Abstract

Distinct neural populations carry signals from short-wave (S) cones. We used individual differences to test whether two types of pathways, those that receive excitatory input (S+) and those that receive inhibitory input (S), contribute independently to psychophysical performance. We also conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to look for genetic correlates of the individual differences. Our psychophysical test was based on the Cambridge Color Test, but detection thresholds were measured separately for S-cone spatial increments and decrements. Our participants were 1060 healthy adults aged 16–40. Test–retest reliabilities for thresholds were good (ρ=0.64 for S-cone increments, 0.67 for decrements and 0.73 for the average of the two). “Regression scores,” isolating variability unique to incremental or decremental sensitivity, were also reliable (ρ=0.53 for increments and ρ=0.51 for decrements). The correlation between incremental and decremental thresholds was ρ=0.65. No genetic markers reached genome-wide significance (p<5×107). We identified 18 “suggestive” loci (p<105). The significant test–retest reliabilities show stable individual differences in S-cone sensitivity in a normal adult population. Though a portion of the variance in sensitivity is shared between incremental and decremental sensitivity, over 26% of the variance is stable across individuals, but unique to increments or decrements, suggesting distinct neural substrates. Some of the variability in sensitivity is likely to be genetic. We note that four of the suggestive associations found in the GWAS are with genes that are involved in glucose metabolism or have been associated with diabetes.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, G. Verriest, and A. J. L. G. Pinckers, Congenital and Acquired Color Vision Defects (Grune & Stratton, 1979).
  2. D. M. Dacey and B. B. Lee, “The ‘blue-on’ opponent pathway in primate retina originates from a distinct bistratified ganglion cell type,” Nature 367, 731–735 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. J. Calkins, Y. Tsukamoto, and P. Sterling, “Microcircuitry and mosaic of a blue–yellow ganglion cell in the primate retina,” J. Neurosci. 18, 3373–3385 (1994).
  4. D. M. Dacey, “Origins of perception: retinal ganglion cell diversity and the creation of parallel visual pathways,” in The Cognitive Neurosciences, M. Gazzaniga, ed. (MIT, 2004), pp. 281–301.
  5. D. M. Dacey, H. W. Liao, B. B. Peterson, F. R. Robinson, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, K.-W. Yau, and P. D. Gamlin, “Melanopsin-expressing ganglion cells in primate retina signal colour and irradiance and project to the LGN,” Nature, 433, 749–754 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. D. Field, J. L. Gauthier, A. Sher, M. Greschner, T. A. Machado, L. H. Jepson, J. Shlens, D. E. Gunning, K. Mathieson, W. Dabrowski, L. Paninski, A. Litke, and E. J. Chichilnisky, “Functional connectivity in the retina at the resolution of photoreceptors,” Nature 467, 673–677 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Klug, S. Herr, I. T. Ngo, P. Sterling, and S. Schein, “Macaque retina contains an S-cone OFF midget pathway,” J. Neurosci. 23, 9881–9887 (2003).
  8. C. Tailby, S. G. Solomon, and P. Lennie, “Functional asymmetries in visual pathways carrying S-cone signals in macaque,” J. Neurosci. 28, 4078–4087 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Valberg, B. B. Lee, and D. A. Tigwell, “Neurones with strong inhibitory S-cone inputs in the macaque lateral geniculate nucleus,” Vis. Res. 26, 1061–1064 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. Shinomori, L. Spillmann, and J. S. Werner, “S-cone signals to temporal off-channels: asymmetrical connections to postreceptoral chromatic mechanisms,” Vis. Res. 39, 39–49 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Krauskopf and Q. Zaidi, “Induced desensitization,” Vis. Res. 26, 759–762 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. M. Bosten and D. I. A. MacLeod, “Mechanisms of the dimming and brightening after-effects,” J. Vision 13(6), 11 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. Hughes and P. J. DeMarco, “Time course of adaptation to stimuli presented along cardinal lines in color space,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 2216–2227 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Vassilev, M. S. Mihaylova, K. Racheva, M. Zlatkova, and R. S. Anderson, “Spatial summation of S-cone on and off signals: effects of retinal eccentricity,” Vis. Res. 43, 2875–2884 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. H. Thouless, “Individual differences in perception and their significance in psychology,” in Essays in Psychology Dedicated to David Katz, G. Ekman, T. Husen, G. Johansson, and C. I. Sandstrom, eds. (Almqvist & Wiksells, 1951).
  16. D. H. Peterzell and D. Y. Teller, “Spatial frequency tuned covariance channels for red–green and luminance-modulated gratings: psychophysical data from human adults,” Vis. Res. 40, 417–430 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. B. Wilmer, “How to use individual differences to isolate functional organization, biology, and utility of visual functions; with illustrative proposals for stereopsis,” Spatial Vision 21, 561–579 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  18. P. T. Goodbourn, J. M. Bosten, R. E. Hogg, G. Bargary, A. J. Lawrance-Owen, and J. D. Mollon, “Do different ‘magnocellular tasks’ probe the same neural substrate?” Proc. R. Soc. B 279, 4263–4271 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  19. A. J. Lawrance-Owen, G. Bargary, J. M. Bosten, P. T. Goodbourn, R. E. Hogg, and J. D. Mollon, “Genetic association suggests that SMOC1 mediates between prenatal sex hormones and digit ratio,” Hum. Genet. 132, 415–421 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  20. B. C. Regan, J. P. Reffin, and J. D. Mollon, “Luminance noise and the rapid determination of discrimination ellipses in colour deficiency,” Vis. Res. 34, 1279–1299 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  21. D. F. Ventura, L. C. L. Silveria, A. R. Rodrigues, J. M. de Souza, M. Gualtieri, D. Bonci, and M. F. Costa, “Preliminary norms for the Cambridge colour test,” in Normal and Defective Colour Vision, J. D. Mollon, J. Pokomy, and K. Knoblauch, eds. (Oxford University, 2003) pp. 331–339.
