Robson, F. F. Fitzke, and F. J. G. M. van Kuijk, “Xanthophyll accumulation in the human retina during supplementation with lutein or zeaxanthin—the LUXEA (LUtein Xanthophyll Eye Accumulation) study,” Arch. Biochem. Biophys 458, 128–135 (2007).

Cooper, D. A.

T. A. Ciulla, J. Curran-Celantano, D. A. Cooper, B. R. Hammond, R. P. Danis, L. M. Pratt, K. A. Riccardi, and T. G. Filloon, “Macular pigment optical density in a Midwestern sample,” Ophthalmology 108, 730–737 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cui, L.

J. Yu, E. J. Johnson, F. Shang, A. Lim, H. Zhou, L. Cui, J. Xu, T. Snellingen, X. Liu, N. Wang, and N. Liu, “Measurement of macular pigment optical density in a healthy Chinese population sample,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53, 2106–2111 (2012).

Curran-Celantano, J.

T. A. Ciulla, J. Curran-Celantano, D. A. Cooper, B. R. Hammond, R. P. Danis, L. M. Pratt, K. A. Riccardi, and T. G. Filloon, “Macular pigment optical density in a Midwestern sample,” Ophthalmology 108, 730–737 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Danis, R. P.

T. A. Ciulla, J. Curran-Celantano, D. A. Cooper, B. R. Hammond, R. P. Danis, L. M. Pratt, K. A. Riccardi, and T. G. Filloon, “Macular pigment optical density in a Midwestern sample,” Ophthalmology 108, 730–737 (2001).
[CrossRef]

de Jong, P.

T. Berendschot, J. J. M. Willemse-Assink, M. Bastiaanse, P. de Jong, and D. van Norren, “Macular pigment and melanin in age-related maculopathy in a general population,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43, 1928–1932 (2002).

Delori, F. C.

L. J. Bour, L. Koo, F. C. Delori, P. Apkarian, and A. B. Fulton, “Fundus photography for measurement of macular pigment density distribution in children,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43, 1450–1455 (2002).

F. C. Delori, D. G. Goger, B. R. Hammond, D. M. Snodderly, and S. A. Burns, “Macular pigment density measured by autofluorescence spectrometry: comparison with reflectometry and heterochromatic flicker photometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 1212–1230 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Delori and K. P. Pflibsen, “Spectral reflectance of the human ocular fundus,” Appl. Opt. 28, 1061–1077 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Snodderly, P. K. Brown, F. C. Delori, and J. D. Auran, “The macular pigment. 1. absorbance spectra, localization, and discrimination from other yellow pigments in primate retinas,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 25, 660–673 (1984).

F. C. Delori, E. S. Gragoudas, R. Francisco, and R. C. Pruett, “Monochromatic ophthalmoscopy and fundus photography: normal fundus,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 95, 861–868 (1977).

Denniss, J.

V. Nourrit, J. Denniss, M. M. Muqit, I. Schiessl, C. Fenerty, P. E. Stanga, and D. B. Henson, “High-resolution hyperspectral imaging of the retina with a modified fundus camera,” J. Fr. Ophtalmol. 33, 686–692 (2010).

Devenport, J.

S. Richer, J. Devenport, and J. C. Lang, “LAST II: differential temporal responses of macular pigment optical density in patients with atrophic age-related macular degeneration to dietary supplementation with xanthophylls,” Optometry 78, 213–219 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Donnelly, S. K.

J. S. Werner, S. K. Donnelly, and R. Kliegl, “Aging and human macular pigment density. Appended with translations from the work of Max Schultze and Ewald Hering,” Vis. Res. 27, 257–268 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Dragostinoff, N.

S. Kaya, G. Weigert, B. Pemp, S. Sacu, R. M. Werkmeister, N. Dragostinoff, G. Garhoefer, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and L. Schmetterer, “Comparison of macular pigment in patients with age-related macular degeneration and healthy control subjects—a study using spectral fundus reflectance,” Acta Ophthalmol. 90, e399–e403 (2012).

Edwards, R. B.

B. R. Hammond, E. J. Johnson, R. M. Russell, N. I. Krinsky, K. J. Yeum, R. B. Edwards, and D. M. Snodderly, “Dietary modification of human macular pigment density,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 38, 1795–1801 (1997).

Eysteinsson, T.

S. H. Hardarson, A. Harris, R. A. Karlsson, G. H. Halldorsson, L. Kagemann, E. Rechtman, G. M. Zoega, T. Eysteinsson, J. A. Benediktsson, A. Thorsteinsson, P. K. Jensen, J. Beach, and E. Stefansson, “Automatic retinal oximetry,” Invest. Ophthalmol.Vis. Sci. 47, 5011–5016 (2006).

Fawzi, A. A.

A. A. Fawzi, N. Lee, J. H. Acton, A. F. Laine, and R. T. Smith, “Recovery of macular pigment spectrum in vivo using hyperspectral image analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 106008 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Feather, J.

H. H. Koh, I. J. Murray, D. Nolan, D. Carden, J. Feather, and S. Beatty, “Plasma and macular response to lutein supplement in subjects with and without age-related maculopathy: a pilot study,” Exp. Eye Res. 79, 21–27 (2004).

Fenerty, C.

V. Nourrit, J. Denniss, M. M. Muqit, I. Schiessl, C. Fenerty, P. E. Stanga, and D. B. Henson, “High-resolution hyperspectral imaging of the retina with a modified fundus camera,” J. Fr. Ophtalmol. 33, 686–692 (2010).

Fernandez, L.

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, L. Fernandez, and S. L. Tarsis, “Analysis of the macular pigment by HPLC: retinal distribution and age study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 29, 843–849 (1988).

Filloon, T. G.

T. A. Ciulla, J. Curran-Celantano, D. A. Cooper, B. R. Hammond, R. P. Danis, L. M. Pratt, K. A. Riccardi, and T. G. Filloon, “Macular pigment optical density in a Midwestern sample,” Ophthalmology 108, 730–737 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fishman, G. A.

P. E. Kilbride, K. R. Alexander, M. Fishman, and G. A. Fishman, “Human macular pigment assessed by imaging fundus reflectometry,” Vis. Res. 29, 663–674 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Fishman, M.

P. E. Kilbride, K. R. Alexander, M. Fishman, and G. A. Fishman, “Human macular pigment assessed by imaging fundus reflectometry,” Vis. Res. 29, 663–674 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Fitzke, F. F.

W. Schalch, W. Cohn, F. M. Barker, W. Kopcke, J. Mellerio, A. C. Bird, A. G. Robson, F. F. Fitzke, and F. J. G. M. van Kuijk, “Xanthophyll accumulation in the human retina during supplementation with lutein or zeaxanthin—the LUXEA (LUtein Xanthophyll Eye Accumulation) study,” Arch. Biochem. Biophys 458, 128–135 (2007).

Francisco, R.

F. C. Delori, E. S. Gragoudas, R. Francisco, and R. C. Pruett, “Monochromatic ophthalmoscopy and fundus photography: normal fundus,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 95, 861–868 (1977).

Fulton, A. B.

