Abstract

Equilibrium (unique) red, green, blue, and yellow stimuli look bright in a black surround, but they look dark in a bright white surround, and yellow changes to brown. We investigated differences in equilibrium-hue chromaticity between bright and dark hues to reveal changes in weighting of cone and rod signals. The largest, most consistent shifts were found between yellow and brown, with equilibrium-brown chromaticity shifted toward red compared to equilibrium yellow at both photopic and mesopic levels. Also, at mesopic levels, rod influence reversed for most observers from a green bias for yellow to a red bias for brown. Bright/dark differences for blue, green, and red were much smaller and/or less consistent. Thus, shifts of cone and rod hue biases between bright and dark hues are most prominent in L–M-cone pathways, especially those activated by yellow and brown stimuli.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  34. T. DeLawyer, A. Frederick, S. Kaplan, T. Lin, T. Shonka, and S. L. Buck, “Dependence of the color brown on the spatial configuration of high luminance surrounds,” presented at Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Seattle, Washington, May4–9, 2013.
  35. J. Vincent, S. L. Buck, J. Armer, T. DeLawyer, V. Hadyanto, A. Kale, E. Slyzak, M. Tang, and L. Wilson, “Remote rings bias equilibrium brown and yellow,” presented at Symposium of the International Colour Vision Society, Winchester, England, July14–18, 2013.

2012 (3)

T. DeLawyer, K. Foote, C. Kwong, T. Lin, W. Short, E. Suh, and S. L. Buck, “The effects of luminance surrounds on the perception of the color brown,” J. Vis. 12(14):36 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Buck and T. DeLawyer, “A new comparison of brown and yellow,” J. Vis. 12(14):36 9 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Buck, R. Juve, D. Wisner, and A. Concepcion, “Rod hue biases produced on CRT displays,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29, A36–A43 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

G. D. Field, M. Greschner, J. L. Gauthier, C. Rangel, J. Shlens, A. Sher, D. W. Marshak, A. M. Litke, and E. J. Chichilnisky, “High-sensitivity rod photoreceptor input to the blue–yellow color opponent pathway in macaque retina,” Nat. Neurosci. 12, 1159–1164 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Crook, C. M. Davenport, B. B. Peterson, O. S. Packer, P. B. Detwiler, and D. M. Dacey, “Parallel ON and OFF cone bipolar inputs establish spatially coextensive receptive field structure of blue-yellow ganglion cells in primate retina,” J. Neurosci. 29, 8372–8387 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

S. L. Buck, L. P. Thomas, C. Connor, K. Green, and T. Quintana, “Time-course of rod influences on hue perception,” Vis. Neurosci. 25, 517–520 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

R. F. Knight and S. L. Buck, “Time-dependent changes of rod influence on hue perception,” Vis. Res. 42, 1651–1662 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

S. L. Buck, “What is the hue of rod vision?” Color Res. Appl. 26 Supplement, S57–S59 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

S. L. Buck, R. F. Knight, G. Fowler, and B. Hunt, “Rod influence on hue-scaling functions,” Vis. Res. 38, 3259–3263 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

R. L. DeValois and K. K. DeValois, “A multi-stage color model,” Vis. Res. 33, 1053–1065 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, and A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

P. C. Quinn, J. L. Rosano, and B. R. Wooten, “Evidence that brown is not an elemental color,” Percept. Psychophys. 43, 156–164 (1988).

1983 (1)

K. Fuld, J. S. Werner, and B. R. Wooten, “The possible elemental nature of brown,” Vis. Res. 23, 631–637 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

J. D. Mollon, “Color vision,” Annu. Rev. Psychol. 33, 41–85 (1982).

1981 (1)

D. R. Williams, D. I. MacLeod, and M. M. Hayhoe, “Foveal tritanopia,” Vis. Res. 21, 1341–1356 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

1977 (1)

1976 (1)

C. J. Bartleson, “Brown,” Color Res. Appl. 1, 181–191 (1976).

1975 (1)

V. C. Smith and J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone pigments between 400 and 500  nm,” Vis. Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1930 (1)

F. Kiesow, “Ueber die Entstehung der Braunempfindung,” Neue Psychologische Studien 6, 119–130 (1930).

1928 (1)

T. K. Oesterreich, “Zur Lehre vom Grün,” Zeitschr. für Sinnesphysiol. 59, 356–380 (1928).

Allen, K. A.

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, and A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Armer, J.

S. L. Buck, T. DeLawyer, J. Armer, V. Hadyanto, W. Short, E. Slezak, M. Tang, and L. Wilson, “Dark vs. bright equilibrium hues: rod and cone hue biases,” presented at Symposium of the International Colour Vision Society, Winchester, England, July14–18, 2013.