  22. V. C. Smith and J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500 nm,” Vis. Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  23. P. E. King-Smith, S. S. Grigsby, A. J. Vingrys, S. C. Benes, and A. Supowit, “Efficient and unbiased modifications of the QUEST threshold method: theory, simulations, experimental evaluation and practical implementation,” Vis. Res. 34, 885–912 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  24. A. B. Watson and D. G. Pelli, “QUEST: a Bayesian adaptive psychometric method,” Percept. Psychophys. 33, 113–120 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  25. S. Purcell, B. Neale, K. Todd-Brown, L. Thomas, M. A. Ferreira, D. Bender, J. Maller, P. Sklar, P. I. de Bakker, M. J. Daly, and P. C. Sham, “PLINK: a tool set for whole-genome association and population-based linkage analyses,” Am. J. Hum. Genet. 81, 559–575 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  26. A. L. Price, N. J. Patterson, R. M. Plenge, M. E. Weinblatt, N. A. Shadick, and D. Reich, “Principal components analysis corrects for stratification in genome-wide association studies,” Nat. Genet. 38, 904–909 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  27. B. N. Howie, P. Donnelly, and J. Marchini, “A flexible and accurate genotype imputation method for the next generation of genome-wide association studies,” PLoS Genet. 5, e1000529 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  28. B. Howie, J. Marchini, and M. Stephens, “Genotype imputation with thousands of genomes,” G3: Genes, Genomes, Genet. 1, 457–470 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  29. D. I. A. MacLeod and R. M. Boynton, “Chromaticity diagram showing cone excitation by stimuli of equal luminance,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 69, 1183–1186 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  30. J. DeGutis, J. Wilmer, R. J. Mercado, and S. Cohan, “Using regression to measure holistic face processing reveals a strong link with face recognition ability,” Cognition 126, 87–100 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  31. A. J. Lawrance-Owen, J. M. Bosten, R. E. Hogg, G. Bargary, P. T. Goodbourn, and J. D. Mollon, “Counterphase flicker photometry: phenotypic and genotypic associations,” this issue of J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (to be published).
  32. D. H. Kelly, “Frequency doubling in visual responses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1628–1633 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  33. A. Leonova, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Spatial frequency processing in inferred PC- and MC-pathways,” Vis. Res. 43, 2133–2139 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  34. D. Pelli, J. Robson, and A. Wilkins, “The design of a new letter chart for measuring contrast sensitivity,” Clin Vis. Sci. 2, 187–199 (1988).
  35. J. S. Werner and V. G. Steele, “Sensitivity of human foveal color mechanisms throughout the life span,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 2122–2130 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  36. C. A. Johnson, A. J. Adams, J. D. Twelker, and J. M. Quigg, “Age-related changes in the central visual field for short-wavelength-sensitive pathways,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 2131–2139 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  37. G. V. Paramei, “Color discrimination across four life decades assessed by the Cambridge colour test,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29, A290–A297 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  38. K. T. Mullen, A. Y. Leung, and A. Baxter, “Changes in S-cone increment and decrement sensitivity as a function of age and eccentricity,” J. Vision 8(17), 71 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  39. M. B. Donnellan, F. L. Oswalk, B. M. Baird, and R. E. Lucas, “The mini-IPIP scales: tiny-yet-effective measures of the big five factors of personality,” Psychol. Assess. 18, 192–203 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  40. F. Ermetici, F. Donadio, L. Iorio, A. E. Malavazos, A. Dolci, E. Peverelli, A. M. Barbierri, L. Morricone, I. Chiodini, M. Arosio, A. Lania, P. Beck-Peccoz, B. Ambrosi, and S. Corbbetta, “Peripheral insulin-like factor 3 concentrations are reduced in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus: effect of glycemic control and visceral adiposity on Leydig cell function,” Eur. J. Endocrinol. 161, 853–859 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  41. K. Sakamoto and G. D. Holman, “Emerging role for AS160/TBC1D4 and TBC1D1 in the regulation of GLUT4 traffic,” Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. 295, E29–E37 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  42. D. An, T. Toyoda, E. B. Taylor, H. Yu, N. Fujii, M. F. Hirshman, and L. J. Goodyear, “TBC1D1 regulates insulin- and contraction-induced glucose transport in mouse skeletal muscle,” Diabetes 59, 1358–1365 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  43. Y. Yu, S. O. Yoon, G. Poulogiannis, Q. Yang, X. M. Ma, J. Villén, N. Kubica, G. R. Hoffman, L. C. Cantley, S. Gygi, and J. Blenis, “Quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis identifies the adaptor protein Grb10 as an mTORC1 substrate that negatively regulates insulin signaling,” Science 332, 1322–1326 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  44. E. Rampersaud, C. M. Damcott, M. Fu, H. Shen, P. McArdle, X. Shi, J. Shelton, J. Yin, Y.-P. C. Chang, S. H. Ott, L. Zhang, Y. Zhao, B. D. Mitchell, J. O’Connell, and A. R. Shuldiner, “Evidence for replication from diabetes-related quantitative traits and from independent populations,” Diabetes 56, 3053–3062 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  45. M. German and J. Wang, “Localization of the genes encoding two transcription factors, LMX1 and CDX3, regulating insulin gene expression to human chromosomes 1 and 13,” Genomics 24, 403–404 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  46. V. C. Greenstein, D. C. Hood, R. Ritch, D. Steinberger, and R. E. Carr, “S (blue) cone pathway vulnerability in retinitis pigmentosa, diabetes and glaucoma,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 30, 1732–1737 (1989).
  47. V. C. Greenstein, A. Shapiro, D. C. Hood, and Q. Zaidi, “Chromatic and luminance sensitivity in diabetes and glaucoma,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1785–1791 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  48. M. Schneck, A. Adams, V. Volbrecht, and J. Linfoot, “Acute changes in blood glucose and their effects on color vision function,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies XI, B. Drum, ed. (Kluwer Academic, 1993), pp. 165–173.
  49. M. R. Roberts, A. Hendrickson, C. R. McGuire, and T. A. Reh, “Retinoid X receptor γ is necessary to establish the S-opsin gradient in cone photoreceptors of the developing mouse retina,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46, 2897–2904 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  50. E. A. Carroll, D. Gerrelli, S. Gasca, E. Berg, D. R. Beier, A. J. Copp, and J. Klingensmith, “Cordon-bleu is a conserved gene involved in neural tube formation,” Dev. Biol. 262, 16–31 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  51. R. Ahuja, R. Pinyol, N. Reichenbach, L. Custer, J. Klingensmith, M. M. Kessels, and B. Qualmann, “Cordon-bleu is an actin nucleation factor and controls neuronal morphology,” Cell. 131, 337–350 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  52. E. Andersson, U. Tryggvason, Q. Deng, S. Friling, Z. Alekseenko, B. Robert, T. Perlmann, and J. Ericson, “Identification of intrinsic determinants of midbrain dopamine neurons,” Cell. 124, 393–405 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  53. W. Y. Lin and W. C. Lee, “Incorporating prior knowledge to facilitate discoveries in a genome-wide association study on age-related macular degeneration,” BMC Res. Notes 3, 26 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2013