L. J. Bour, L. Koo, F. C. Delori, P. Apkarian, and A. B. Fulton, “Fundus photography for measurement of macular pigment density distribution in children,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43, 1450–1455 (2002).

Gallaher, K. T.

A. Iannaccone, M. Mura, K. T. Gallaher, E. J. Johnson, W. A. Todd, E. Kenyon, T. L. Harris, T. Harris, S. Satterfield, K. C. Johnson, S. B. Kritchevsky, and A. B. C. S. Health, “Macular pigment optical density in the elderly: findings in a large biracial midsouth population sample,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48, 1458–1465 (2007).

Garhoefer, G.

S. Kaya, G. Weigert, B. Pemp, S. Sacu, R. M. Werkmeister, N. Dragostinoff, G. Garhoefer, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and L. Schmetterer, “Comparison of macular pigment in patients with age-related macular degeneration and healthy control subjects—a study using spectral fundus reflectance,” Acta Ophthalmol. 90, e399–e403 (2012).

Goger, D. G.

Goldbohm, R. A.

T. Berendschot, R. A. Goldbohm, W. A. A. Klopping, J. van de Kraats, J. van Norel, and D. van Norren, “Influence of lutein supplementation on macular pigment, assessed with two objective techniques,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 41, 3322–3326 (2000).

Gragoudas, E. S.

F. C. Delori, E. S. Gragoudas, R. Francisco, and R. C. Pruett, “Monochromatic ophthalmoscopy and fundus photography: normal fundus,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 95, 861–868 (1977).

Halldorsson, G. H.

S. H. Hardarson, A. Harris, R. A. Karlsson, G. H. Halldorsson, L. Kagemann, E. Rechtman, G. M. Zoega, T. Eysteinsson, J. A. Benediktsson, A. Thorsteinsson, P. K. Jensen, J. Beach, and E. Stefansson, “Automatic retinal oximetry,” Invest. Ophthalmol.Vis. Sci. 47, 5011–5016 (2006).

Hammond, B. R.

J. M. Stringham and B. R. Hammond, “Macular pigment and visual performance under glare conditions,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 85, 82–88 (2008).

T. A. Ciulla, J. Curran-Celantano, D. A. Cooper, B. R. Hammond, R. P. Danis, L. M. Pratt, K. A. Riccardi, and T. G. Filloon, “Macular pigment optical density in a Midwestern sample,” Ophthalmology 108, 730–737 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Delori, D. G. Goger, B. R. Hammond, D. M. Snodderly, and S. A. Burns, “Macular pigment density measured by autofluorescence spectrometry: comparison with reflectometry and heterochromatic flicker photometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 1212–1230 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Hammond and M. Caruso-Avery, “Macular pigment optical density in a southwestern sample,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 41, 1492–1497 (2000).

B. R. Hammond, B. R. Wooten, and D. M. Snodderly, “Density of the human crystalline lens is related to the macular pigment carotenoids, lutein and zeaxanthin,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 74, 499–504 (1997).

B. R. Hammond, E. J. Johnson, R. M. Russell, N. I. Krinsky, K. J. Yeum, R. B. Edwards, and D. M. Snodderly, “Dietary modification of human macular pigment density,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 38, 1795–1801 (1997).

Hardarson, S. H.

S. H. Hardarson, A. Harris, R. A. Karlsson, G. H. Halldorsson, L. Kagemann, E. Rechtman, G. M. Zoega, T. Eysteinsson, J. A. Benediktsson, A. Thorsteinsson, P. K. Jensen, J. Beach, and E. Stefansson, “Automatic retinal oximetry,” Invest. Ophthalmol.Vis. Sci. 47, 5011–5016 (2006).

Harris, A.

S. H. Hardarson, A. Harris, R. A. Karlsson, G. H. Halldorsson, L. Kagemann, E. Rechtman, G. M. Zoega, T. Eysteinsson, J. A. Benediktsson, A. Thorsteinsson, P. K. Jensen, J. Beach, and E. Stefansson, “Automatic retinal oximetry,” Invest. Ophthalmol.Vis. Sci. 47, 5011–5016 (2006).

Harris, T.

A. Iannaccone, M. Mura, K. T. Gallaher, E. J. Johnson, W. A. Todd, E. Kenyon, T. L. Harris, T. Harris, S. Satterfield, K. C. Johnson, S. B. Kritchevsky, and A. B. C. S. Health, “Macular pigment optical density in the elderly: findings in a large biracial midsouth population sample,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48, 1458–1465 (2007).

Harris, T. L.

A. Iannaccone, M. Mura, K. T. Gallaher, E. J. Johnson, W. A. Todd, E. Kenyon, T. L. Harris, T. Harris, S. Satterfield, K. C. Johnson, S. B. Kritchevsky, and A. B. C. S. Health, “Macular pigment optical density in the elderly: findings in a large biracial midsouth population sample,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48, 1458–1465 (2007).

Health, A. B. C. S.

A. Iannaccone, M. Mura, K. T. Gallaher, E. J. Johnson, W. A. Todd, E. Kenyon, T. L. Harris, T. Harris, S. Satterfield, K. C. Johnson, S. B. Kritchevsky, and A. B. C. S. Health, “Macular pigment optical density in the elderly: findings in a large biracial midsouth population sample,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48, 1458–1465 (2007).

Hendrikse, F.

R. L. van der Veen, T. T. Berendschot, M. Makridaki, F. Hendrikse, D. Carden, and I. J. Murray, “Correspondence between retinal reflectometry and a flicker-based technique in the measurement of macular pigment spatial profiles,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 064046 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Henson, D. B.

V. Nourrit, J. Denniss, M. M. Muqit, I. Schiessl, C. Fenerty, P. E. Stanga, and D. B. Henson, “High-resolution hyperspectral imaging of the retina with a modified fundus camera,” J. Fr. Ophtalmol. 33, 686–692 (2010).

S. Beatty, I. J. Murray, D. B. Henson, D. Carden, H. H. Koh, and M. E. Boulton, “Macular pigment and risk for age-related macular degeneration in subjects from a Northern European population,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 42, 439–446 (2001).

Howard, A. N.

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, Y. Cao, A. N. Howard, and F. Alvarez-Calderon, “Macular pigment response to a supplement containing meso-zeaxanthin, lutein and zeaxanthin,” Nutr. Metab. 4, 12–20 (2007).

Hunold, W.

W. Hunold and P. Malessa, “Spectrophotometric determination of melanin pigmentation of human ocular fundus in vivo,” Ophthalmic Res. 6, 355–362 (1974).

Iannaccone, A.

A. Iannaccone, M. Mura, K. T. Gallaher, E. J. Johnson, W. A. Todd, E. Kenyon, T. L. Harris, T. Harris, S. Satterfield, K. C. Johnson, S. B. Kritchevsky, and A. B. C. S. Health, “Macular pigment optical density in the elderly: findings in a large biracial midsouth population sample,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48, 1458–1465 (2007).

Jahn, C.

H. Wustemeyer, A. Moessner, C. Jahn, and S. Wolf, “Macular pigment density in healthy subjects quantified with a modified confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Graef. Arch. Clin. Exp. 241, 647–651 (2003).

Jensen, P. K.