J. Vincent, S. L. Buck, J. Armer, T. DeLawyer, V. Hadyanto, A. Kale, E. Slyzak, M. Tang, and L. Wilson, “Remote rings bias equilibrium brown and yellow,” presented at Symposium of the International Colour Vision Society, Winchester, England, July14–18, 2013.

Bartleson, C. J.

C. J. Bartleson, “Brown,” Color Res. Appl. 1, 181–191 (1976).

Boynton, R. M.

Buck, S. L.

S. L. Buck and T. DeLawyer, “A new comparison of brown and yellow,” J. Vis. 12(14):36 9 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Buck, R. Juve, D. Wisner, and A. Concepcion, “Rod hue biases produced on CRT displays,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29, A36–A43 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. DeLawyer, K. Foote, C. Kwong, T. Lin, W. Short, E. Suh, and S. L. Buck, “The effects of luminance surrounds on the perception of the color brown,” J. Vis. 12(14):36 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Buck, L. P. Thomas, C. Connor, K. Green, and T. Quintana, “Time-course of rod influences on hue perception,” Vis. Neurosci. 25, 517–520 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Knight and S. L. Buck, “Time-dependent changes of rod influence on hue perception,” Vis. Res. 42, 1651–1662 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Buck, “What is the hue of rod vision?” Color Res. Appl. 26 Supplement, S57–S59 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Buck, R. F. Knight, G. Fowler, and B. Hunt, “Rod influence on hue-scaling functions,” Vis. Res. 38, 3259–3263 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Buck, “The interaction of rod and cone signals: pathways and psychophysics,” in The New Visual Neurosciences, J. S. Werner and L. M. Chalupa, eds. (MIT, 2014), pp. 485–497.

J. Vincent, S. L. Buck, J. Armer, T. DeLawyer, V. Hadyanto, A. Kale, E. Slyzak, M. Tang, and L. Wilson, “Remote rings bias equilibrium brown and yellow,” presented at Symposium of the International Colour Vision Society, Winchester, England, July14–18, 2013.

S. L. Buck, T. DeLawyer, J. Armer, V. Hadyanto, W. Short, E. Slezak, M. Tang, and L. Wilson, “Dark vs. bright equilibrium hues: rod and cone hue biases,” presented at Symposium of the International Colour Vision Society, Winchester, England, July14–18, 2013.

S. L. Buck, “Rod-cone interactions,” in The Visual Neurosciences, L. M. Chalupa and J. S. Werner, eds. (MIT, 2004), pp. 863–878.

T. DeLawyer, A. Frederick, S. Kaplan, T. Lin, T. Shonka, and S. L. Buck, “Dependence of the color brown on the spatial configuration of high luminance surrounds,” presented at Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Seattle, Washington, May4–9, 2013.

S. L. Buck and R. F. Knight, “Stimulus duration affects rod influence on hue perception,” in Normal and Defective Colour Vision, J. D. Mollon, J. Pokorny, and K. Knoblauch, eds. (Oxford, 2003) pp. 177–184.

S. L. Buck, V. Hadyanto, W. Short, M. Tang, J. Vincent, and L. Wilson, “Rod and cone inputs differ to dark and bright and dark colors,” presented at Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Seattle, Washington, May4–9, 2013.

K. G. Foote and S. L. Buck, “Rod hue biases for foveal stimuli on CRT displays,” presented at Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Seattle, Washington, May4–9, 2013.

Chichilnisky, E. J.

G. D. Field, M. Greschner, J. L. Gauthier, C. Rangel, J. Shlens, A. Sher, D. W. Marshak, A. M. Litke, and E. J. Chichilnisky, “High-sensitivity rod photoreceptor input to the blue–yellow color opponent pathway in macaque retina,” Nat. Neurosci. 12, 1159–1164 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Concepcion, A.

Connor, C.

S. L. Buck, L. P. Thomas, C. Connor, K. Green, and T. Quintana, “Time-course of rod influences on hue perception,” Vis. Neurosci. 25, 517–520 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Crook, J. D.

J. D. Crook, C. M. Davenport, B. B. Peterson, O. S. Packer, P. B. Detwiler, and D. M. Dacey, “Parallel ON and OFF cone bipolar inputs establish spatially coextensive receptive field structure of blue-yellow ganglion cells in primate retina,” J. Neurosci. 29, 8372–8387 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Curcio, C. A.

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, and A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Dacey, D. M.