J. M. Bosten and D. I. A. MacLeod, “Mechanisms of the dimming and brightening after-effects,” J. Vision 13(6), 11 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Lawrance-Owen, G. Bargary, J. M. Bosten, P. T. Goodbourn, R. E. Hogg, and J. D. Mollon, “Genetic association suggests that SMOC1 mediates between prenatal sex hormones and digit ratio,” Hum. Genet. 132, 415–421 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. DeGutis, J. Wilmer, R. J. Mercado, and S. Cohan, “Using regression to measure holistic face processing reveals a strong link with face recognition ability,” Cognition 126, 87–100 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

G. V. Paramei, “Color discrimination across four life decades assessed by the Cambridge colour test,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29, A290–A297 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. T. Goodbourn, J. M. Bosten, R. E. Hogg, G. Bargary, A. J. Lawrance-Owen, and J. D. Mollon, “Do different ‘magnocellular tasks’ probe the same neural substrate?” Proc. R. Soc. B 279, 4263–4271 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

B. Howie, J. Marchini, and M. Stephens, “Genotype imputation with thousands of genomes,” G3: Genes, Genomes, Genet. 1, 457–470 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yu, S. O. Yoon, G. Poulogiannis, Q. Yang, X. M. Ma, J. Villén, N. Kubica, G. R. Hoffman, L. C. Cantley, S. Gygi, and J. Blenis, “Quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis identifies the adaptor protein Grb10 as an mTORC1 substrate that negatively regulates insulin signaling,” Science 332, 1322–1326 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

