Abstract

The purpose of this study was to evaluate color vision in young patients with demyelinating disease both clinically and electrophysiologically. Thirty young patients (8–28 years, mean age 19 years) with demyelinating disease with or without a history of optic neuritis (ON) were investigated. Color vision was evaluated clinically with the Ishihara test and the Farnsworth–Munsell 100 hue (FM 100 hue) test and electrophysiologically with chromatic visual evoked potentials (cVEPs). Color deficiency axis and error score (ES) obtained with the FM 100 hue test were analyzed. cVEPs to isoluminant red–green (R-G) and blue–yellow (B-Y) stimuli were recorded. The stimulus was a 7 deg circle composed of horizontal sinusoidal gratings with a spatial frequency of 2cycles/deg and 90% chromatic contrast. Onset–offset mode of stimulation (ON:OFF=300700ms) was used. Since the majority of the patients were adults (>18years), the negative wave (N wave) of the cVEP respones is the prominent part and therefore was analyzed. Sixty eyes were studied—22 with at least one episode of ON (ON group) and 38 without any clinically evident episode of ON (nON group). The average ES in the ON group was 179.18±171.8, whereas in the nON group it was 87.60±65.34. The average N-wave latency in the ON group was 144±44ms for the R-G stimulus and 146±56ms for the B-Y stimulus, whereas in the nON group, it was 117±13ms for the R-G stimulus and 121±22ms for the B-Y one. The average N-wave amplitude in the ON group was 9.3±7.1μV for the R-G stimulus and 5.1±3.9μV for the B-Y one, whereas in the nON group, it was 10.8±8.3μV for the R-G stimulus and 6.4±4.3μV for the B-Y one. A significant difference between the ON and the nON group was found: in the ON group, ES was higher (p=0.01) and N-wave latency was longer (p=0.01) compared with those in the nON group. The study showed that color vision is expectedly more affected in the ON group, but also often in the nON group, which may indicate increased parvocellular visual pathway vulnerability in demyelinating diseases.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. M. E. Schneck and G. Haegerstrom-Portnoy, “Color vision defect type and spatial vision in the optic neuritis treatment trial,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 38, 2278–2289 (1997).
  2. B. Katz, “The dyschromatopsia of optic neuritis: a descriptive analysis of data from the optic neuritis treatment trial,” Trans. Am. Ophthalmol. Soc. 93, 685–708 (1995).
  3. P. Flanagan and A. J. Zele, “Chromatic and luminance losses with multiple sclerosis and optic neuritis measured using dynamic random luminance contrast noise,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 24, 225–233 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. Villoslada, A. Cuneo, J. Gelfand, S. L. Hauser, and A. Green, “Color vision is strongly associated with retinal thinning in multiple sclerosis,” Mult. Scler. 18, 991–999 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. C. Harrison, W. J. Becker, and W. K. Stell, “Colour vision abnormalities in multiple sclerosis,” Can. J. Neurol. Sci. 14, 279–285 (1987).
  6. J. A. Fleishman, R. W. Beck, O. A. Linares, and J. W. Klein, “Deficits in visual function after resolution of optic neuritis,” Ophthalmology 94, 1029–1035 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  7. N. Evangelou, “Size-selective neuronal changes in the anterior optic pathways suggest a differential susceptibility to injury in multiple sclerosis,” Brain 124, 1813–1820 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. Koellner, Stoerungen des Farbensinnes: Ihre klinische Bedeutung und Ihre Diagnose (Karger, 1912).
  9. J. B. Birch, I. A. Chisholm, P. Kinnear, M. Marré, A. J. L. G. Pinckers, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, and G. Verriest, “Acquired color vision defects,” in Congenital and Acquired Colour Vision Defects, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, G. Verriest, and A. J. L. G. Pinckers, eds. (Grune & Stratton, 1979), pp. 243–348.
  10. E. Nikoskelainen, “Symptoms, signs and early course of optic neuritis,” Acta Ophthalmol. 53, 254–272 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. F. Griffin and S. H. Wray, “Acquired color vision defects in retrobulbar neuritis,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 86, 193–201 (1978).
  12. D. Travis and P. Thompson, “Spatiotemporal contrast sensitivity and colour vision in multiple sclerosis,” Brain 112, 283–303 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  13. K. T. Mullen and G. T. Plant, “Colour and luminance vision in human optic neuritis,” Brain 109, 1–13 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. E. Schneck, E. Lee, B. F. Fortune, E. Switkes, M. A. Crognale, and A. J. Adams, “Spatio-chromatic VEPs in recovered optic neuritis and multiple sclerosis,” in Color Vision Deficiencies XIII, Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series 59 (Kluwer Academic, 1997), Vol. 59, pp. 179–185.
  15. D. Carden, J. Kulikowski, I. Murray, and N. Parry, “Human occipital potentials evoked by the onset of equiluminant chromatic gratings,” J. Physiol. 369, P44 (1985).
  16. F. H. Previc, “Visual evoked potentials to luminance and chromatic contrast in rhesus monkeys,” Vis. Res. 26, 1897–1907 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. Murray, N. Parry, D. Carden, and J. Kulikowski, “Human visual evoked potentials to chromatic and achromatic gratings,” Clin. Vis. Sci. 1, 231–244 (1987).
  18. T. A. Berninger, G. B. Arden, C. R. Hogg, and T. Frumkes, “Separable evoked retinal and cortical potentials from each major visual pathway: preliminary results,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 73, 502–511 (1989).
  19. J. Rabin, E. Switkes, M. Crognale, M. E. Schneck, and A. J. Adams, “Visual evoked potentials in three-dimensional color space: correlates of spatio-chromatic processing,” Vis. Res. 34, 2657–2671 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  20. C. M. Suttle and G. F. Harding, “Morphology of transient VEPs to luminance and chromatic pattern onset and offset,” Vis. Res. 39, 1577–1584 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  21. V. Porciatti and F. Sartucci, “Normative data for onset VEPs to red–green and blue–yellow chromatic contrast,” Clin. Neurophysiol. 110, 772–781 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  22. M. H. Russell, I. J. Murray, R. A. Metcalfe, and J. J. Kulikowski, “The visual defect in multiple sclerosis and optic neuritis. A combined psychophysical and electrophysiological investigation,” Brain 114, 2419–2435 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  23. V. Porciatti and F. Sartucci, “Retinal and cortical evoked responses to chromatic contrast stimuli. Specific losses in both eyes of patients with multiple sclerosis and unilateral optic neuritis,” Brain 119, 723–740 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  24. M. Madrid and M. A. Crognale, “Long-term maturation of visual pathways,” Vis. Neurosci. 17, 831–837 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  25. Y. T. Elia, D. Daneman, J. Rovet, M. Abdolell, W.-C. Lam, C. Till, V. Erraguntla, S. Rubab, N. Lodha, and C. A. Westall, “Color visual evoked potentials in children with type 1 diabetes: relationship to metabolic control,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46, 4107–4113 (2005).
  26. M. T. Pompe, B. S. Kranjc, and J. Brecelj, “Visual evoked potentials to red–green stimulation in schoolchildren,” Vis. Neurosci. 23, 447–451 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  27. M. T. Pompe, B. S. Kranjc, and J. Brecelj, “Chromatic visual evoked potential responses in preschool children,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29, A69–A73 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  28. M. Tekavčič Pompe, B. Stirn Kranjc, and J. Brecelj, “Chromatic VEP in children with congenital colour vision deficiency,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 30, 693–698 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  29. P. R. Kinnear and A. Sahraie, “New Farnsworth–Munsell 100 hue test norms of normal observers for each year of age 5–22 and for age decades 30–70,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 86, 1408–1411 (2002).
  30. F. Sharbrough, G. Chatrian, R. Lesser, H. Lüders, M. Nuwer, and T. Picton, “American Encephalographic Society guidelines for standard electrode placement nomenclature,” J. Clin. Neurophysiol. 8, 200–202 (1991).
  31. M. Y. Boon, C. M. Suttle, B. I. Henry, and S. J. Dain, “Dynamics of chromatic visual system processing differ in complexity between children and adults,” J. Vis. 9(6), 22 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  32. A. M. Halliday, “The visual evoked potential in the investigation of diseases of the optic nerve,” in Evoked Potentials in Clinical Testing, A. H. Halliday, ed. (Churchill Livingstone, 1993), pp. 195–278.
  33. M. Tekavcic-Pompe, B. Stirn-Kranjc, and J. Brecelj, “Optic neuritis in children—clinical and electrophysiological follow-up,” Doc. Ophthalmol. 107, 261–270 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (2)