J. D. Crook, C. M. Davenport, B. B. Peterson, O. S. Packer, P. B. Detwiler, and D. M. Dacey, “Parallel ON and OFF cone bipolar inputs establish spatially coextensive receptive field structure of blue-yellow ganglion cells in primate retina,” J. Neurosci. 29, 8372–8387 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Davenport, C. M.

J. D. Crook, C. M. Davenport, B. B. Peterson, O. S. Packer, P. B. Detwiler, and D. M. Dacey, “Parallel ON and OFF cone bipolar inputs establish spatially coextensive receptive field structure of blue-yellow ganglion cells in primate retina,” J. Neurosci. 29, 8372–8387 (2009).
[CrossRef]

DeLawyer, T.

T. DeLawyer, K. Foote, C. Kwong, T. Lin, W. Short, E. Suh, and S. L. Buck, “The effects of luminance surrounds on the perception of the color brown,” J. Vis. 12(14):36 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Buck and T. DeLawyer, “A new comparison of brown and yellow,” J. Vis. 12(14):36 9 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. DeLawyer, A. Frederick, S. Kaplan, T. Lin, T. Shonka, and S. L. Buck, “Dependence of the color brown on the spatial configuration of high luminance surrounds,” presented at Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Seattle, Washington, May4–9, 2013.

J. Vincent, S. L. Buck, J. Armer, T. DeLawyer, V. Hadyanto, A. Kale, E. Slyzak, M. Tang, and L. Wilson, “Remote rings bias equilibrium brown and yellow,” presented at Symposium of the International Colour Vision Society, Winchester, England, July14–18, 2013.

S. L. Buck, T. DeLawyer, J. Armer, V. Hadyanto, W. Short, E. Slezak, M. Tang, and L. Wilson, “Dark vs. bright equilibrium hues: rod and cone hue biases,” presented at Symposium of the International Colour Vision Society, Winchester, England, July14–18, 2013.

Detwiler, P. B.

J. D. Crook, C. M. Davenport, B. B. Peterson, O. S. Packer, P. B. Detwiler, and D. M. Dacey, “Parallel ON and OFF cone bipolar inputs establish spatially coextensive receptive field structure of blue-yellow ganglion cells in primate retina,” J. Neurosci. 29, 8372–8387 (2009).
[CrossRef]

DeValois, K. K.

R. L. DeValois and K. K. DeValois, “A multi-stage color model,” Vis. Res. 33, 1053–1065 (1993).
[CrossRef]

DeValois, R. L.

R. L. DeValois and K. K. DeValois, “A multi-stage color model,” Vis. Res. 33, 1053–1065 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Field, G. D.

G. D. Field, M. Greschner, J. L. Gauthier, C. Rangel, J. Shlens, A. Sher, D. W. Marshak, A. M. Litke, and E. J. Chichilnisky, “High-sensitivity rod photoreceptor input to the blue–yellow color opponent pathway in macaque retina,” Nat. Neurosci. 12, 1159–1164 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Foote, K.

T. DeLawyer, K. Foote, C. Kwong, T. Lin, W. Short, E. Suh, and S. L. Buck, “The effects of luminance surrounds on the perception of the color brown,” J. Vis. 12(14):36 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Foote, K. G.

K. G. Foote and S. L. Buck, “Rod hue biases for foveal stimuli on CRT displays,” presented at Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Seattle, Washington, May4–9, 2013.

Fowler, G.

S. L. Buck, R. F. Knight, G. Fowler, and B. Hunt, “Rod influence on hue-scaling functions,” Vis. Res. 38, 3259–3263 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Frederick, A.

T. DeLawyer, A. Frederick, S. Kaplan, T. Lin, T. Shonka, and S. L. Buck, “Dependence of the color brown on the spatial configuration of high luminance surrounds,” presented at Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Seattle, Washington, May4–9, 2013.

Fuld, K.

K. Fuld, J. S. Werner, and B. R. Wooten, “The possible elemental nature of brown,” Vis. Res. 23, 631–637 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Gauthier, J. L.

G. D. Field, M. Greschner, J. L. Gauthier, C. Rangel, J. Shlens, A. Sher, D. W. Marshak, A. M. Litke, and E. J. Chichilnisky, “High-sensitivity rod photoreceptor input to the blue–yellow color opponent pathway in macaque retina,” Nat. Neurosci. 12, 1159–1164 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Green, K.

S. L. Buck, L. P. Thomas, C. Connor, K. Green, and T. Quintana, “Time-course of rod influences on hue perception,” Vis. Neurosci. 25, 517–520 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Greschner, M.