D. An, T. Toyoda, E. B. Taylor, H. Yu, N. Fujii, M. F. Hirshman, and L. J. Goodyear, “TBC1D1 regulates insulin- and contraction-induced glucose transport in mouse skeletal muscle,” Diabetes 59, 1358–1365 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Y. Lin and W. C. Lee, “Incorporating prior knowledge to facilitate discoveries in a genome-wide association study on age-related macular degeneration,” BMC Res. Notes 3, 26 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Field, J. L. Gauthier, A. Sher, M. Greschner, T. A. Machado, L. H. Jepson, J. Shlens, D. E. Gunning, K. Mathieson, W. Dabrowski, L. Paninski, A. Litke, and E. J. Chichilnisky, “Functional connectivity in the retina at the resolution of photoreceptors,” Nature 467, 673–677 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

B. N. Howie, P. Donnelly, and J. Marchini, “A flexible and accurate genotype imputation method for the next generation of genome-wide association studies,” PLoS Genet. 5, e1000529 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Ermetici, F. Donadio, L. Iorio, A. E. Malavazos, A. Dolci, E. Peverelli, A. M. Barbierri, L. Morricone, I. Chiodini, M. Arosio, A. Lania, P. Beck-Peccoz, B. Ambrosi, and S. Corbbetta, “Peripheral insulin-like factor 3 concentrations are reduced in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus: effect of glycemic control and visceral adiposity on Leydig cell function,” Eur. J. Endocrinol. 161, 853–859 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

K. Sakamoto and G. D. Holman, “Emerging role for AS160/TBC1D4 and TBC1D1 in the regulation of GLUT4 traffic,” Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. 295, E29–E37 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. T. Mullen, A. Y. Leung, and A. Baxter, “Changes in S-cone increment and decrement sensitivity as a function of age and eccentricity,” J. Vision 8(17), 71 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Tailby, S. G. Solomon, and P. Lennie, “Functional asymmetries in visual pathways carrying S-cone signals in macaque,” J. Neurosci. 28, 4078–4087 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Wilmer, “How to use individual differences to isolate functional organization, biology, and utility of visual functions; with illustrative proposals for stereopsis,” Spatial Vision 21, 561–579 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

S. Purcell, B. Neale, K. Todd-Brown, L. Thomas, M. A. Ferreira, D. Bender, J. Maller, P. Sklar, P. I. de Bakker, M. J. Daly, and P. C. Sham, “PLINK: a tool set for whole-genome association and population-based linkage analyses,” Am. J. Hum. Genet. 81, 559–575 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Rampersaud, C. M. Damcott, M. Fu, H. Shen, P. McArdle, X. Shi, J. Shelton, J. Yin, Y.-P. C. Chang, S. H. Ott, L. Zhang, Y. Zhao, B. D. Mitchell, J. O’Connell, and A. R. Shuldiner, “Evidence for replication from diabetes-related quantitative traits and from independent populations,” Diabetes 56, 3053–3062 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Ahuja, R. Pinyol, N. Reichenbach, L. Custer, J. Klingensmith, M. M. Kessels, and B. Qualmann, “Cordon-bleu is an actin nucleation factor and controls neuronal morphology,” Cell. 131, 337–350 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

E. Andersson, U. Tryggvason, Q. Deng, S. Friling, Z. Alekseenko, B. Robert, T. Perlmann, and J. Ericson, “Identification of intrinsic determinants of midbrain dopamine neurons,” Cell. 124, 393–405 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Price, N. J. Patterson, R. M. Plenge, M. E. Weinblatt, N. A. Shadick, and D. Reich, “Principal components analysis corrects for stratification in genome-wide association studies,” Nat. Genet. 38, 904–909 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Donnellan, F. L. Oswalk, B. M. Baird, and R. E. Lucas, “The mini-IPIP scales: tiny-yet-effective measures of the big five factors of personality,” Psychol. Assess. 18, 192–203 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

D. M. Dacey, H. W. Liao, B. B. Peterson, F. R. Robinson, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, K.-W. Yau, and P. D. Gamlin, “Melanopsin-expressing ganglion cells in primate retina signal colour and irradiance and project to the LGN,” Nature, 433, 749–754 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Roberts, A. Hendrickson, C. R. McGuire, and T. A. Reh, “Retinoid X receptor γ is necessary to establish the S-opsin gradient in cone photoreceptors of the developing mouse retina,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46, 2897–2904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

E. A. Carroll, D. Gerrelli, S. Gasca, E. Berg, D. R. Beier, A. J. Copp, and J. Klingensmith, “Cordon-bleu is a conserved gene involved in neural tube formation,” Dev. Biol. 262, 16–31 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Hughes and P. J. DeMarco, “Time course of adaptation to stimuli presented along cardinal lines in color space,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 2216–2227 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Vassilev, M. S. Mihaylova, K. Racheva, M. Zlatkova, and R. S. Anderson, “Spatial summation of S-cone on and off signals: effects of retinal eccentricity,” Vis. Res. 43, 2875–2884 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Klug, S. Herr, I. T. Ngo, P. Sterling, and S. Schein, “Macaque retina contains an S-cone OFF midget pathway,” J. Neurosci. 23, 9881–9887 (2003).