S. H. Hardarson, A. Harris, R. A. Karlsson, G. H. Halldorsson, L. Kagemann, E. Rechtman, G. M. Zoega, T. Eysteinsson, J. A. Benediktsson, A. Thorsteinsson, P. K. Jensen, J. Beach, and E. Stefansson, “Automatic retinal oximetry,” Invest. Ophthalmol.Vis. Sci. 47, 5011–5016 (2006).

Johnson, E. J.

J. Yu, E. J. Johnson, F. Shang, A. Lim, H. Zhou, L. Cui, J. Xu, T. Snellingen, X. Liu, N. Wang, and N. Liu, “Measurement of macular pigment optical density in a healthy Chinese population sample,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53, 2106–2111 (2012).

A. Iannaccone, M. Mura, K. T. Gallaher, E. J. Johnson, W. A. Todd, E. Kenyon, T. L. Harris, T. Harris, S. Satterfield, K. C. Johnson, S. B. Kritchevsky, and A. B. C. S. Health, “Macular pigment optical density in the elderly: findings in a large biracial midsouth population sample,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48, 1458–1465 (2007).

B. R. Hammond, E. J. Johnson, R. M. Russell, N. I. Krinsky, K. J. Yeum, R. B. Edwards, and D. M. Snodderly, “Dietary modification of human macular pigment density,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 38, 1795–1801 (1997).

Johnson, K. C.

A. Iannaccone, M. Mura, K. T. Gallaher, E. J. Johnson, W. A. Todd, E. Kenyon, T. L. Harris, T. Harris, S. Satterfield, K. C. Johnson, S. B. Kritchevsky, and A. B. C. S. Health, “Macular pigment optical density in the elderly: findings in a large biracial midsouth population sample,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48, 1458–1465 (2007).

Kagemann, L.

S. H. Hardarson, A. Harris, R. A. Karlsson, G. H. Halldorsson, L. Kagemann, E. Rechtman, G. M. Zoega, T. Eysteinsson, J. A. Benediktsson, A. Thorsteinsson, P. K. Jensen, J. Beach, and E. Stefansson, “Automatic retinal oximetry,” Invest. Ophthalmol.Vis. Sci. 47, 5011–5016 (2006).

Karlsson, R. A.

S. H. Hardarson, A. Harris, R. A. Karlsson, G. H. Halldorsson, L. Kagemann, E. Rechtman, G. M. Zoega, T. Eysteinsson, J. A. Benediktsson, A. Thorsteinsson, P. K. Jensen, J. Beach, and E. Stefansson, “Automatic retinal oximetry,” Invest. Ophthalmol.Vis. Sci. 47, 5011–5016 (2006).

Katz, N. B.

P. S. Bernstein, F. Khachik, L. S. Carvalho, G. J. Muir, D. Y. Zhao, and N. B. Katz, “Identification and quantitation of carotenoids and their metabolites in the tissues of the human eye,” Exp. Eye Res. 72, 215–223 (2001).

Kaya, S.

S. Kaya, G. Weigert, B. Pemp, S. Sacu, R. M. Werkmeister, N. Dragostinoff, G. Garhoefer, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and L. Schmetterer, “Comparison of macular pigment in patients with age-related macular degeneration and healthy control subjects—a study using spectral fundus reflectance,” Acta Ophthalmol. 90, e399–e403 (2012).

Kenyon, E.

A. Iannaccone, M. Mura, K. T. Gallaher, E. J. Johnson, W. A. Todd, E. Kenyon, T. L. Harris, T. Harris, S. Satterfield, K. C. Johnson, S. B. Kritchevsky, and A. B. C. S. Health, “Macular pigment optical density in the elderly: findings in a large biracial midsouth population sample,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48, 1458–1465 (2007).

Khachik, F.

P. S. Bernstein, F. Khachik, L. S. Carvalho, G. J. Muir, D. Y. Zhao, and N. B. Katz, “Identification and quantitation of carotenoids and their metabolites in the tissues of the human eye,” Exp. Eye Res. 72, 215–223 (2001).

Kilbride, P. E.

P. E. Kilbride, K. R. Alexander, M. Fishman, and G. A. Fishman, “Human macular pigment assessed by imaging fundus reflectometry,” Vis. Res. 29, 663–674 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kliegl, R.

J. S. Werner, S. K. Donnelly, and R. Kliegl, “Aging and human macular pigment density. Appended with translations from the work of Max Schultze and Ewald Hering,” Vis. Res. 27, 257–268 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Klopping, W. A. A.

T. Berendschot, R. A. Goldbohm, W. A. A. Klopping, J. van de Kraats, J. van Norel, and D. van Norren, “Influence of lutein supplementation on macular pigment, assessed with two objective techniques,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 41, 3322–3326 (2000).

Koh, H. H.

H. H. Koh, I. J. Murray, D. Nolan, D. Carden, J. Feather, and S. Beatty, “Plasma and macular response to lutein supplement in subjects with and without age-related maculopathy: a pilot study,” Exp. Eye Res. 79, 21–27 (2004).

S. Beatty, I. J. Murray, D. B. Henson, D. Carden, H. H. Koh, and M. E. Boulton, “Macular pigment and risk for age-related macular degeneration in subjects from a Northern European population,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 42, 439–446 (2001).

Koo, L.

L. J. Bour, L. Koo, F. C. Delori, P. Apkarian, and A. B. Fulton, “Fundus photography for measurement of macular pigment density distribution in children,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43, 1450–1455 (2002).

Kopcke, W.

W. Schalch, W. Cohn, F. M. Barker, W. Kopcke, J. Mellerio, A. C. Bird, A. G. Robson, F. F. Fitzke, and F. J. G. M. van Kuijk, “Xanthophyll accumulation in the human retina during supplementation with lutein or zeaxanthin—the LUXEA (LUtein Xanthophyll Eye Accumulation) study,” Arch. Biochem. Biophys 458, 128–135 (2007).

Krinsky, N. I.

B. R. Hammond, E. J. Johnson, R. M. Russell, N. I. Krinsky, K. J. Yeum, R. B. Edwards, and D. M. Snodderly, “Dietary modification of human macular pigment density,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 38, 1795–1801 (1997).

Kritchevsky, S. B.

A. Iannaccone, M. Mura, K. T. Gallaher, E. J. Johnson, W. A. Todd, E. Kenyon, T. L. Harris, T. Harris, S. Satterfield, K. C. Johnson, S. B. Kritchevsky, and A. B. C. S. Health, “Macular pigment optical density in the elderly: findings in a large biracial midsouth population sample,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48, 1458–1465 (2007).

Kulikowski, J. J.

J. D. Moreland, A. G. Robson, N. Soto-Leon, and J. J. Kulikowski, “Macular pigment and the colour-specificity of visual evoked potentials,” Vis. Res. 38, 3241–3245 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Laine, A. F.

A. A. Fawzi, N. Lee, J. H. Acton, A. F. Laine, and R. T. Smith, “Recovery of macular pigment spectrum in vivo using hyperspectral image analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 106008 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Landrum, J. T.

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, Y. Cao, A. N. Howard, and F. Alvarez-Calderon, “Macular pigment response to a supplement containing meso-zeaxanthin, lutein and zeaxanthin,” Nutr. Metab. 4, 12–20 (2007).