G. D. Field, M. Greschner, J. L. Gauthier, C. Rangel, J. Shlens, A. Sher, D. W. Marshak, A. M. Litke, and E. J. Chichilnisky, “High-sensitivity rod photoreceptor input to the blue–yellow color opponent pathway in macaque retina,” Nat. Neurosci. 12, 1159–1164 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hadyanto, V.

S. L. Buck, V. Hadyanto, W. Short, M. Tang, J. Vincent, and L. Wilson, “Rod and cone inputs differ to dark and bright and dark colors,” presented at Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Seattle, Washington, May4–9, 2013.

S. L. Buck, T. DeLawyer, J. Armer, V. Hadyanto, W. Short, E. Slezak, M. Tang, and L. Wilson, “Dark vs. bright equilibrium hues: rod and cone hue biases,” presented at Symposium of the International Colour Vision Society, Winchester, England, July14–18, 2013.

J. Vincent, S. L. Buck, J. Armer, T. DeLawyer, V. Hadyanto, A. Kale, E. Slyzak, M. Tang, and L. Wilson, “Remote rings bias equilibrium brown and yellow,” presented at Symposium of the International Colour Vision Society, Winchester, England, July14–18, 2013.

Hayhoe, M. M.

D. R. Williams, D. I. MacLeod, and M. M. Hayhoe, “Foveal tritanopia,” Vis. Res. 21, 1341–1356 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Hering, E.

E. Hering, Outlines of a Theory of Light Sense, L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, eds., trans. (Harvard, 1964).

Hunt, B.

S. L. Buck, R. F. Knight, G. Fowler, and B. Hunt, “Rod influence on hue-scaling functions,” Vis. Res. 38, 3259–3263 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hurley, J. B.

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, and A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hurvich, L. M.

L. M. Hurvich, Color Vision (Sinauer, 1981).

Jordan, G.

J. D. Mollon and G. Jordan, “On the nature of unique hues,” in John Dalton’s Color Vision Legacy, C. Dickinson, I. Murray, and D. Carden, eds. (Taylor & Francis, 1997), pp. 381–392.

Juve, R.

Kale, A.

J. Vincent, S. L. Buck, J. Armer, T. DeLawyer, V. Hadyanto, A. Kale, E. Slyzak, M. Tang, and L. Wilson, “Remote rings bias equilibrium brown and yellow,” presented at Symposium of the International Colour Vision Society, Winchester, England, July14–18, 2013.

Kaplan, S.

T. DeLawyer, A. Frederick, S. Kaplan, T. Lin, T. Shonka, and S. L. Buck, “Dependence of the color brown on the spatial configuration of high luminance surrounds,” presented at Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Seattle, Washington, May4–9, 2013.

Kiesow, F.

F. Kiesow, “Ueber die Entstehung der Braunempfindung,” Neue Psychologische Studien 6, 119–130 (1930).

Klock, I. B.

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, and A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Knight, R. F.

R. F. Knight and S. L. Buck, “Time-dependent changes of rod influence on hue perception,” Vis. Res. 42, 1651–1662 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Buck, R. F. Knight, G. Fowler, and B. Hunt, “Rod influence on hue-scaling functions,” Vis. Res. 38, 3259–3263 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Buck and R. F. Knight, “Stimulus duration affects rod influence on hue perception,” in Normal and Defective Colour Vision, J. D. Mollon, J. Pokorny, and K. Knoblauch, eds. (Oxford, 2003) pp. 177–184.

Kwong, C.

T. DeLawyer, K. Foote, C. Kwong, T. Lin, W. Short, E. Suh, and S. L. Buck, “The effects of luminance surrounds on the perception of the color brown,” J. Vis. 12(14):36 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lerea, C. L.

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, and A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lin, T.

T. DeLawyer, K. Foote, C. Kwong, T. Lin, W. Short, E. Suh, and S. L. Buck, “The effects of luminance surrounds on the perception of the color brown,” J. Vis. 12(14):36 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. DeLawyer, A. Frederick, S. Kaplan, T. Lin, T. Shonka, and S. L. Buck, “Dependence of the color brown on the spatial configuration of high luminance surrounds,” presented at Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Seattle, Washington, May4–9, 2013.

Litke, A. M.

G. D. Field, M. Greschner, J. L. Gauthier, C. Rangel, J. Shlens, A. Sher, D. W. Marshak, A. M. Litke, and E. J. Chichilnisky, “High-sensitivity rod photoreceptor input to the blue–yellow color opponent pathway in macaque retina,” Nat. Neurosci. 12, 1159–1164 (2009).
[CrossRef]

MacLeod, D. I.

Marshak, D. W.