A. Leonova, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Spatial frequency processing in inferred PC- and MC-pathways,” Vis. Res. 43, 2133–2139 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000

D. H. Peterzell and D. Y. Teller, “Spatial frequency tuned covariance channels for red–green and luminance-modulated gratings: psychophysical data from human adults,” Vis. Res. 40, 417–430 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

K. Shinomori, L. Spillmann, and J. S. Werner, “S-cone signals to temporal off-channels: asymmetrical connections to postreceptoral chromatic mechanisms,” Vis. Res. 39, 39–49 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1994

D. M. Dacey and B. B. Lee, “The ‘blue-on’ opponent pathway in primate retina originates from a distinct bistratified ganglion cell type,” Nature 367, 731–735 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Calkins, Y. Tsukamoto, and P. Sterling, “Microcircuitry and mosaic of a blue–yellow ganglion cell in the primate retina,” J. Neurosci. 18, 3373–3385 (1994).

B. C. Regan, J. P. Reffin, and J. D. Mollon, “Luminance noise and the rapid determination of discrimination ellipses in colour deficiency,” Vis. Res. 34, 1279–1299 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. E. King-Smith, S. S. Grigsby, A. J. Vingrys, S. C. Benes, and A. Supowit, “Efficient and unbiased modifications of the QUEST threshold method: theory, simulations, experimental evaluation and practical implementation,” Vis. Res. 34, 885–912 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. German and J. Wang, “Localization of the genes encoding two transcription factors, LMX1 and CDX3, regulating insulin gene expression to human chromosomes 1 and 13,” Genomics 24, 403–404 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

1989

V. C. Greenstein, D. C. Hood, R. Ritch, D. Steinberger, and R. E. Carr, “S (blue) cone pathway vulnerability in retinitis pigmentosa, diabetes and glaucoma,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 30, 1732–1737 (1989).

1988

1986

J. Krauskopf and Q. Zaidi, “Induced desensitization,” Vis. Res. 26, 759–762 (1986).
[CrossRef]

A. Valberg, B. B. Lee, and D. A. Tigwell, “Neurones with strong inhibitory S-cone inputs in the macaque lateral geniculate nucleus,” Vis. Res. 26, 1061–1064 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1983

A. B. Watson and D. G. Pelli, “QUEST: a Bayesian adaptive psychometric method,” Percept. Psychophys. 33, 113–120 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1979

D. I. A. MacLeod and R. M. Boynton, “Chromaticity diagram showing cone excitation by stimuli of equal luminance,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 69, 1183–1186 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1975

V. C. Smith and J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500 nm,” Vis. Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1966

Adams, A.

M. Schneck, A. Adams, V. Volbrecht, and J. Linfoot, “Acute changes in blood glucose and their effects on color vision function,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies XI, B. Drum, ed. (Kluwer Academic, 1993), pp. 165–173.

Adams, A. J.

Ahuja, R.

R. Ahuja, R. Pinyol, N. Reichenbach, L. Custer, J. Klingensmith, M. M. Kessels, and B. Qualmann, “Cordon-bleu is an actin nucleation factor and controls neuronal morphology,” Cell. 131, 337–350 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Alekseenko, Z.

E. Andersson, U. Tryggvason, Q. Deng, S. Friling, Z. Alekseenko, B. Robert, T. Perlmann, and J. Ericson, “Identification of intrinsic determinants of midbrain dopamine neurons,” Cell. 124, 393–405 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ambrosi, B.

F. Ermetici, F. Donadio, L. Iorio, A. E. Malavazos, A. Dolci, E. Peverelli, A. M. Barbierri, L. Morricone, I. Chiodini, M. Arosio, A. Lania, P. Beck-Peccoz, B. Ambrosi, and S. Corbbetta, “Peripheral insulin-like factor 3 concentrations are reduced in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus: effect of glycemic control and visceral adiposity on Leydig cell function,” Eur. J. Endocrinol. 161, 853–859 (2009).
[CrossRef]

An, D.

D. An, T. Toyoda, E. B. Taylor, H. Yu, N. Fujii, M. F. Hirshman, and L. J. Goodyear, “TBC1D1 regulates insulin- and contraction-induced glucose transport in mouse skeletal muscle,” Diabetes 59, 1358–1365 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, R. S.

A. Vassilev, M. S. Mihaylova, K. Racheva, M. Zlatkova, and R. S. Anderson, “Spatial summation of S-cone on and off signals: effects of retinal eccentricity,” Vis. Res. 43, 2875–2884 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Andersson, E.