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, and A. Cains, “Optical-density spectra of the macular pigment in vivo and in vitro,” Vis. Res. 32, 105–110 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, L. Fernandez, and S. L. Tarsis, “Analysis of the macular pigment by HPLC: retinal distribution and age study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 29, 843–849 (1988).

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, and S. L. Tarsis, “Preliminary identification of the human macular pigment,” Vis. Res. 25, 1531–1535 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Lang, J. C.

S. Richer, J. Devenport, and J. C. Lang, “LAST II: differential temporal responses of macular pigment optical density in patients with atrophic age-related macular degeneration to dietary supplementation with xanthophylls,” Optometry 78, 213–219 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, F. L.

Y. Chang, F. L. Lee, S. J. Chen, and S. F. Chen, “Optical measurement of human retinal macular pigment and its spatial distribution with age,” Med. Phys. 29, 2621–2628 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lee, N.

A. A. Fawzi, N. Lee, J. H. Acton, A. F. Laine, and R. T. Smith, “Recovery of macular pigment spectrum in vivo using hyperspectral image analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 106008 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lim, A.

J. Yu, E. J. Johnson, F. Shang, A. Lim, H. Zhou, L. Cui, J. Xu, T. Snellingen, X. Liu, N. Wang, and N. Liu, “Measurement of macular pigment optical density in a healthy Chinese population sample,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53, 2106–2111 (2012).

Liu, N.

J. Yu, E. J. Johnson, F. Shang, A. Lim, H. Zhou, L. Cui, J. Xu, T. Snellingen, X. Liu, N. Wang, and N. Liu, “Measurement of macular pigment optical density in a healthy Chinese population sample,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53, 2106–2111 (2012).

Liu, X.

J. Yu, E. J. Johnson, F. Shang, A. Lim, H. Zhou, L. Cui, J. Xu, T. Snellingen, X. Liu, N. Wang, and N. Liu, “Measurement of macular pigment optical density in a healthy Chinese population sample,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53, 2106–2111 (2012).

Loane, E.

J. M. Nolan, J. Stack, O. O’Donovan, E. Loane, and S. Beatty, “Risk factors for age-related maculopathy are associated with a relative lack of macular pigment,” Exp. Eye Res. 84, 61–74 (2007).

Maaseidv, F.

M. Alpern, F. Maaseidv, and N. Ohba, “Kinetics of cone visual pigments in man,” Vis. Res. 11, 539–549 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Makridaki, M.

R. L. van der Veen, T. T. Berendschot, M. Makridaki, F. Hendrikse, D. Carden, and I. J. Murray, “Correspondence between retinal reflectometry and a flicker-based technique in the measurement of macular pigment spatial profiles,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 064046 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Malessa, P.

W. Hunold and P. Malessa, “Spectrophotometric determination of melanin pigmentation of human ocular fundus in vivo,” Ophthalmic Res. 6, 355–362 (1974).

Mellerio, J.

W. Schalch, W. Cohn, F. M. Barker, W. Kopcke, J. Mellerio, A. C. Bird, A. G. Robson, F. F. Fitzke, and F. J. G. M. van Kuijk, “Xanthophyll accumulation in the human retina during supplementation with lutein or zeaxanthin—the LUXEA (LUtein Xanthophyll Eye Accumulation) study,” Arch. Biochem. Biophys 458, 128–135 (2007).

Moessner, A.

H. Wustemeyer, A. Moessner, C. Jahn, and S. Wolf, “Macular pigment density in healthy subjects quantified with a modified confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Graef. Arch. Clin. Exp. 241, 647–651 (2003).

Moreland, J. D.

J. D. Moreland, A. G. Robson, N. Soto-Leon, and J. J. Kulikowski, “Macular pigment and the colour-specificity of visual evoked potentials,” Vis. Res. 38, 3241–3245 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Muir, G. J.

P. S. Bernstein, F. Khachik, L. S. Carvalho, G. J. Muir, D. Y. Zhao, and N. B. Katz, “Identification and quantitation of carotenoids and their metabolites in the tissues of the human eye,” Exp. Eye Res. 72, 215–223 (2001).

Muqit, M. M.

V. Nourrit, J. Denniss, M. M. Muqit, I. Schiessl, C. Fenerty, P. E. Stanga, and D. B. Henson, “High-resolution hyperspectral imaging of the retina with a modified fundus camera,” J. Fr. Ophtalmol. 33, 686–692 (2010).

Mura, M.

A. Iannaccone, M. Mura, K. T. Gallaher, E. J. Johnson, W. A. Todd, E. Kenyon, T. L. Harris, T. Harris, S. Satterfield, K. C. Johnson, S. B. Kritchevsky, and A. B. C. S. Health, “Macular pigment optical density in the elderly: findings in a large biracial midsouth population sample,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48, 1458–1465 (2007).

Murray, I. J.

R. L. van der Veen, T. T. Berendschot, M. Makridaki, F. Hendrikse, D. Carden, and I. J. Murray, “Correspondence between retinal reflectometry and a flicker-based technique in the measurement of macular pigment spatial profiles,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 064046 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Koh, I. J. Murray, D. Nolan, D. Carden, J. Feather, and S. Beatty, “Plasma and macular response to lutein supplement in subjects with and without age-related maculopathy: a pilot study,” Exp. Eye Res. 79, 21–27 (2004).

S. Beatty, I. J. Murray, D. B. Henson, D. Carden, H. H. Koh, and M. E. Boulton, “Macular pigment and risk for age-related macular degeneration in subjects from a Northern European population,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 42, 439–446 (2001).

Nolan, D.

H. H. Koh, I. J. Murray, D. Nolan, D. Carden, J. Feather, and S. Beatty, “Plasma and macular response to lutein supplement in subjects with and without age-related maculopathy: a pilot study,” Exp. Eye Res. 79, 21–27 (2004).

Nolan, J. M.

J. M. Nolan, J. Stack, O. O’Donovan, E. Loane, and S. Beatty, “Risk factors for age-related maculopathy are associated with a relative lack of macular pigment,” Exp. Eye Res. 84, 61–74 (2007).

Norden, L. C.

L. C. Norden, “Spectral reflectance photography of the ocular fundus,” Am J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 56, 586–591 (1979).

Nourrit, V.

V. Nourrit, J. Denniss, M. M. Muqit, I. Schiessl, C. Fenerty, P. E. Stanga, and D. B. Henson, “High-resolution hyperspectral imaging of the retina with a modified fundus camera,” J. Fr. Ophtalmol. 33, 686–692 (2010).

O’Donovan, O.

J. M. Nolan, J. Stack, O. O’Donovan, E. Loane, and S. Beatty, “Risk factors for age-related maculopathy are associated with a relative lack of macular pigment,” Exp. Eye Res. 84, 61–74 (2007).

Ohba, N.

M. Alpern, F. Maaseidv, and N. Ohba, “Kinetics of cone visual pigments in man,” Vis. Res. 11, 539–549 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Pease, P. L.

P. L. Pease and A. J. Adams, “Macular pigment difference spectrum from sensitivity measures of a single cone mechanism,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 60, 667–672 (1983).