G. D. Field, M. Greschner, J. L. Gauthier, C. Rangel, J. Shlens, A. Sher, D. W. Marshak, A. M. Litke, and E. J. Chichilnisky, “High-sensitivity rod photoreceptor input to the blue–yellow color opponent pathway in macaque retina,” Nat. Neurosci. 12, 1159–1164 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Milam, A. H.

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, and A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Mollon, J. D.

J. D. Mollon, “Color vision,” Annu. Rev. Psychol. 33, 41–85 (1982).

J. D. Mollon and G. Jordan, “On the nature of unique hues,” in John Dalton’s Color Vision Legacy, C. Dickinson, I. Murray, and D. Carden, eds. (Taylor & Francis, 1997), pp. 381–392.

Oesterreich, T. K.

T. K. Oesterreich, “Zur Lehre vom Grün,” Zeitschr. für Sinnesphysiol. 59, 356–380 (1928).

Packer, O. S.

J. D. Crook, C. M. Davenport, B. B. Peterson, O. S. Packer, P. B. Detwiler, and D. M. Dacey, “Parallel ON and OFF cone bipolar inputs establish spatially coextensive receptive field structure of blue-yellow ganglion cells in primate retina,” J. Neurosci. 29, 8372–8387 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Padgham, C. A.

C. A. Padgham and J. E. Saunders, The Perception of Light and Colour (Academic, 1975).

Peterson, B. B.

J. D. Crook, C. M. Davenport, B. B. Peterson, O. S. Packer, P. B. Detwiler, and D. M. Dacey, “Parallel ON and OFF cone bipolar inputs establish spatially coextensive receptive field structure of blue-yellow ganglion cells in primate retina,” J. Neurosci. 29, 8372–8387 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pokorny, J.

V. C. Smith and J. Pokorny, “Evaluation of single-pigment shift model of anomalous trichromacy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1196–1209 (1977).
[CrossRef]

V. C. Smith and J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone pigments between 400 and 500  nm,” Vis. Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
[CrossRef]

V. C. Smith and J. Pokorny, “Color matching and color discrimination,” in The Science of Color, S. K. Shevell, ed., 2nd ed. (Elsevier, 2003), pp. 103–148.

Quinn, P. C.

P. C. Quinn, J. L. Rosano, and B. R. Wooten, “Evidence that brown is not an elemental color,” Percept. Psychophys. 43, 156–164 (1988).

Quintana, T.

S. L. Buck, L. P. Thomas, C. Connor, K. Green, and T. Quintana, “Time-course of rod influences on hue perception,” Vis. Neurosci. 25, 517–520 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rangel, C.

G. D. Field, M. Greschner, J. L. Gauthier, C. Rangel, J. Shlens, A. Sher, D. W. Marshak, A. M. Litke, and E. J. Chichilnisky, “High-sensitivity rod photoreceptor input to the blue–yellow color opponent pathway in macaque retina,” Nat. Neurosci. 12, 1159–1164 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rosano, J. L.

P. C. Quinn, J. L. Rosano, and B. R. Wooten, “Evidence that brown is not an elemental color,” Percept. Psychophys. 43, 156–164 (1988).

Saunders, J. E.

C. A. Padgham and J. E. Saunders, The Perception of Light and Colour (Academic, 1975).

Sher, A.

G. D. Field, M. Greschner, J. L. Gauthier, C. Rangel, J. Shlens, A. Sher, D. W. Marshak, A. M. Litke, and E. J. Chichilnisky, “High-sensitivity rod photoreceptor input to the blue–yellow color opponent pathway in macaque retina,” Nat. Neurosci. 12, 1159–1164 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shlens, J.

G. D. Field, M. Greschner, J. L. Gauthier, C. Rangel, J. Shlens, A. Sher, D. W. Marshak, A. M. Litke, and E. J. Chichilnisky, “High-sensitivity rod photoreceptor input to the blue–yellow color opponent pathway in macaque retina,” Nat. Neurosci. 12, 1159–1164 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shonka, T.

T. DeLawyer, A. Frederick, S. Kaplan, T. Lin, T. Shonka, and S. L. Buck, “Dependence of the color brown on the spatial configuration of high luminance surrounds,” presented at Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Seattle, Washington, May4–9, 2013.

Short, W.

T. DeLawyer, K. Foote, C. Kwong, T. Lin, W. Short, E. Suh, and S. L. Buck, “The effects of luminance surrounds on the perception of the color brown,” J. Vis. 12(14):36 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Buck, T. DeLawyer, J. Armer, V. Hadyanto, W. Short, E. Slezak, M. Tang, and L. Wilson, “Dark vs. bright equilibrium hues: rod and cone hue biases,” presented at Symposium of the International Colour Vision Society, Winchester, England, July14–18, 2013.