P. Villoslada, A. Cuneo, J. Gelfand, S. L. Hauser, and A. Green, “Color vision is strongly associated with retinal thinning in multiple sclerosis,” Mult. Scler. 18, 991–999 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Pompe, B. S. Kranjc, and J. Brecelj, “Chromatic visual evoked potential responses in preschool children,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29, A69–A73 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

M. Tekavčič Pompe, B. Stirn Kranjc, and J. Brecelj, “Chromatic VEP in children with congenital colour vision deficiency,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 30, 693–698 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

M. Y. Boon, C. M. Suttle, B. I. Henry, and S. J. Dain, “Dynamics of chromatic visual system processing differ in complexity between children and adults,” J. Vis. 9(6), 22 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

M. T. Pompe, B. S. Kranjc, and J. Brecelj, “Visual evoked potentials to red–green stimulation in schoolchildren,” Vis. Neurosci. 23, 447–451 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

Y. T. Elia, D. Daneman, J. Rovet, M. Abdolell, W.-C. Lam, C. Till, V. Erraguntla, S. Rubab, N. Lodha, and C. A. Westall, “Color visual evoked potentials in children with type 1 diabetes: relationship to metabolic control,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46, 4107–4113 (2005).

2004 (1)

P. Flanagan and A. J. Zele, “Chromatic and luminance losses with multiple sclerosis and optic neuritis measured using dynamic random luminance contrast noise,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 24, 225–233 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

M. Tekavcic-Pompe, B. Stirn-Kranjc, and J. Brecelj, “Optic neuritis in children—clinical and electrophysiological follow-up,” Doc. Ophthalmol. 107, 261–270 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

P. R. Kinnear and A. Sahraie, “New Farnsworth–Munsell 100 hue test norms of normal observers for each year of age 5–22 and for age decades 30–70,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 86, 1408–1411 (2002).

2001 (1)

N. Evangelou, “Size-selective neuronal changes in the anterior optic pathways suggest a differential susceptibility to injury in multiple sclerosis,” Brain 124, 1813–1820 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

M. Madrid and M. A. Crognale, “Long-term maturation of visual pathways,” Vis. Neurosci. 17, 831–837 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

C. M. Suttle and G. F. Harding, “Morphology of transient VEPs to luminance and chromatic pattern onset and offset,” Vis. Res. 39, 1577–1584 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. Porciatti and F. Sartucci, “Normative data for onset VEPs to red–green and blue–yellow chromatic contrast,” Clin. Neurophysiol. 110, 772–781 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

M. E. Schneck and G. Haegerstrom-Portnoy, “Color vision defect type and spatial vision in the optic neuritis treatment trial,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 38, 2278–2289 (1997).

1996 (1)

V. Porciatti and F. Sartucci, “Retinal and cortical evoked responses to chromatic contrast stimuli. Specific losses in both eyes of patients with multiple sclerosis and unilateral optic neuritis,” Brain 119, 723–740 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

B. Katz, “The dyschromatopsia of optic neuritis: a descriptive analysis of data from the optic neuritis treatment trial,” Trans. Am. Ophthalmol. Soc. 93, 685–708 (1995).