E. Andersson, U. Tryggvason, Q. Deng, S. Friling, Z. Alekseenko, B. Robert, T. Perlmann, and J. Ericson, “Identification of intrinsic determinants of midbrain dopamine neurons,” Cell. 124, 393–405 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Arosio, M.

F. Ermetici, F. Donadio, L. Iorio, A. E. Malavazos, A. Dolci, E. Peverelli, A. M. Barbierri, L. Morricone, I. Chiodini, M. Arosio, A. Lania, P. Beck-Peccoz, B. Ambrosi, and S. Corbbetta, “Peripheral insulin-like factor 3 concentrations are reduced in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus: effect of glycemic control and visceral adiposity on Leydig cell function,” Eur. J. Endocrinol. 161, 853–859 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Baird, B. M.

M. B. Donnellan, F. L. Oswalk, B. M. Baird, and R. E. Lucas, “The mini-IPIP scales: tiny-yet-effective measures of the big five factors of personality,” Psychol. Assess. 18, 192–203 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Barbierri, A. M.

F. Ermetici, F. Donadio, L. Iorio, A. E. Malavazos, A. Dolci, E. Peverelli, A. M. Barbierri, L. Morricone, I. Chiodini, M. Arosio, A. Lania, P. Beck-Peccoz, B. Ambrosi, and S. Corbbetta, “Peripheral insulin-like factor 3 concentrations are reduced in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus: effect of glycemic control and visceral adiposity on Leydig cell function,” Eur. J. Endocrinol. 161, 853–859 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bargary, G.

A. J. Lawrance-Owen, G. Bargary, J. M. Bosten, P. T. Goodbourn, R. E. Hogg, and J. D. Mollon, “Genetic association suggests that SMOC1 mediates between prenatal sex hormones and digit ratio,” Hum. Genet. 132, 415–421 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. T. Goodbourn, J. M. Bosten, R. E. Hogg, G. Bargary, A. J. Lawrance-Owen, and J. D. Mollon, “Do different ‘magnocellular tasks’ probe the same neural substrate?” Proc. R. Soc. B 279, 4263–4271 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Lawrance-Owen, J. M. Bosten, R. E. Hogg, G. Bargary, P. T. Goodbourn, and J. D. Mollon, “Counterphase flicker photometry: phenotypic and genotypic associations,” this issue of J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (to be published).

Baxter, A.

K. T. Mullen, A. Y. Leung, and A. Baxter, “Changes in S-cone increment and decrement sensitivity as a function of age and eccentricity,” J. Vision 8(17), 71 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Beck-Peccoz, P.

F. Ermetici, F. Donadio, L. Iorio, A. E. Malavazos, A. Dolci, E. Peverelli, A. M. Barbierri, L. Morricone, I. Chiodini, M. Arosio, A. Lania, P. Beck-Peccoz, B. Ambrosi, and S. Corbbetta, “Peripheral insulin-like factor 3 concentrations are reduced in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus: effect of glycemic control and visceral adiposity on Leydig cell function,” Eur. J. Endocrinol. 161, 853–859 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Beier, D. R.

E. A. Carroll, D. Gerrelli, S. Gasca, E. Berg, D. R. Beier, A. J. Copp, and J. Klingensmith, “Cordon-bleu is a conserved gene involved in neural tube formation,” Dev. Biol. 262, 16–31 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bender, D.

S. Purcell, B. Neale, K. Todd-Brown, L. Thomas, M. A. Ferreira, D. Bender, J. Maller, P. Sklar, P. I. de Bakker, M. J. Daly, and P. C. Sham, “PLINK: a tool set for whole-genome association and population-based linkage analyses,” Am. J. Hum. Genet. 81, 559–575 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Benes, S. C.

P. E. King-Smith, S. S. Grigsby, A. J. Vingrys, S. C. Benes, and A. Supowit, “Efficient and unbiased modifications of the QUEST threshold method: theory, simulations, experimental evaluation and practical implementation,” Vis. Res. 34, 885–912 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Berg, E.

E. A. Carroll, D. Gerrelli, S. Gasca, E. Berg, D. R. Beier, A. J. Copp, and J. Klingensmith, “Cordon-bleu is a conserved gene involved in neural tube formation,” Dev. Biol. 262, 16–31 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Blenis, J.

Y. Yu, S. O. Yoon, G. Poulogiannis, Q. Yang, X. M. Ma, J. Villén, N. Kubica, G. R. Hoffman, L. C. Cantley, S. Gygi, and J. Blenis, “Quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis identifies the adaptor protein Grb10 as an mTORC1 substrate that negatively regulates insulin signaling,” Science 332, 1322–1326 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bonci, D.

D. F. Ventura, L. C. L. Silveria, A. R. Rodrigues, J. M. de Souza, M. Gualtieri, D. Bonci, and M. F. Costa, “Preliminary norms for the Cambridge colour test,” in Normal and Defective Colour Vision, J. D. Mollon, J. Pokomy, and K. Knoblauch, eds. (Oxford University, 2003) pp. 331–339.