S. L. Buck, V. Hadyanto, W. Short, M. Tang, J. Vincent, and L. Wilson, “Rod and cone inputs differ to dark and bright and dark colors,” presented at Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Seattle, Washington, May4–9, 2013.

Slezak, E.

S. L. Buck, T. DeLawyer, J. Armer, V. Hadyanto, W. Short, E. Slezak, M. Tang, and L. Wilson, “Dark vs. bright equilibrium hues: rod and cone hue biases,” presented at Symposium of the International Colour Vision Society, Winchester, England, July14–18, 2013.

Sloan, K. R.

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, and A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Slyzak, E.

J. Vincent, S. L. Buck, J. Armer, T. DeLawyer, V. Hadyanto, A. Kale, E. Slyzak, M. Tang, and L. Wilson, “Remote rings bias equilibrium brown and yellow,” presented at Symposium of the International Colour Vision Society, Winchester, England, July14–18, 2013.

Smith, V. C.

V. C. Smith and J. Pokorny, “Evaluation of single-pigment shift model of anomalous trichromacy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1196–1209 (1977).
[CrossRef]

V. C. Smith and J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone pigments between 400 and 500  nm,” Vis. Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
[CrossRef]

V. C. Smith and J. Pokorny, “Color matching and color discrimination,” in The Science of Color, S. K. Shevell, ed., 2nd ed. (Elsevier, 2003), pp. 103–148.

Stiles, W.

G. Wyszecki and W. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 1982).

Suh, E.

T. DeLawyer, K. Foote, C. Kwong, T. Lin, W. Short, E. Suh, and S. L. Buck, “The effects of luminance surrounds on the perception of the color brown,” J. Vis. 12(14):36 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tang, M.

J. Vincent, S. L. Buck, J. Armer, T. DeLawyer, V. Hadyanto, A. Kale, E. Slyzak, M. Tang, and L. Wilson, “Remote rings bias equilibrium brown and yellow,” presented at Symposium of the International Colour Vision Society, Winchester, England, July14–18, 2013.

S. L. Buck, T. DeLawyer, J. Armer, V. Hadyanto, W. Short, E. Slezak, M. Tang, and L. Wilson, “Dark vs. bright equilibrium hues: rod and cone hue biases,” presented at Symposium of the International Colour Vision Society, Winchester, England, July14–18, 2013.

S. L. Buck, V. Hadyanto, W. Short, M. Tang, J. Vincent, and L. Wilson, “Rod and cone inputs differ to dark and bright and dark colors,” presented at Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Seattle, Washington, May4–9, 2013.

Thomas, L. P.

S. L. Buck, L. P. Thomas, C. Connor, K. Green, and T. Quintana, “Time-course of rod influences on hue perception,” Vis. Neurosci. 25, 517–520 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vincent, J.

S. L. Buck, V. Hadyanto, W. Short, M. Tang, J. Vincent, and L. Wilson, “Rod and cone inputs differ to dark and bright and dark colors,” presented at Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Seattle, Washington, May4–9, 2013.

J. Vincent, S. L. Buck, J. Armer, T. DeLawyer, V. Hadyanto, A. Kale, E. Slyzak, M. Tang, and L. Wilson, “Remote rings bias equilibrium brown and yellow,” presented at Symposium of the International Colour Vision Society, Winchester, England, July14–18, 2013.

Werner, J. S.

K. Fuld, J. S. Werner, and B. R. Wooten, “The possible elemental nature of brown,” Vis. Res. 23, 631–637 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Williams, D. R.

D. R. Williams, D. I. MacLeod, and M. M. Hayhoe, “Foveal tritanopia,” Vis. Res. 21, 1341–1356 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, L.

S. L. Buck, T. DeLawyer, J. Armer, V. Hadyanto, W. Short, E. Slezak, M. Tang, and L. Wilson, “Dark vs. bright equilibrium hues: rod and cone hue biases,” presented at Symposium of the International Colour Vision Society, Winchester, England, July14–18, 2013.

J. Vincent, S. L. Buck, J. Armer, T. DeLawyer, V. Hadyanto, A. Kale, E. Slyzak, M. Tang, and L. Wilson, “Remote rings bias equilibrium brown and yellow,” presented at Symposium of the International Colour Vision Society, Winchester, England, July14–18, 2013.

S. L. Buck, V. Hadyanto, W. Short, M. Tang, J. Vincent, and L. Wilson, “Rod and cone inputs differ to dark and bright and dark colors,” presented at Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Seattle, Washington, May4–9, 2013.