1994 (1)

J. Rabin, E. Switkes, M. Crognale, M. E. Schneck, and A. J. Adams, “Visual evoked potentials in three-dimensional color space: correlates of spatio-chromatic processing,” Vis. Res. 34, 2657–2671 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

M. H. Russell, I. J. Murray, R. A. Metcalfe, and J. J. Kulikowski, “The visual defect in multiple sclerosis and optic neuritis. A combined psychophysical and electrophysiological investigation,” Brain 114, 2419–2435 (1991).
[CrossRef]

F. Sharbrough, G. Chatrian, R. Lesser, H. Lüders, M. Nuwer, and T. Picton, “American Encephalographic Society guidelines for standard electrode placement nomenclature,” J. Clin. Neurophysiol. 8, 200–202 (1991).

1989 (2)

T. A. Berninger, G. B. Arden, C. R. Hogg, and T. Frumkes, “Separable evoked retinal and cortical potentials from each major visual pathway: preliminary results,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 73, 502–511 (1989).

D. Travis and P. Thompson, “Spatiotemporal contrast sensitivity and colour vision in multiple sclerosis,” Brain 112, 283–303 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987 (3)

J. Murray, N. Parry, D. Carden, and J. Kulikowski, “Human visual evoked potentials to chromatic and achromatic gratings,” Clin. Vis. Sci. 1, 231–244 (1987).

A. C. Harrison, W. J. Becker, and W. K. Stell, “Colour vision abnormalities in multiple sclerosis,” Can. J. Neurol. Sci. 14, 279–285 (1987).

J. A. Fleishman, R. W. Beck, O. A. Linares, and J. W. Klein, “Deficits in visual function after resolution of optic neuritis,” Ophthalmology 94, 1029–1035 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (2)

F. H. Previc, “Visual evoked potentials to luminance and chromatic contrast in rhesus monkeys,” Vis. Res. 26, 1897–1907 (1986).
[CrossRef]

K. T. Mullen and G. T. Plant, “Colour and luminance vision in human optic neuritis,” Brain 109, 1–13 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

D. Carden, J. Kulikowski, I. Murray, and N. Parry, “Human occipital potentials evoked by the onset of equiluminant chromatic gratings,” J. Physiol. 369, P44 (1985).

1978 (1)

J. F. Griffin and S. H. Wray, “Acquired color vision defects in retrobulbar neuritis,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 86, 193–201 (1978).

1975 (1)

E. Nikoskelainen, “Symptoms, signs and early course of optic neuritis,” Acta Ophthalmol. 53, 254–272 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Abdolell, M.

Y. T. Elia, D. Daneman, J. Rovet, M. Abdolell, W.-C. Lam, C. Till, V. Erraguntla, S. Rubab, N. Lodha, and C. A. Westall, “Color visual evoked potentials in children with type 1 diabetes: relationship to metabolic control,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46, 4107–4113 (2005).

Adams, A. J.

J. Rabin, E. Switkes, M. Crognale, M. E. Schneck, and A. J. Adams, “Visual evoked potentials in three-dimensional color space: correlates of spatio-chromatic processing,” Vis. Res. 34, 2657–2671 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Schneck, E. Lee, B. F. Fortune, E. Switkes, M. A. Crognale, and A. J. Adams, “Spatio-chromatic VEPs in recovered optic neuritis and multiple sclerosis,” in Color Vision Deficiencies XIII, Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series 59 (Kluwer Academic, 1997), Vol. 59, pp. 179–185.

Arden, G. B.

T. A. Berninger, G. B. Arden, C. R. Hogg, and T. Frumkes, “Separable evoked retinal and cortical potentials from each major visual pathway: preliminary results,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 73, 502–511 (1989).

Beck, R. W.

J. A. Fleishman, R. W. Beck, O. A. Linares, and J. W. Klein, “Deficits in visual function after resolution of optic neuritis,” Ophthalmology 94, 1029–1035 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Becker, W. J.

A. C. Harrison, W. J. Becker, and W. K. Stell, “Colour vision abnormalities in multiple sclerosis,” Can. J. Neurol. Sci. 14, 279–285 (1987).

Berninger, T. A.

T. A. Berninger, G. B. Arden, C. R. Hogg, and T. Frumkes, “Separable evoked retinal and cortical potentials from each major visual pathway: preliminary results,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 73, 502–511 (1989).

Birch, J. B.

J. B. Birch, I. A. Chisholm, P. Kinnear, M. Marré, A. J. L. G. Pinckers, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, and G. Verriest, “Acquired color vision defects,” in Congenital and Acquired Colour Vision Defects, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, G. Verriest, and A. J. L. G. Pinckers, eds. (Grune & Stratton, 1979), pp. 243–348.

Boon, M. Y.

M. Y. Boon, C. M. Suttle, B. I. Henry, and S. J. Dain, “Dynamics of chromatic visual system processing differ in complexity between children and adults,” J. Vis. 9(6), 22 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brecelj, J.

M. T. Pompe, B. S. Kranjc, and J. Brecelj, “Chromatic visual evoked potential responses in preschool children,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29, A69–A73 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Tekavčič Pompe, B. Stirn Kranjc, and J. Brecelj, “Chromatic VEP in children with congenital colour vision deficiency,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 30, 693–698 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Pompe, B. S. Kranjc, and J. Brecelj, “Visual evoked potentials to red–green stimulation in schoolchildren,” Vis. Neurosci. 23, 447–451 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Tekavcic-Pompe, B. Stirn-Kranjc, and J. Brecelj, “Optic neuritis in children—clinical and electrophysiological follow-up,” Doc. Ophthalmol. 107, 261–270 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Carden, D.

J. Murray, N. Parry, D. Carden, and J. Kulikowski, “Human visual evoked potentials to chromatic and achromatic gratings,” Clin. Vis. Sci. 1, 231–244 (1987).

D. Carden, J. Kulikowski, I. Murray, and N. Parry, “Human occipital potentials evoked by the onset of equiluminant chromatic gratings,” J. Physiol. 369, P44 (1985).