Pemp, B.

S. Kaya, G. Weigert, B. Pemp, S. Sacu, R. M. Werkmeister, N. Dragostinoff, G. Garhoefer, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and L. Schmetterer, “Comparison of macular pigment in patients with age-related macular degeneration and healthy control subjects—a study using spectral fundus reflectance,” Acta Ophthalmol. 90, e399–e403 (2012).

Pflibsen, K. P.

Pipis, A.

A. Pipis, E. Touliou, and A. J. Augustin, “Macular pigment optical density in a Central European population,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging Retina 44, 260–267 (2013).

Pratt, L. M.

T. A. Ciulla, J. Curran-Celantano, D. A. Cooper, B. R. Hammond, R. P. Danis, L. M. Pratt, K. A. Riccardi, and T. G. Filloon, “Macular pigment optical density in a Midwestern sample,” Ophthalmology 108, 730–737 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pruett, R. C.

F. C. Delori, E. S. Gragoudas, R. Francisco, and R. C. Pruett, “Monochromatic ophthalmoscopy and fundus photography: normal fundus,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 95, 861–868 (1977).

Reading, V. M.

Rechtman, E.

S. H. Hardarson, A. Harris, R. A. Karlsson, G. H. Halldorsson, L. Kagemann, E. Rechtman, G. M. Zoega, T. Eysteinsson, J. A. Benediktsson, A. Thorsteinsson, P. K. Jensen, J. Beach, and E. Stefansson, “Automatic retinal oximetry,” Invest. Ophthalmol.Vis. Sci. 47, 5011–5016 (2006).

Riccardi, K. A.

T. A. Ciulla, J. Curran-Celantano, D. A. Cooper, B. R. Hammond, R. P. Danis, L. M. Pratt, K. A. Riccardi, and T. G. Filloon, “Macular pigment optical density in a Midwestern sample,” Ophthalmology 108, 730–737 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Richer, S.

S. Richer, J. Devenport, and J. C. Lang, “LAST II: differential temporal responses of macular pigment optical density in patients with atrophic age-related macular degeneration to dietary supplementation with xanthophylls,” Optometry 78, 213–219 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Robson, A. G.

W. Schalch, W. Cohn, F. M. Barker, W. Kopcke, J. Mellerio, A. C. Bird, A. G. Robson, F. F. Fitzke, and F. J. G. M. van Kuijk, “Xanthophyll accumulation in the human retina during supplementation with lutein or zeaxanthin—the LUXEA (LUtein Xanthophyll Eye Accumulation) study,” Arch. Biochem. Biophys 458, 128–135 (2007).

J. D. Moreland, A. G. Robson, N. Soto-Leon, and J. J. Kulikowski, “Macular pigment and the colour-specificity of visual evoked potentials,” Vis. Res. 38, 3241–3245 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Russell, R. M.

B. R. Hammond, E. J. Johnson, R. M. Russell, N. I. Krinsky, K. J. Yeum, R. B. Edwards, and D. M. Snodderly, “Dietary modification of human macular pigment density,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 38, 1795–1801 (1997).

Sacu, S.

S. Kaya, G. Weigert, B. Pemp, S. Sacu, R. M. Werkmeister, N. Dragostinoff, G. Garhoefer, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and L. Schmetterer, “Comparison of macular pigment in patients with age-related macular degeneration and healthy control subjects—a study using spectral fundus reflectance,” Acta Ophthalmol. 90, e399–e403 (2012).

Satterfield, S.

A. Iannaccone, M. Mura, K. T. Gallaher, E. J. Johnson, W. A. Todd, E. Kenyon, T. L. Harris, T. Harris, S. Satterfield, K. C. Johnson, S. B. Kritchevsky, and A. B. C. S. Health, “Macular pigment optical density in the elderly: findings in a large biracial midsouth population sample,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48, 1458–1465 (2007).

Schalch, W.

W. Schalch, W. Cohn, F. M. Barker, W. Kopcke, J. Mellerio, A. C. Bird, A. G. Robson, F. F. Fitzke, and F. J. G. M. van Kuijk, “Xanthophyll accumulation in the human retina during supplementation with lutein or zeaxanthin—the LUXEA (LUtein Xanthophyll Eye Accumulation) study,” Arch. Biochem. Biophys 458, 128–135 (2007).

Schiessl, I.

V. Nourrit, J. Denniss, M. M. Muqit, I. Schiessl, C. Fenerty, P. E. Stanga, and D. B. Henson, “High-resolution hyperspectral imaging of the retina with a modified fundus camera,” J. Fr. Ophtalmol. 33, 686–692 (2010).

Schmetterer, L.

S. Kaya, G. Weigert, B. Pemp, S. Sacu, R. M. Werkmeister, N. Dragostinoff, G. Garhoefer, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and L. Schmetterer, “Comparison of macular pigment in patients with age-related macular degeneration and healthy control subjects—a study using spectral fundus reflectance,” Acta Ophthalmol. 90, e399–e403 (2012).

Schmidt-Erfurth, U.

S. Kaya, G. Weigert, B. Pemp, S. Sacu, R. M. Werkmeister, N. Dragostinoff, G. Garhoefer, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and L. Schmetterer, “Comparison of macular pigment in patients with age-related macular degeneration and healthy control subjects—a study using spectral fundus reflectance,” Acta Ophthalmol. 90, e399–e403 (2012).

Shang, F.

J. Yu, E. J. Johnson, F. Shang, A. Lim, H. Zhou, L. Cui, J. Xu, T. Snellingen, X. Liu, N. Wang, and N. Liu, “Measurement of macular pigment optical density in a healthy Chinese population sample,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53, 2106–2111 (2012).

Smith, R. T.

A. A. Fawzi, N. Lee, J. H. Acton, A. F. Laine, and R. T. Smith, “Recovery of macular pigment spectrum in vivo using hyperspectral image analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 106008 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Snellingen, T.

J. Yu, E. J. Johnson, F. Shang, A. Lim, H. Zhou, L. Cui, J. Xu, T. Snellingen, X. Liu, N. Wang, and N. Liu, “Measurement of macular pigment optical density in a healthy Chinese population sample,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53, 2106–2111 (2012).

Snodderly, D. M.

F. C. Delori, D. G. Goger, B. R. Hammond, D. M. Snodderly, and S. A. Burns, “Macular pigment density measured by autofluorescence spectrometry: comparison with reflectometry and heterochromatic flicker photometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 1212–1230 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Hammond, B. R. Wooten, and D. M. Snodderly, “Density of the human crystalline lens is related to the macular pigment carotenoids, lutein and zeaxanthin,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 74, 499–504 (1997).

B. R. Hammond, E. J. Johnson, R. M. Russell, N. I. Krinsky, K. J. Yeum, R. B. Edwards, and D. M. Snodderly, “Dietary modification of human macular pigment density,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 38, 1795–1801 (1997).

D. M. Snodderly, “Evidence for protection against age-related macular degeneration by carotenoids and antioxidant vitamins,” Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 62, 1448S–1461S (1995).