Wisner, D.

Wooten, B. R.

P. C. Quinn, J. L. Rosano, and B. R. Wooten, “Evidence that brown is not an elemental color,” Percept. Psychophys. 43, 156–164 (1988).

K. Fuld, J. S. Werner, and B. R. Wooten, “The possible elemental nature of brown,” Vis. Res. 23, 631–637 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Wyszecki, G.

G. Wyszecki and W. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 1982).

Annu. Rev. Psychol. (1)

J. D. Mollon, “Color vision,” Annu. Rev. Psychol. 33, 41–85 (1982).

Color Res. Appl. (2)

C. J. Bartleson, “Brown,” Color Res. Appl. 1, 181–191 (1976).

S. L. Buck, “What is the hue of rod vision?” Color Res. Appl. 26 Supplement, S57–S59 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Comp. Neurol. (1)

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, and A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Neurosci. (1)

J. D. Crook, C. M. Davenport, B. B. Peterson, O. S. Packer, P. B. Detwiler, and D. M. Dacey, “Parallel ON and OFF cone bipolar inputs establish spatially coextensive receptive field structure of blue-yellow ganglion cells in primate retina,” J. Neurosci. 29, 8372–8387 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Vis. (2)

T. DeLawyer, K. Foote, C. Kwong, T. Lin, W. Short, E. Suh, and S. L. Buck, “The effects of luminance surrounds on the perception of the color brown,” J. Vis. 12(14):36 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Buck and T. DeLawyer, “A new comparison of brown and yellow,” J. Vis. 12(14):36 9 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Neurosci. (1)

G. D. Field, M. Greschner, J. L. Gauthier, C. Rangel, J. Shlens, A. Sher, D. W. Marshak, A. M. Litke, and E. J. Chichilnisky, “High-sensitivity rod photoreceptor input to the blue–yellow color opponent pathway in macaque retina,” Nat. Neurosci. 12, 1159–1164 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Neue Psychologische Studien (1)

F. Kiesow, “Ueber die Entstehung der Braunempfindung,” Neue Psychologische Studien 6, 119–130 (1930).

Percept. Psychophys. (1)

P. C. Quinn, J. L. Rosano, and B. R. Wooten, “Evidence that brown is not an elemental color,” Percept. Psychophys. 43, 156–164 (1988).

Vis. Neurosci. (1)

S. L. Buck, L. P. Thomas, C. Connor, K. Green, and T. Quintana, “Time-course of rod influences on hue perception,” Vis. Neurosci. 25, 517–520 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vis. Res. (6)

D. R. Williams, D. I. MacLeod, and M. M. Hayhoe, “Foveal tritanopia,” Vis. Res. 21, 1341–1356 (1981).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Knight and S. L. Buck, “Time-dependent changes of rod influence on hue perception,” Vis. Res. 42, 1651–1662 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. C. Smith and J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone pigments between 400 and 500  nm,” Vis. Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
[CrossRef]

R. L. DeValois and K. K. DeValois, “A multi-stage color model,” Vis. Res. 33, 1053–1065 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Buck, R. F. Knight, G. Fowler, and B. Hunt, “Rod influence on hue-scaling functions,” Vis. Res. 38, 3259–3263 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Fuld, J. S. Werner, and B. R. Wooten, “The possible elemental nature of brown,” Vis. Res. 23, 631–637 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Zeitschr. für Sinnesphysiol. (1)

T. K. Oesterreich, “Zur Lehre vom Grün,” Zeitschr. für Sinnesphysiol. 59, 356–380 (1928).

Other (14)

J. D. Mollon and G. Jordan, “On the nature of unique hues,” in John Dalton’s Color Vision Legacy, C. Dickinson, I. Murray, and D. Carden, eds. (Taylor & Francis, 1997), pp. 381–392.

S. L. Buck, “Rod-cone interactions,” in The Visual Neurosciences, L. M. Chalupa and J. S. Werner, eds. (MIT, 2004), pp. 863–878.

S. L. Buck, “The interaction of rod and cone signals: pathways and psychophysics,” in The New Visual Neurosciences, J. S. Werner and L. M. Chalupa, eds. (MIT, 2014), pp. 485–497.

E. Hering, Outlines of a Theory of Light Sense, L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, eds., trans. (Harvard, 1964).

L. M. Hurvich, Color Vision (Sinauer, 1981).

S. L. Buck, V. Hadyanto, W. Short, M. Tang, J. Vincent, and L. Wilson, “Rod and cone inputs differ to dark and bright and dark colors,” presented at Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Seattle, Washington, May4–9, 2013.