Chatrian, G.

F. Sharbrough, G. Chatrian, R. Lesser, H. Lüders, M. Nuwer, and T. Picton, “American Encephalographic Society guidelines for standard electrode placement nomenclature,” J. Clin. Neurophysiol. 8, 200–202 (1991).

Chisholm, I. A.

J. B. Birch, I. A. Chisholm, P. Kinnear, M. Marré, A. J. L. G. Pinckers, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, and G. Verriest, “Acquired color vision defects,” in Congenital and Acquired Colour Vision Defects, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, G. Verriest, and A. J. L. G. Pinckers, eds. (Grune & Stratton, 1979), pp. 243–348.

Crognale, M.

J. Rabin, E. Switkes, M. Crognale, M. E. Schneck, and A. J. Adams, “Visual evoked potentials in three-dimensional color space: correlates of spatio-chromatic processing,” Vis. Res. 34, 2657–2671 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Crognale, M. A.

M. Madrid and M. A. Crognale, “Long-term maturation of visual pathways,” Vis. Neurosci. 17, 831–837 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Schneck, E. Lee, B. F. Fortune, E. Switkes, M. A. Crognale, and A. J. Adams, “Spatio-chromatic VEPs in recovered optic neuritis and multiple sclerosis,” in Color Vision Deficiencies XIII, Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series 59 (Kluwer Academic, 1997), Vol. 59, pp. 179–185.

Cuneo, A.

P. Villoslada, A. Cuneo, J. Gelfand, S. L. Hauser, and A. Green, “Color vision is strongly associated with retinal thinning in multiple sclerosis,” Mult. Scler. 18, 991–999 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dain, S. J.

M. Y. Boon, C. M. Suttle, B. I. Henry, and S. J. Dain, “Dynamics of chromatic visual system processing differ in complexity between children and adults,” J. Vis. 9(6), 22 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Daneman, D.

Y. T. Elia, D. Daneman, J. Rovet, M. Abdolell, W.-C. Lam, C. Till, V. Erraguntla, S. Rubab, N. Lodha, and C. A. Westall, “Color visual evoked potentials in children with type 1 diabetes: relationship to metabolic control,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46, 4107–4113 (2005).

Elia, Y. T.

Y. T. Elia, D. Daneman, J. Rovet, M. Abdolell, W.-C. Lam, C. Till, V. Erraguntla, S. Rubab, N. Lodha, and C. A. Westall, “Color visual evoked potentials in children with type 1 diabetes: relationship to metabolic control,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46, 4107–4113 (2005).

Erraguntla, V.

Y. T. Elia, D. Daneman, J. Rovet, M. Abdolell, W.-C. Lam, C. Till, V. Erraguntla, S. Rubab, N. Lodha, and C. A. Westall, “Color visual evoked potentials in children with type 1 diabetes: relationship to metabolic control,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46, 4107–4113 (2005).

Evangelou, N.

N. Evangelou, “Size-selective neuronal changes in the anterior optic pathways suggest a differential susceptibility to injury in multiple sclerosis,” Brain 124, 1813–1820 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Flanagan, P.

P. Flanagan and A. J. Zele, “Chromatic and luminance losses with multiple sclerosis and optic neuritis measured using dynamic random luminance contrast noise,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 24, 225–233 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fleishman, J. A.

J. A. Fleishman, R. W. Beck, O. A. Linares, and J. W. Klein, “Deficits in visual function after resolution of optic neuritis,” Ophthalmology 94, 1029–1035 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Fortune, B. F.

M. E. Schneck, E. Lee, B. F. Fortune, E. Switkes, M. A. Crognale, and A. J. Adams, “Spatio-chromatic VEPs in recovered optic neuritis and multiple sclerosis,” in Color Vision Deficiencies XIII, Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series 59 (Kluwer Academic, 1997), Vol. 59, pp. 179–185.

Frumkes, T.

T. A. Berninger, G. B. Arden, C. R. Hogg, and T. Frumkes, “Separable evoked retinal and cortical potentials from each major visual pathway: preliminary results,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 73, 502–511 (1989).

Gelfand, J.

P. Villoslada, A. Cuneo, J. Gelfand, S. L. Hauser, and A. Green, “Color vision is strongly associated with retinal thinning in multiple sclerosis,” Mult. Scler. 18, 991–999 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Green, A.

P. Villoslada, A. Cuneo, J. Gelfand, S. L. Hauser, and A. Green, “Color vision is strongly associated with retinal thinning in multiple sclerosis,” Mult. Scler. 18, 991–999 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Griffin, J. F.

J. F. Griffin and S. H. Wray, “Acquired color vision defects in retrobulbar neuritis,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 86, 193–201 (1978).

Haegerstrom-Portnoy, G.

M. E. Schneck and G. Haegerstrom-Portnoy, “Color vision defect type and spatial vision in the optic neuritis treatment trial,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 38, 2278–2289 (1997).

Halliday, A. M.

A. M. Halliday, “The visual evoked potential in the investigation of diseases of the optic nerve,” in Evoked Potentials in Clinical Testing, A. H. Halliday, ed. (Churchill Livingstone, 1993), pp. 195–278.

Harding, G. F.

C. M. Suttle and G. F. Harding, “Morphology of transient VEPs to luminance and chromatic pattern onset and offset,” Vis. Res. 39, 1577–1584 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Harrison, A. C.

A. C. Harrison, W. J. Becker, and W. K. Stell, “Colour vision abnormalities in multiple sclerosis,” Can. J. Neurol. Sci. 14, 279–285 (1987).

Hauser, S. L.

P. Villoslada, A. Cuneo, J. Gelfand, S. L. Hauser, and A. Green, “Color vision is strongly associated with retinal thinning in multiple sclerosis,” Mult. Scler. 18, 991–999 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Henry, B. I.

M. Y. Boon, C. M. Suttle, B. I. Henry, and S. J. Dain, “Dynamics of chromatic visual system processing differ in complexity between children and adults,” J. Vis. 9(6), 22 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hogg, C. R.