Bosten, J. M.

A. J. Lawrance-Owen, G. Bargary, J. M. Bosten, P. T. Goodbourn, R. E. Hogg, and J. D. Mollon, “Genetic association suggests that SMOC1 mediates between prenatal sex hormones and digit ratio,” Hum. Genet. 132, 415–421 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Bosten and D. I. A. MacLeod, “Mechanisms of the dimming and brightening after-effects,” J. Vision 13(6), 11 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. T. Goodbourn, J. M. Bosten, R. E. Hogg, G. Bargary, A. J. Lawrance-Owen, and J. D. Mollon, “Do different ‘magnocellular tasks’ probe the same neural substrate?” Proc. R. Soc. B 279, 4263–4271 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Lawrance-Owen, J. M. Bosten, R. E. Hogg, G. Bargary, P. T. Goodbourn, and J. D. Mollon, “Counterphase flicker photometry: phenotypic and genotypic associations,” this issue of J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (to be published).

Boynton, R. M.

D. I. A. MacLeod and R. M. Boynton, “Chromaticity diagram showing cone excitation by stimuli of equal luminance,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 69, 1183–1186 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Calkins, D. J.

D. J. Calkins, Y. Tsukamoto, and P. Sterling, “Microcircuitry and mosaic of a blue–yellow ganglion cell in the primate retina,” J. Neurosci. 18, 3373–3385 (1994).

Cantley, L. C.

Y. Yu, S. O. Yoon, G. Poulogiannis, Q. Yang, X. M. Ma, J. Villén, N. Kubica, G. R. Hoffman, L. C. Cantley, S. Gygi, and J. Blenis, “Quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis identifies the adaptor protein Grb10 as an mTORC1 substrate that negatively regulates insulin signaling,” Science 332, 1322–1326 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Carr, R. E.

V. C. Greenstein, D. C. Hood, R. Ritch, D. Steinberger, and R. E. Carr, “S (blue) cone pathway vulnerability in retinitis pigmentosa, diabetes and glaucoma,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 30, 1732–1737 (1989).

Carroll, E. A.

E. A. Carroll, D. Gerrelli, S. Gasca, E. Berg, D. R. Beier, A. J. Copp, and J. Klingensmith, “Cordon-bleu is a conserved gene involved in neural tube formation,” Dev. Biol. 262, 16–31 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Y.-P. C.

E. Rampersaud, C. M. Damcott, M. Fu, H. Shen, P. McArdle, X. Shi, J. Shelton, J. Yin, Y.-P. C. Chang, S. H. Ott, L. Zhang, Y. Zhao, B. D. Mitchell, J. O’Connell, and A. R. Shuldiner, “Evidence for replication from diabetes-related quantitative traits and from independent populations,” Diabetes 56, 3053–3062 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chichilnisky, E. J.

G. D. Field, J. L. Gauthier, A. Sher, M. Greschner, T. A. Machado, L. H. Jepson, J. Shlens, D. E. Gunning, K. Mathieson, W. Dabrowski, L. Paninski, A. Litke, and E. J. Chichilnisky, “Functional connectivity in the retina at the resolution of photoreceptors,” Nature 467, 673–677 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chiodini, I.

F. Ermetici, F. Donadio, L. Iorio, A. E. Malavazos, A. Dolci, E. Peverelli, A. M. Barbierri, L. Morricone, I. Chiodini, M. Arosio, A. Lania, P. Beck-Peccoz, B. Ambrosi, and S. Corbbetta, “Peripheral insulin-like factor 3 concentrations are reduced in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus: effect of glycemic control and visceral adiposity on Leydig cell function,” Eur. J. Endocrinol. 161, 853–859 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cohan, S.

J. DeGutis, J. Wilmer, R. J. Mercado, and S. Cohan, “Using regression to measure holistic face processing reveals a strong link with face recognition ability,” Cognition 126, 87–100 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Copp, A. J.

E. A. Carroll, D. Gerrelli, S. Gasca, E. Berg, D. R. Beier, A. J. Copp, and J. Klingensmith, “Cordon-bleu is a conserved gene involved in neural tube formation,” Dev. Biol. 262, 16–31 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Corbbetta, S.

F. Ermetici, F. Donadio, L. Iorio, A. E. Malavazos, A. Dolci, E. Peverelli, A. M. Barbierri, L. Morricone, I. Chiodini, M. Arosio, A. Lania, P. Beck-Peccoz, B. Ambrosi, and S. Corbbetta, “Peripheral insulin-like factor 3 concentrations are reduced in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus: effect of glycemic control and visceral adiposity on Leydig cell function,” Eur. J. Endocrinol. 161, 853–859 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Costa, M. F.