S. L. Buck, T. DeLawyer, J. Armer, V. Hadyanto, W. Short, E. Slezak, M. Tang, and L. Wilson, “Dark vs. bright equilibrium hues: rod and cone hue biases,” presented at Symposium of the International Colour Vision Society, Winchester, England, July14–18, 2013.

C. A. Padgham and J. E. Saunders, The Perception of Light and Colour (Academic, 1975).

V. C. Smith and J. Pokorny, “Color matching and color discrimination,” in The Science of Color, S. K. Shevell, ed., 2nd ed. (Elsevier, 2003), pp. 103–148.

K. G. Foote and S. L. Buck, “Rod hue biases for foveal stimuli on CRT displays,” presented at Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Seattle, Washington, May4–9, 2013.

S. L. Buck and R. F. Knight, “Stimulus duration affects rod influence on hue perception,” in Normal and Defective Colour Vision, J. D. Mollon, J. Pokorny, and K. Knoblauch, eds. (Oxford, 2003) pp. 177–184.

T. DeLawyer, A. Frederick, S. Kaplan, T. Lin, T. Shonka, and S. L. Buck, “Dependence of the color brown on the spatial configuration of high luminance surrounds,” presented at Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Seattle, Washington, May4–9, 2013.

J. Vincent, S. L. Buck, J. Armer, T. DeLawyer, V. Hadyanto, A. Kale, E. Slyzak, M. Tang, and L. Wilson, “Remote rings bias equilibrium brown and yellow,” presented at Symposium of the International Colour Vision Society, Winchester, England, July14–18, 2013.

G. Wyszecki and W. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 1982).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Equilibrium red–green balances (expressed as L/(L+M) trolands) for the same photopic test stimulus when it appeared yellow (diamonds) surrounded by black and when it appeared brown (squares) surrounded by white, for each of eight observers. For all observers, the balance required more R and less G phosphor when the test appeared brown than when it appeared yellow. Error bars in this and all figures represent ±1 standard error of session means.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Red–green balance (expressed as L/(L+M) trolands) of (A) photopic or (B) mesopic yellow or brown test with black, white, and green-biased surrounds. The green-biased surrounds were formed by reducing the R phosphor by the percentages shown. CIE 1964 chromaticity coordinates are shown for full white and 62% R surrounds. Green-biased surrounds still produced a red–green shift compared to the black surround. Error bars are ±1s.e. of four session means.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Shifts in photopic hue balance for bright (triangles) and dark (circles) versions of all four unique hues, plotted in a modified MacLeod–Boynton chromaticity diagram [21]. Data points for bright/dark red and green overlap in this plot. Values are the means for all eight observers. Only partially resolvable are the 494 equiluminant color steps available to the observers.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Shift of equilibrium red–green balance from yellow to brown (left) and from bright to dark blue (right). A, photopic conditions: solid bars show shifts for individual observers, in the same order on left and right. Stippled bars show group means. Positive values denote greater equilibrium L/(L+M) troland values for brown or dark blue than for yellow or bright blue. Asterisks mark four observers who showed substantial hue shift for both yellow/brown and bright/dark blue. Error bars are ±1s.e. of four session means. B, mesopic conditions: solid bars show shifts for same individual observers shown leftmost in A. Note scale difference between A and B.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Shift of photopic equilibrium blue–yellow balance from bright to dark green (left) and from bright to dark red (right). Format details are the same as in Fig. 4. Positive values denote greater equilibrium S-cone troland values for dark green or red than for bright green or red.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Rod influence on mesopic equilibrium yellow and brown. Rod influence is represented on the ordinate as the difference in red–green balance [expressed in L/(L+M) cone trolands] between DA and BL conditions. Most observers show rod green bias on yellow and opposite direction rod red bias on brown. Format details are the same as in Fig. 4.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Rod influence on mesopic equilibrium hues of yellow and brown (top and bottom left) and bright and dark blue (top and bottom right). Rod influence is measured by the difference in L/(L+M) equilibrium settings between BL and DA conditions. Rod influence on bright/dark blue is smaller and does not show the reversal of direction of rod influence seen for yellow/brown. Format details are the same as in Fig. 4. Observers are the same as in the four left bars of Figs. 46.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Rod influence on mesopic equilibrium hues of bright and dark green (top and bottom left) and bright and dark red (top and bottom right). Rod influence is measured by the difference in S-cone troland equilibrium settings between BL and DA conditions. Little or no rod influence on green or red is found for these foveal stimuli. Format details are the same as in Figs. 4 and 7.

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