T. A. Berninger, G. B. Arden, C. R. Hogg, and T. Frumkes, “Separable evoked retinal and cortical potentials from each major visual pathway: preliminary results,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 73, 502–511 (1989).

Katz, B.

B. Katz, “The dyschromatopsia of optic neuritis: a descriptive analysis of data from the optic neuritis treatment trial,” Trans. Am. Ophthalmol. Soc. 93, 685–708 (1995).

Kinnear, P.

J. B. Birch, I. A. Chisholm, P. Kinnear, M. Marré, A. J. L. G. Pinckers, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, and G. Verriest, “Acquired color vision defects,” in Congenital and Acquired Colour Vision Defects, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, G. Verriest, and A. J. L. G. Pinckers, eds. (Grune & Stratton, 1979), pp. 243–348.

Kinnear, P. R.

P. R. Kinnear and A. Sahraie, “New Farnsworth–Munsell 100 hue test norms of normal observers for each year of age 5–22 and for age decades 30–70,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 86, 1408–1411 (2002).

Klein, J. W.

J. A. Fleishman, R. W. Beck, O. A. Linares, and J. W. Klein, “Deficits in visual function after resolution of optic neuritis,” Ophthalmology 94, 1029–1035 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Koellner, H.

H. Koellner, Stoerungen des Farbensinnes: Ihre klinische Bedeutung und Ihre Diagnose (Karger, 1912).

Kranjc, B. S.

M. T. Pompe, B. S. Kranjc, and J. Brecelj, “Chromatic visual evoked potential responses in preschool children,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29, A69–A73 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Pompe, B. S. Kranjc, and J. Brecelj, “Visual evoked potentials to red–green stimulation in schoolchildren,” Vis. Neurosci. 23, 447–451 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kulikowski, J.

J. Murray, N. Parry, D. Carden, and J. Kulikowski, “Human visual evoked potentials to chromatic and achromatic gratings,” Clin. Vis. Sci. 1, 231–244 (1987).

D. Carden, J. Kulikowski, I. Murray, and N. Parry, “Human occipital potentials evoked by the onset of equiluminant chromatic gratings,” J. Physiol. 369, P44 (1985).

Kulikowski, J. J.

M. H. Russell, I. J. Murray, R. A. Metcalfe, and J. J. Kulikowski, “The visual defect in multiple sclerosis and optic neuritis. A combined psychophysical and electrophysiological investigation,” Brain 114, 2419–2435 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lam, W.-C.

Y. T. Elia, D. Daneman, J. Rovet, M. Abdolell, W.-C. Lam, C. Till, V. Erraguntla, S. Rubab, N. Lodha, and C. A. Westall, “Color visual evoked potentials in children with type 1 diabetes: relationship to metabolic control,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46, 4107–4113 (2005).

Lee, E.

M. E. Schneck, E. Lee, B. F. Fortune, E. Switkes, M. A. Crognale, and A. J. Adams, “Spatio-chromatic VEPs in recovered optic neuritis and multiple sclerosis,” in Color Vision Deficiencies XIII, Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series 59 (Kluwer Academic, 1997), Vol. 59, pp. 179–185.

Lesser, R.

F. Sharbrough, G. Chatrian, R. Lesser, H. Lüders, M. Nuwer, and T. Picton, “American Encephalographic Society guidelines for standard electrode placement nomenclature,” J. Clin. Neurophysiol. 8, 200–202 (1991).

Linares, O. A.

J. A. Fleishman, R. W. Beck, O. A. Linares, and J. W. Klein, “Deficits in visual function after resolution of optic neuritis,” Ophthalmology 94, 1029–1035 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Lodha, N.

Y. T. Elia, D. Daneman, J. Rovet, M. Abdolell, W.-C. Lam, C. Till, V. Erraguntla, S. Rubab, N. Lodha, and C. A. Westall, “Color visual evoked potentials in children with type 1 diabetes: relationship to metabolic control,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46, 4107–4113 (2005).

Lüders, H.

F. Sharbrough, G. Chatrian, R. Lesser, H. Lüders, M. Nuwer, and T. Picton, “American Encephalographic Society guidelines for standard electrode placement nomenclature,” J. Clin. Neurophysiol. 8, 200–202 (1991).

Madrid, M.

M. Madrid and M. A. Crognale, “Long-term maturation of visual pathways,” Vis. Neurosci. 17, 831–837 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Marré, M.

J. B. Birch, I. A. Chisholm, P. Kinnear, M. Marré, A. J. L. G. Pinckers, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, and G. Verriest, “Acquired color vision defects,” in Congenital and Acquired Colour Vision Defects, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, G. Verriest, and A. J. L. G. Pinckers, eds. (Grune & Stratton, 1979), pp. 243–348.

Metcalfe, R. A.

M. H. Russell, I. J. Murray, R. A. Metcalfe, and J. J. Kulikowski, “The visual defect in multiple sclerosis and optic neuritis. A combined psychophysical and electrophysiological investigation,” Brain 114, 2419–2435 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Mullen, K. T.

K. T. Mullen and G. T. Plant, “Colour and luminance vision in human optic neuritis,” Brain 109, 1–13 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Murray, I.

D. Carden, J. Kulikowski, I. Murray, and N. Parry, “Human occipital potentials evoked by the onset of equiluminant chromatic gratings,” J. Physiol. 369, P44 (1985).

Murray, I. J.

M. H. Russell, I. J. Murray, R. A. Metcalfe, and J. J. Kulikowski, “The visual defect in multiple sclerosis and optic neuritis. A combined psychophysical and electrophysiological investigation,” Brain 114, 2419–2435 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Murray, J.

J. Murray, N. Parry, D. Carden, and J. Kulikowski, “Human visual evoked potentials to chromatic and achromatic gratings,” Clin. Vis. Sci. 1, 231–244 (1987).

Nikoskelainen, E.