D. M. Snodderly, P. K. Brown, F. C. Delori, and J. D. Auran, “The macular pigment. 1. absorbance spectra, localization, and discrimination from other yellow pigments in primate retinas,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 25, 660–673 (1984).

Soto-Leon, N.

J. D. Moreland, A. G. Robson, N. Soto-Leon, and J. J. Kulikowski, “Macular pigment and the colour-specificity of visual evoked potentials,” Vis. Res. 38, 3241–3245 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stabell, B.

Stabell, U.

Stack, J.

J. M. Nolan, J. Stack, O. O’Donovan, E. Loane, and S. Beatty, “Risk factors for age-related maculopathy are associated with a relative lack of macular pigment,” Exp. Eye Res. 84, 61–74 (2007).

Stanga, P. E.

V. Nourrit, J. Denniss, M. M. Muqit, I. Schiessl, C. Fenerty, P. E. Stanga, and D. B. Henson, “High-resolution hyperspectral imaging of the retina with a modified fundus camera,” J. Fr. Ophtalmol. 33, 686–692 (2010).

Stefansson, E.

S. H. Hardarson, A. Harris, R. A. Karlsson, G. H. Halldorsson, L. Kagemann, E. Rechtman, G. M. Zoega, T. Eysteinsson, J. A. Benediktsson, A. Thorsteinsson, P. K. Jensen, J. Beach, and E. Stefansson, “Automatic retinal oximetry,” Invest. Ophthalmol.Vis. Sci. 47, 5011–5016 (2006).

Stringham, J. M.

J. M. Stringham and B. R. Hammond, “Macular pigment and visual performance under glare conditions,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 85, 82–88 (2008).

Tarsis, S. L.

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, L. Fernandez, and S. L. Tarsis, “Analysis of the macular pigment by HPLC: retinal distribution and age study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 29, 843–849 (1988).

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, and S. L. Tarsis, “Preliminary identification of the human macular pigment,” Vis. Res. 25, 1531–1535 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Thorsteinsson, A.

S. H. Hardarson, A. Harris, R. A. Karlsson, G. H. Halldorsson, L. Kagemann, E. Rechtman, G. M. Zoega, T. Eysteinsson, J. A. Benediktsson, A. Thorsteinsson, P. K. Jensen, J. Beach, and E. Stefansson, “Automatic retinal oximetry,” Invest. Ophthalmol.Vis. Sci. 47, 5011–5016 (2006).

Tiemeijer, L. F.

D. van Norren and L. F. Tiemeijer, “Spectral reflectance of the human eye,” Vis. Res. 26, 313–320 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Todd, W. A.

A. Iannaccone, M. Mura, K. T. Gallaher, E. J. Johnson, W. A. Todd, E. Kenyon, T. L. Harris, T. Harris, S. Satterfield, K. C. Johnson, S. B. Kritchevsky, and A. B. C. S. Health, “Macular pigment optical density in the elderly: findings in a large biracial midsouth population sample,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48, 1458–1465 (2007).

Touliou, E.

A. Pipis, E. Touliou, and A. J. Augustin, “Macular pigment optical density in a Central European population,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging Retina 44, 260–267 (2013).

van de Kraats, J.

T. Berendschot, R. A. Goldbohm, W. A. A. Klopping, J. van de Kraats, J. van Norel, and D. van Norren, “Influence of lutein supplementation on macular pigment, assessed with two objective techniques,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 41, 3322–3326 (2000).

J. van de Kraats, T. Berendschot, and D. van Norren, “The pathways of light measured in fundus reflectometry,” Vis. Res. 36, 2229–2247 (1996).
[CrossRef]

van der Veen, R. L.

R. L. van der Veen, T. T. Berendschot, M. Makridaki, F. Hendrikse, D. Carden, and I. J. Murray, “Correspondence between retinal reflectometry and a flicker-based technique in the measurement of macular pigment spatial profiles,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 064046 (2009).
[CrossRef]

van Kuijk, F. J. G. M.

W. Schalch, W. Cohn, F. M. Barker, W. Kopcke, J. Mellerio, A. C. Bird, A. G. Robson, F. F. Fitzke, and F. J. G. M. van Kuijk, “Xanthophyll accumulation in the human retina during supplementation with lutein or zeaxanthin—the LUXEA (LUtein Xanthophyll Eye Accumulation) study,” Arch. Biochem. Biophys 458, 128–135 (2007).

van Norel, J.

T. Berendschot, R. A. Goldbohm, W. A. A. Klopping, J. van de Kraats, J. van Norel, and D. van Norren, “Influence of lutein supplementation on macular pigment, assessed with two objective techniques,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 41, 3322–3326 (2000).

van Norren, D.

T. Berendschot and D. van Norren, “Macular pigment shows ringlike structures,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 709–714 (2006).

T. T. Berendschot and D. van Norren, “On the age dependency of the macular pigment optical density,” Exp. Eye Res. 81, 602–609 (2005).

T. Berendschot and D. van Norren, “Objective determination of the macular pigment optical density using fundus reflectance spectroscopy,” Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 430, 149–155 (2004).

T. Berendschot, J. J. M. Willemse-Assink, M. Bastiaanse, P. de Jong, and D. van Norren, “Macular pigment and melanin in age-related maculopathy in a general population,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43, 1928–1932 (2002).

T. Berendschot, R. A. Goldbohm, W. A. A. Klopping, J. van de Kraats, J. van Norel, and D. van Norren, “Influence of lutein supplementation on macular pigment, assessed with two objective techniques,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 41, 3322–3326 (2000).

J. van de Kraats, T. Berendschot, and D. van Norren, “The pathways of light measured in fundus reflectometry,” Vis. Res. 36, 2229–2247 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. van Norren and L. F. Tiemeijer, “Spectral reflectance of the human eye,” Vis. Res. 26, 313–320 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Wang, N.

J. Yu, E. J. Johnson, F. Shang, A. Lim, H. Zhou, L. Cui, J. Xu, T. Snellingen, X. Liu, N. Wang, and N. Liu, “Measurement of macular pigment optical density in a healthy Chinese population sample,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53, 2106–2111 (2012).

Weale, R. A.

Weigert, G.

S. Kaya, G. Weigert, B. Pemp, S. Sacu, R. M. Werkmeister, N. Dragostinoff, G. Garhoefer, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and L. Schmetterer, “Comparison of macular pigment in patients with age-related macular degeneration and healthy control subjects—a study using spectral fundus reflectance,” Acta Ophthalmol. 90, e399–e403 (2012).

Werkmeister, R. M.

S. Kaya, G. Weigert, B. Pemp, S. Sacu, R. M. Werkmeister, N. Dragostinoff, G. Garhoefer, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and L. Schmetterer, “Comparison of macular pigment in patients with age-related macular degeneration and healthy control subjects—a study using spectral fundus reflectance,” Acta Ophthalmol. 90, e399–e403 (2012).

Werner, J. S.

J. S. Werner, S. K. Donnelly, and R. Kliegl, “Aging and human macular pigment density. Appended with translations from the work of Max Schultze and Ewald Hering,” Vis. Res. 27, 257–268 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Bieber and J. S. Werner, “The spatial distribution of human macular pigment,” in Vision Science and Its Applications, Vol. 1 of 1998 OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 1998), pp. 10–13.

Willemse-Assink, J. J. M.

T. Berendschot, J. J. M. Willemse-Assink, M. Bastiaanse, P. de Jong, and D. van Norren, “Macular pigment and melanin in age-related maculopathy in a general population,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43, 1928–1932 (2002).

Wolf, S.

H. Wustemeyer, A. Moessner, C. Jahn, and S. Wolf, “Macular pigment density in healthy subjects quantified with a modified confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Graef. Arch. Clin. Exp. 241, 647–651 (2003).

Wooten, B. R.

B. R. Hammond, B. R. Wooten, and D. M. Snodderly, “Density of the human crystalline lens is related to the macular pigment carotenoids, lutein and zeaxanthin,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 74, 499–504 (1997).

Wu, J. C.

S. F. Chen, Y. Chang, and J. C. Wu, “The spatial distribution of macular pigment in humans,” Curr. Eye Res. 23, 422–434 (2001).

Wustemeyer, H.

H. Wustemeyer, A. Moessner, C. Jahn, and S. Wolf, “Macular pigment density in healthy subjects quantified with a modified confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Graef. Arch. Clin. Exp. 241, 647–651 (2003).

Xu, J.

J. Yu, E. J. Johnson, F. Shang, A. Lim, H. Zhou, L. Cui, J. Xu, T. Snellingen, X. Liu, N. Wang, and N. Liu, “Measurement of macular pigment optical density in a healthy Chinese population sample,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53, 2106–2111 (2012).

Yeum, K. J.

B. R. Hammond, E. J. Johnson, R. M. Russell, N. I. Krinsky, K. J. Yeum, R. B. Edwards, and D. M. Snodderly, “Dietary modification of human macular pigment density,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 38, 1795–1801 (1997).

Yu, J.

J. Yu, E. J. Johnson, F. Shang, A. Lim, H. Zhou, L. Cui, J. Xu, T. Snellingen, X. Liu, N. Wang, and N. Liu, “Measurement of macular pigment optical density in a healthy Chinese population sample,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53, 2106–2111 (2012).

Zhao, D. Y.

P. S. Bernstein, F. Khachik, L. S. Carvalho, G. J. Muir, D. Y. Zhao, and N. B. Katz, “Identification and quantitation of carotenoids and their metabolites in the tissues of the human eye,” Exp. Eye Res. 72, 215–223 (2001).

Zhou, H.

J. Yu, E. J. Johnson, F. Shang, A. Lim, H. Zhou, L. Cui, J. Xu, T. Snellingen, X. Liu, N. Wang, and N. Liu, “Measurement of macular pigment optical density in a healthy Chinese population sample,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53, 2106–2111 (2012).

Zoega, G. M.

S. H. Hardarson, A. Harris, R. A. Karlsson, G. H. Halldorsson, L. Kagemann, E. Rechtman, G. M. Zoega, T. Eysteinsson, J. A. Benediktsson, A. Thorsteinsson, P. K. Jensen, J. Beach, and E. Stefansson, “Automatic retinal oximetry,” Invest. Ophthalmol.Vis. Sci. 47, 5011–5016 (2006).

Acta Ophthalmol. (1)

S. Kaya, G. Weigert, B. Pemp, S. Sacu, R. M. Werkmeister, N. Dragostinoff, G. Garhoefer, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and L. Schmetterer, “Comparison of macular pigment in patients with age-related macular degeneration and healthy control subjects—a study using spectral fundus reflectance,” Acta Ophthalmol. 90, e399–e403 (2012).

Am J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. (1)

L. C. Norden, “Spectral reflectance photography of the ocular fundus,” Am J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 56, 586–591 (1979).

Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1)

D. M. Snodderly, “Evidence for protection against age-related macular degeneration by carotenoids and antioxidant vitamins,” Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 62, 1448S–1461S (1995).

Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. (1)

P. L. Pease and A. J. Adams, “Macular pigment difference spectrum from sensitivity measures of a single cone mechanism,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 60, 667–672 (1983).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Arch. Biochem. Biophys (1)

W. Schalch, W. Cohn, F. M. Barker, W. Kopcke, J. Mellerio, A. C. Bird, A. G. Robson, F. F. Fitzke, and F. J. G. M. van Kuijk, “Xanthophyll accumulation in the human retina during supplementation with lutein or zeaxanthin—the LUXEA (LUtein Xanthophyll Eye Accumulation) study,” Arch. Biochem. Biophys 458, 128–135 (2007).

Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (1)

T. Berendschot and D. van Norren, “Objective determination of the macular pigment optical density using fundus reflectance spectroscopy,” Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 430, 149–155 (2004).

Arch. Ophthalmol. (1)

F. C. Delori, E. S. Gragoudas, R. Francisco, and R. C. Pruett, “Monochromatic ophthalmoscopy and fundus photography: normal fundus,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 95, 861–868 (1977).

Curr. Eye Res. (1)

S. F. Chen, Y. Chang, and J. C. Wu, “The spatial distribution of macular pigment in humans,” Curr. Eye Res. 23, 422–434 (2001).

Exp. Eye Res. (4)

T. T. Berendschot and D. van Norren, “On the age dependency of the macular pigment optical density,” Exp. Eye Res. 81, 602–609 (2005).

H. H. Koh, I. J. Murray, D. Nolan, D. Carden, J. Feather, and S. Beatty, “Plasma and macular response to lutein supplement in subjects with and without age-related maculopathy: a pilot study,” Exp. Eye Res. 79, 21–27 (2004).

J. M. Nolan, J. Stack, O. O’Donovan, E. Loane, and S. Beatty, “Risk factors for age-related maculopathy are associated with a relative lack of macular pigment,” Exp. Eye Res. 84, 61–74 (2007).

P. S. Bernstein, F. Khachik, L. S. Carvalho, G. J. Muir, D. Y. Zhao, and N. B. Katz, “Identification and quantitation of carotenoids and their metabolites in the tissues of the human eye,” Exp. Eye Res. 72, 215–223 (2001).

Graef. Arch. Clin. Exp. (1)

H. Wustemeyer, A. Moessner, C. Jahn, and S. Wolf, “Macular pigment density in healthy subjects quantified with a modified confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Graef. Arch. Clin. Exp. 241, 647–651 (2003).

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (11)

L. J. Bour, L. Koo, F. C. Delori, P. Apkarian, and A. B. Fulton, “Fundus photography for measurement of macular pigment density distribution in children,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43, 1450–1455 (2002).

T. Berendschot and D. van Norren, “Macular pigment shows ringlike structures,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 709–714 (2006).

D. M. Snodderly, P. K. Brown, F. C. Delori, and J. D. Auran, “The macular pigment. 1. absorbance spectra, localization, and discrimination from other yellow pigments in primate retinas,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 25, 660–673 (1984).

A. Iannaccone, M. Mura, K. T. Gallaher, E. J. Johnson, W. A. Todd, E. Kenyon, T. L. Harris, T. Harris, S. Satterfield, K. C. Johnson, S. B. Kritchevsky, and A. B. C. S. Health, “Macular pigment optical density in the elderly: findings in a large biracial midsouth population sample,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48, 1458–1465 (2007).