E. Nikoskelainen, “Symptoms, signs and early course of optic neuritis,” Acta Ophthalmol. 53, 254–272 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Nuwer, M.

F. Sharbrough, G. Chatrian, R. Lesser, H. Lüders, M. Nuwer, and T. Picton, “American Encephalographic Society guidelines for standard electrode placement nomenclature,” J. Clin. Neurophysiol. 8, 200–202 (1991).

Parry, N.

J. Murray, N. Parry, D. Carden, and J. Kulikowski, “Human visual evoked potentials to chromatic and achromatic gratings,” Clin. Vis. Sci. 1, 231–244 (1987).

D. Carden, J. Kulikowski, I. Murray, and N. Parry, “Human occipital potentials evoked by the onset of equiluminant chromatic gratings,” J. Physiol. 369, P44 (1985).

Picton, T.

F. Sharbrough, G. Chatrian, R. Lesser, H. Lüders, M. Nuwer, and T. Picton, “American Encephalographic Society guidelines for standard electrode placement nomenclature,” J. Clin. Neurophysiol. 8, 200–202 (1991).

Pinckers, A. J. L. G.

J. B. Birch, I. A. Chisholm, P. Kinnear, M. Marré, A. J. L. G. Pinckers, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, and G. Verriest, “Acquired color vision defects,” in Congenital and Acquired Colour Vision Defects, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, G. Verriest, and A. J. L. G. Pinckers, eds. (Grune & Stratton, 1979), pp. 243–348.

Plant, G. T.

K. T. Mullen and G. T. Plant, “Colour and luminance vision in human optic neuritis,” Brain 109, 1–13 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Pokorny, J.

J. B. Birch, I. A. Chisholm, P. Kinnear, M. Marré, A. J. L. G. Pinckers, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, and G. Verriest, “Acquired color vision defects,” in Congenital and Acquired Colour Vision Defects, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, G. Verriest, and A. J. L. G. Pinckers, eds. (Grune & Stratton, 1979), pp. 243–348.

Pompe, M. T.

M. T. Pompe, B. S. Kranjc, and J. Brecelj, “Chromatic visual evoked potential responses in preschool children,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29, A69–A73 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Pompe, B. S. Kranjc, and J. Brecelj, “Visual evoked potentials to red–green stimulation in schoolchildren,” Vis. Neurosci. 23, 447–451 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Porciatti, V.

V. Porciatti and F. Sartucci, “Normative data for onset VEPs to red–green and blue–yellow chromatic contrast,” Clin. Neurophysiol. 110, 772–781 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. Porciatti and F. Sartucci, “Retinal and cortical evoked responses to chromatic contrast stimuli. Specific losses in both eyes of patients with multiple sclerosis and unilateral optic neuritis,” Brain 119, 723–740 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Previc, F. H.

F. H. Previc, “Visual evoked potentials to luminance and chromatic contrast in rhesus monkeys,” Vis. Res. 26, 1897–1907 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Rabin, J.

J. Rabin, E. Switkes, M. Crognale, M. E. Schneck, and A. J. Adams, “Visual evoked potentials in three-dimensional color space: correlates of spatio-chromatic processing,” Vis. Res. 34, 2657–2671 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rovet, J.

Y. T. Elia, D. Daneman, J. Rovet, M. Abdolell, W.-C. Lam, C. Till, V. Erraguntla, S. Rubab, N. Lodha, and C. A. Westall, “Color visual evoked potentials in children with type 1 diabetes: relationship to metabolic control,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46, 4107–4113 (2005).

Rubab, S.

Y. T. Elia, D. Daneman, J. Rovet, M. Abdolell, W.-C. Lam, C. Till, V. Erraguntla, S. Rubab, N. Lodha, and C. A. Westall, “Color visual evoked potentials in children with type 1 diabetes: relationship to metabolic control,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46, 4107–4113 (2005).

Russell, M. H.

M. H. Russell, I. J. Murray, R. A. Metcalfe, and J. J. Kulikowski, “The visual defect in multiple sclerosis and optic neuritis. A combined psychophysical and electrophysiological investigation,” Brain 114, 2419–2435 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sahraie, A.

P. R. Kinnear and A. Sahraie, “New Farnsworth–Munsell 100 hue test norms of normal observers for each year of age 5–22 and for age decades 30–70,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 86, 1408–1411 (2002).

Sartucci, F.

V. Porciatti and F. Sartucci, “Normative data for onset VEPs to red–green and blue–yellow chromatic contrast,” Clin. Neurophysiol. 110, 772–781 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. Porciatti and F. Sartucci, “Retinal and cortical evoked responses to chromatic contrast stimuli. Specific losses in both eyes of patients with multiple sclerosis and unilateral optic neuritis,” Brain 119, 723–740 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schneck, M. E.

M. E. Schneck and G. Haegerstrom-Portnoy, “Color vision defect type and spatial vision in the optic neuritis treatment trial,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 38, 2278–2289 (1997).

J. Rabin, E. Switkes, M. Crognale, M. E. Schneck, and A. J. Adams, “Visual evoked potentials in three-dimensional color space: correlates of spatio-chromatic processing,” Vis. Res. 34, 2657–2671 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Schneck, E. Lee, B. F. Fortune, E. Switkes, M. A. Crognale, and A. J. Adams, “Spatio-chromatic VEPs in recovered optic neuritis and multiple sclerosis,” in Color Vision Deficiencies XIII, Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series 59 (Kluwer Academic, 1997), Vol. 59, pp. 179–185.

Sharbrough, F.

F. Sharbrough, G. Chatrian, R. Lesser, H. Lüders, M. Nuwer, and T. Picton, “American Encephalographic Society guidelines for standard electrode placement nomenclature,” J. Clin. Neurophysiol. 8, 200–202 (1991).

Smith, V. C.