B. R. Hammond, E. J. Johnson, R. M. Russell, N. I. Krinsky, K. J. Yeum, R. B. Edwards, and D. M. Snodderly, “Dietary modification of human macular pigment density,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 38, 1795–1801 (1997).

T. Berendschot, R. A. Goldbohm, W. A. A. Klopping, J. van de Kraats, J. van Norel, and D. van Norren, “Influence of lutein supplementation on macular pigment, assessed with two objective techniques,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 41, 3322–3326 (2000).

T. Berendschot, J. J. M. Willemse-Assink, M. Bastiaanse, P. de Jong, and D. van Norren, “Macular pigment and melanin in age-related maculopathy in a general population,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43, 1928–1932 (2002).

B. R. Hammond and M. Caruso-Avery, “Macular pigment optical density in a southwestern sample,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 41, 1492–1497 (2000).

S. Beatty, I. J. Murray, D. B. Henson, D. Carden, H. H. Koh, and M. E. Boulton, “Macular pigment and risk for age-related macular degeneration in subjects from a Northern European population,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 42, 439–446 (2001).

J. Yu, E. J. Johnson, F. Shang, A. Lim, H. Zhou, L. Cui, J. Xu, T. Snellingen, X. Liu, N. Wang, and N. Liu, “Measurement of macular pigment optical density in a healthy Chinese population sample,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53, 2106–2111 (2012).

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, L. Fernandez, and S. L. Tarsis, “Analysis of the macular pigment by HPLC: retinal distribution and age study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 29, 843–849 (1988).

Invest. Ophthalmol.Vis. Sci. (1)

S. H. Hardarson, A. Harris, R. A. Karlsson, G. H. Halldorsson, L. Kagemann, E. Rechtman, G. M. Zoega, T. Eysteinsson, J. A. Benediktsson, A. Thorsteinsson, P. K. Jensen, J. Beach, and E. Stefansson, “Automatic retinal oximetry,” Invest. Ophthalmol.Vis. Sci. 47, 5011–5016 (2006).

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

A. A. Fawzi, N. Lee, J. H. Acton, A. F. Laine, and R. T. Smith, “Recovery of macular pigment spectrum in vivo using hyperspectral image analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 106008 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. L. van der Veen, T. T. Berendschot, M. Makridaki, F. Hendrikse, D. Carden, and I. J. Murray, “Correspondence between retinal reflectometry and a flicker-based technique in the measurement of macular pigment spatial profiles,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 064046 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Fr. Ophtalmol. (1)

V. Nourrit, J. Denniss, M. M. Muqit, I. Schiessl, C. Fenerty, P. E. Stanga, and D. B. Henson, “High-resolution hyperspectral imaging of the retina with a modified fundus camera,” J. Fr. Ophtalmol. 33, 686–692 (2010).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Med. Phys. (1)

Y. Chang, F. L. Lee, S. J. Chen, and S. F. Chen, “Optical measurement of human retinal macular pigment and its spatial distribution with age,” Med. Phys. 29, 2621–2628 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nutr. Metab. (1)

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, Y. Cao, A. N. Howard, and F. Alvarez-Calderon, “Macular pigment response to a supplement containing meso-zeaxanthin, lutein and zeaxanthin,” Nutr. Metab. 4, 12–20 (2007).

Ophthalmic Res. (1)

W. Hunold and P. Malessa, “Spectrophotometric determination of melanin pigmentation of human ocular fundus in vivo,” Ophthalmic Res. 6, 355–362 (1974).

Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging Retina (1)

A. Pipis, E. Touliou, and A. J. Augustin, “Macular pigment optical density in a Central European population,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging Retina 44, 260–267 (2013).

Ophthalmology (1)

T. A. Ciulla, J. Curran-Celantano, D. A. Cooper, B. R. Hammond, R. P. Danis, L. M. Pratt, K. A. Riccardi, and T. G. Filloon, “Macular pigment optical density in a Midwestern sample,” Ophthalmology 108, 730–737 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Optom. Vis. Sci. (2)

J. M. Stringham and B. R. Hammond, “Macular pigment and visual performance under glare conditions,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 85, 82–88 (2008).

B. R. Hammond, B. R. Wooten, and D. M. Snodderly, “Density of the human crystalline lens is related to the macular pigment carotenoids, lutein and zeaxanthin,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 74, 499–504 (1997).

Optometry (1)

S. Richer, J. Devenport, and J. C. Lang, “LAST II: differential temporal responses of macular pigment optical density in patients with atrophic age-related macular degeneration to dietary supplementation with xanthophylls,” Optometry 78, 213–219 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vis. Res. (8)

J. S. Werner, S. K. Donnelly, and R. Kliegl, “Aging and human macular pigment density. Appended with translations from the work of Max Schultze and Ewald Hering,” Vis. Res. 27, 257–268 (1987).
[CrossRef]

P. E. Kilbride, K. R. Alexander, M. Fishman, and G. A. Fishman, “Human macular pigment assessed by imaging fundus reflectometry,” Vis. Res. 29, 663–674 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Moreland, A. G. Robson, N. Soto-Leon, and J. J. Kulikowski, “Macular pigment and the colour-specificity of visual evoked potentials,” Vis. Res. 38, 3241–3245 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Alpern, F. Maaseidv, and N. Ohba, “Kinetics of cone visual pigments in man,” Vis. Res. 11, 539–549 (1971).
[CrossRef]

D. van Norren and L. F. Tiemeijer, “Spectral reflectance of the human eye,” Vis. Res. 26, 313–320 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. van de Kraats, T. Berendschot, and D. van Norren, “The pathways of light measured in fundus reflectometry,” Vis. Res. 36, 2229–2247 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, and S. L. Tarsis, “Preliminary identification of the human macular pigment,” Vis. Res. 25, 1531–1535 (1985).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, and A. Cains, “Optical-density spectra of the macular pigment in vivo and in vitro,” Vis. Res. 32, 105–110 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, eds., Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae (Wiley, 1982).

M. L. Bieber and J. S. Werner, “The spatial distribution of human macular pigment,” in Vision Science and Its Applications, Vol. 1 of 1998 OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 1998), pp. 10–13.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (2)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Macular pigment distribution for two subjects (S1 and S2).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Vertical and horizontal profiles and respective section at half-maximum, within the rectangle a·b for two subjects (S1 and S2).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. FWHM (deg visual angle) Data for the Three Age Cohorts

Tables Icon

Table 2. MP Distribution (deg visual angle) in Terms of Enclosing Rectangle a·b for the Three Age Cohorts

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Rf(λ)=S(λ)Sd(λ)Sw(λ)Sd(λ).
R(λ)=r×10(2D1(λ)+2D2(λ)+2D3(λ)).
δ=log101R(490)βlog101R(540)+A,
β=D3(490)D3(540),
A=(βD1(490)D1(540))2D1(540)+(1β)log10r.
δ=log101Rf(490)βlog101Rf(540)+A+B,
B=log101kβlog101k.
δ(x,y)=(log101Rf(x,y)(490)βlog101Rf(x,y)(540))(log101Rf(x0,y0)(490)βlog101Rf(x0,y0)(540)),

Metrics