J. B. Birch, I. A. Chisholm, P. Kinnear, M. Marré, A. J. L. G. Pinckers, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, and G. Verriest, “Acquired color vision defects,” in Congenital and Acquired Colour Vision Defects, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, G. Verriest, and A. J. L. G. Pinckers, eds. (Grune & Stratton, 1979), pp. 243–348.

Stell, W. K.

A. C. Harrison, W. J. Becker, and W. K. Stell, “Colour vision abnormalities in multiple sclerosis,” Can. J. Neurol. Sci. 14, 279–285 (1987).

Stirn Kranjc, B.

M. Tekavčič Pompe, B. Stirn Kranjc, and J. Brecelj, “Chromatic VEP in children with congenital colour vision deficiency,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 30, 693–698 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Stirn-Kranjc, B.

M. Tekavcic-Pompe, B. Stirn-Kranjc, and J. Brecelj, “Optic neuritis in children—clinical and electrophysiological follow-up,” Doc. Ophthalmol. 107, 261–270 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Suttle, C. M.

M. Y. Boon, C. M. Suttle, B. I. Henry, and S. J. Dain, “Dynamics of chromatic visual system processing differ in complexity between children and adults,” J. Vis. 9(6), 22 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Suttle and G. F. Harding, “Morphology of transient VEPs to luminance and chromatic pattern onset and offset,” Vis. Res. 39, 1577–1584 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Switkes, E.

J. Rabin, E. Switkes, M. Crognale, M. E. Schneck, and A. J. Adams, “Visual evoked potentials in three-dimensional color space: correlates of spatio-chromatic processing,” Vis. Res. 34, 2657–2671 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Schneck, E. Lee, B. F. Fortune, E. Switkes, M. A. Crognale, and A. J. Adams, “Spatio-chromatic VEPs in recovered optic neuritis and multiple sclerosis,” in Color Vision Deficiencies XIII, Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series 59 (Kluwer Academic, 1997), Vol. 59, pp. 179–185.

Tekavcic Pompe, M.

M. Tekavčič Pompe, B. Stirn Kranjc, and J. Brecelj, “Chromatic VEP in children with congenital colour vision deficiency,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 30, 693–698 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tekavcic-Pompe, M.

M. Tekavcic-Pompe, B. Stirn-Kranjc, and J. Brecelj, “Optic neuritis in children—clinical and electrophysiological follow-up,” Doc. Ophthalmol. 107, 261–270 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, P.

D. Travis and P. Thompson, “Spatiotemporal contrast sensitivity and colour vision in multiple sclerosis,” Brain 112, 283–303 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Till, C.

Y. T. Elia, D. Daneman, J. Rovet, M. Abdolell, W.-C. Lam, C. Till, V. Erraguntla, S. Rubab, N. Lodha, and C. A. Westall, “Color visual evoked potentials in children with type 1 diabetes: relationship to metabolic control,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46, 4107–4113 (2005).

Travis, D.

D. Travis and P. Thompson, “Spatiotemporal contrast sensitivity and colour vision in multiple sclerosis,” Brain 112, 283–303 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Verriest, G.

J. B. Birch, I. A. Chisholm, P. Kinnear, M. Marré, A. J. L. G. Pinckers, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, and G. Verriest, “Acquired color vision defects,” in Congenital and Acquired Colour Vision Defects, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, G. Verriest, and A. J. L. G. Pinckers, eds. (Grune & Stratton, 1979), pp. 243–348.

Villoslada, P.

P. Villoslada, A. Cuneo, J. Gelfand, S. L. Hauser, and A. Green, “Color vision is strongly associated with retinal thinning in multiple sclerosis,” Mult. Scler. 18, 991–999 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Westall, C. A.

Y. T. Elia, D. Daneman, J. Rovet, M. Abdolell, W.-C. Lam, C. Till, V. Erraguntla, S. Rubab, N. Lodha, and C. A. Westall, “Color visual evoked potentials in children with type 1 diabetes: relationship to metabolic control,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46, 4107–4113 (2005).

Wray, S. H.

J. F. Griffin and S. H. Wray, “Acquired color vision defects in retrobulbar neuritis,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 86, 193–201 (1978).

Zele, A. J.

P. Flanagan and A. J. Zele, “Chromatic and luminance losses with multiple sclerosis and optic neuritis measured using dynamic random luminance contrast noise,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 24, 225–233 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Acta Ophthalmol. (1)

E. Nikoskelainen, “Symptoms, signs and early course of optic neuritis,” Acta Ophthalmol. 53, 254–272 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

J. F. Griffin and S. H. Wray, “Acquired color vision defects in retrobulbar neuritis,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 86, 193–201 (1978).

Br. J. Ophthalmol. (2)

T. A. Berninger, G. B. Arden, C. R. Hogg, and T. Frumkes, “Separable evoked retinal and cortical potentials from each major visual pathway: preliminary results,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 73, 502–511 (1989).

P. R. Kinnear and A. Sahraie, “New Farnsworth–Munsell 100 hue test norms of normal observers for each year of age 5–22 and for age decades 30–70,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 86, 1408–1411 (2002).

Brain (5)

M. H. Russell, I. J. Murray, R. A. Metcalfe, and J. J. Kulikowski, “The visual defect in multiple sclerosis and optic neuritis. A combined psychophysical and electrophysiological investigation,” Brain 114, 2419–2435 (1991).
[CrossRef]

V. Porciatti and F. Sartucci, “Retinal and cortical evoked responses to chromatic contrast stimuli. Specific losses in both eyes of patients with multiple sclerosis and unilateral optic neuritis,” Brain 119, 723–740 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. Travis and P. Thompson, “Spatiotemporal contrast sensitivity and colour vision in multiple sclerosis,” Brain 112, 283–303 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. T. Mullen and G. T. Plant, “Colour and luminance vision in human optic neuritis,” Brain 109, 1–13 (1986).
[CrossRef]

N. Evangelou, “Size-selective neuronal changes in the anterior optic pathways suggest a differential susceptibility to injury in multiple sclerosis,” Brain 124, 1813–1820 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Can. J. Neurol. Sci. (1)

A. C. Harrison, W. J. Becker, and W. K. Stell, “Colour vision abnormalities in multiple sclerosis,” Can. J. Neurol. Sci. 14, 279–285 (1987).

Clin. Neurophysiol. (1)

V. Porciatti and F. Sartucci, “Normative data for onset VEPs to red–green and blue–yellow chromatic contrast,” Clin. Neurophysiol. 110, 772–781 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Clin. Vis. Sci. (1)

J. Murray, N. Parry, D. Carden, and J. Kulikowski, “Human visual evoked potentials to chromatic and achromatic gratings,” Clin. Vis. Sci. 1, 231–244 (1987).

Doc. Ophthalmol. (1)

M. Tekavcic-Pompe, B. Stirn-Kranjc, and J. Brecelj, “Optic neuritis in children—clinical and electrophysiological follow-up,” Doc. Ophthalmol. 107, 261–270 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2)

Y. T. Elia, D. Daneman, J. Rovet, M. Abdolell, W.-C. Lam, C. Till, V. Erraguntla, S. Rubab, N. Lodha, and C. A. Westall, “Color visual evoked potentials in children with type 1 diabetes: relationship to metabolic control,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46, 4107–4113 (2005).

M. E. Schneck and G. Haegerstrom-Portnoy, “Color vision defect type and spatial vision in the optic neuritis treatment trial,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 38, 2278–2289 (1997).

J. Clin. Neurophysiol. (1)

F. Sharbrough, G. Chatrian, R. Lesser, H. Lüders, M. Nuwer, and T. Picton, “American Encephalographic Society guidelines for standard electrode placement nomenclature,” J. Clin. Neurophysiol. 8, 200–202 (1991).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Physiol. (1)

D. Carden, J. Kulikowski, I. Murray, and N. Parry, “Human occipital potentials evoked by the onset of equiluminant chromatic gratings,” J. Physiol. 369, P44 (1985).

J. Vis. (1)

M. Y. Boon, C. M. Suttle, B. I. Henry, and S. J. Dain, “Dynamics of chromatic visual system processing differ in complexity between children and adults,” J. Vis. 9(6), 22 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mult. Scler. (1)

P. Villoslada, A. Cuneo, J. Gelfand, S. L. Hauser, and A. Green, “Color vision is strongly associated with retinal thinning in multiple sclerosis,” Mult. Scler. 18, 991–999 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. (2)

P. Flanagan and A. J. Zele, “Chromatic and luminance losses with multiple sclerosis and optic neuritis measured using dynamic random luminance contrast noise,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 24, 225–233 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Tekavčič Pompe, B. Stirn Kranjc, and J. Brecelj, “Chromatic VEP in children with congenital colour vision deficiency,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 30, 693–698 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ophthalmology (1)

J. A. Fleishman, R. W. Beck, O. A. Linares, and J. W. Klein, “Deficits in visual function after resolution of optic neuritis,” Ophthalmology 94, 1029–1035 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Trans. Am. Ophthalmol. Soc. (1)

B. Katz, “The dyschromatopsia of optic neuritis: a descriptive analysis of data from the optic neuritis treatment trial,” Trans. Am. Ophthalmol. Soc. 93, 685–708 (1995).

Vis. Neurosci. (2)

M. T. Pompe, B. S. Kranjc, and J. Brecelj, “Visual evoked potentials to red–green stimulation in schoolchildren,” Vis. Neurosci. 23, 447–451 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Madrid and M. A. Crognale, “Long-term maturation of visual pathways,” Vis. Neurosci. 17, 831–837 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vis. Res. (3)

F. H. Previc, “Visual evoked potentials to luminance and chromatic contrast in rhesus monkeys,” Vis. Res. 26, 1897–1907 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Rabin, E. Switkes, M. Crognale, M. E. Schneck, and A. J. Adams, “Visual evoked potentials in three-dimensional color space: correlates of spatio-chromatic processing,” Vis. Res. 34, 2657–2671 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Suttle and G. F. Harding, “Morphology of transient VEPs to luminance and chromatic pattern onset and offset,” Vis. Res. 39, 1577–1584 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

M. E. Schneck, E. Lee, B. F. Fortune, E. Switkes, M. A. Crognale, and A. J. Adams, “Spatio-chromatic VEPs in recovered optic neuritis and multiple sclerosis,” in Color Vision Deficiencies XIII, Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series 59 (Kluwer Academic, 1997), Vol. 59, pp. 179–185.

H. Koellner, Stoerungen des Farbensinnes: Ihre klinische Bedeutung und Ihre Diagnose (Karger, 1912).

J. B. Birch, I. A. Chisholm, P. Kinnear, M. Marré, A. J. L. G. Pinckers, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, and G. Verriest, “Acquired color vision defects,” in Congenital and Acquired Colour Vision Defects, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, G. Verriest, and A. J. L. G. Pinckers, eds. (Grune & Stratton, 1979), pp. 243–348.

A. M. Halliday, “The visual evoked potential in the investigation of diseases of the optic nerve,” in Evoked Potentials in Clinical Testing, A. H. Halliday, ed. (Churchill Livingstone, 1993), pp. 195–278.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

FM 100 hue test ES for eyes with ON, without ON (nON), and in the control group (Control).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Average of all cVEP responses in the ON group and the nON group compared with a control group.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

cVEP N-wave (N) latency (in milliseconds, ms) and amplitude (in microvolts, μV) for both groups and for the control group for the R-G and B-Y chromatic stimuli. Average±SD are plotted for every parameter shown. ON, ON group; nON, no-optic neuritis group; Control, control group. The upper normal limit (unl) for N-wave latency and the lower normal limit (lnl) for N-wave amplitude (from the control group data) are indicated.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Correlation between total ES and N-wave latency and amplitude for both R-G and B-Y stimuli in the ON and no-optic neuritis (nON) groups.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Patient Demographics and Clinical Characteristicsa

Metrics