D. F. Ventura, L. C. L. Silveria, A. R. Rodrigues, J. M. de Souza, M. Gualtieri, D. Bonci, and M. F. Costa, “Preliminary norms for the Cambridge colour test,” in Normal and Defective Colour Vision, J. D. Mollon, J. Pokomy, and K. Knoblauch, eds. (Oxford University, 2003) pp. 331–339.

Custer, L.

R. Ahuja, R. Pinyol, N. Reichenbach, L. Custer, J. Klingensmith, M. M. Kessels, and B. Qualmann, “Cordon-bleu is an actin nucleation factor and controls neuronal morphology,” Cell. 131, 337–350 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dabrowski, W.

G. D. Field, J. L. Gauthier, A. Sher, M. Greschner, T. A. Machado, L. H. Jepson, J. Shlens, D. E. Gunning, K. Mathieson, W. Dabrowski, L. Paninski, A. Litke, and E. J. Chichilnisky, “Functional connectivity in the retina at the resolution of photoreceptors,” Nature 467, 673–677 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dacey, D. M.

D. M. Dacey, H. W. Liao, B. B. Peterson, F. R. Robinson, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, K.-W. Yau, and P. D. Gamlin, “Melanopsin-expressing ganglion cells in primate retina signal colour and irradiance and project to the LGN,” Nature, 433, 749–754 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Dacey and B. B. Lee, “The ‘blue-on’ opponent pathway in primate retina originates from a distinct bistratified ganglion cell type,” Nature 367, 731–735 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Dacey, “Origins of perception: retinal ganglion cell diversity and the creation of parallel visual pathways,” in The Cognitive Neurosciences, M. Gazzaniga, ed. (MIT, 2004), pp. 281–301.

Daly, M. J.

S. Purcell, B. Neale, K. Todd-Brown, L. Thomas, M. A. Ferreira, D. Bender, J. Maller, P. Sklar, P. I. de Bakker, M. J. Daly, and P. C. Sham, “PLINK: a tool set for whole-genome association and population-based linkage analyses,” Am. J. Hum. Genet. 81, 559–575 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Damcott, C. M.

E. Rampersaud, C. M. Damcott, M. Fu, H. Shen, P. McArdle, X. Shi, J. Shelton, J. Yin, Y.-P. C. Chang, S. H. Ott, L. Zhang, Y. Zhao, B. D. Mitchell, J. O’Connell, and A. R. Shuldiner, “Evidence for replication from diabetes-related quantitative traits and from independent populations,” Diabetes 56, 3053–3062 (2007).
[CrossRef]

de Bakker, P. I.

S. Purcell, B. Neale, K. Todd-Brown, L. Thomas, M. A. Ferreira, D. Bender, J. Maller, P. Sklar, P. I. de Bakker, M. J. Daly, and P. C. Sham, “PLINK: a tool set for whole-genome association and population-based linkage analyses,” Am. J. Hum. Genet. 81, 559–575 (2007).
[CrossRef]

de Souza, J. M.

D. F. Ventura, L. C. L. Silveria, A. R. Rodrigues, J. M. de Souza, M. Gualtieri, D. Bonci, and M. F. Costa, “Preliminary norms for the Cambridge colour test,” in Normal and Defective Colour Vision, J. D. Mollon, J. Pokomy, and K. Knoblauch, eds. (Oxford University, 2003) pp. 331–339.

DeGutis, J.

J. DeGutis, J. Wilmer, R. J. Mercado, and S. Cohan, “Using regression to measure holistic face processing reveals a strong link with face recognition ability,” Cognition 126, 87–100 (2013).
[CrossRef]

DeMarco, P. J.

Deng, Q.

E. Andersson, U. Tryggvason, Q. Deng, S. Friling, Z. Alekseenko, B. Robert, T. Perlmann, and J. Ericson, “Identification of intrinsic determinants of midbrain dopamine neurons,” Cell. 124, 393–405 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dolci, A.

F. Ermetici, F. Donadio, L. Iorio, A. E. Malavazos, A. Dolci, E. Peverelli, A. M. Barbierri, L. Morricone, I. Chiodini, M. Arosio, A. Lania, P. Beck-Peccoz, B. Ambrosi, and S. Corbbetta, “Peripheral insulin-like factor 3 concentrations are reduced in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus: effect of glycemic control and visceral adiposity on Leydig cell function,” Eur. J. Endocrinol. 161, 853–859 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Donadio, F.

F. Ermetici, F. Donadio, L. Iorio, A. E. Malavazos, A. Dolci, E. Peverelli, A. M. Barbierri, L. Morricone, I. Chiodini, M. Arosio, A. Lania, P. Beck-Peccoz, B. Ambrosi, and S. Corbbetta, “Peripheral insulin-like factor 3 concentrations are reduced in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus: effect of glycemic control and visceral adiposity on Leydig cell function,” Eur. J. Endocrinol. 161, 853–859 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Donnellan, M. B.

M. B. Donnellan, F. L. Oswalk, B. M. Baird, and R. E. Lucas, “The mini-IPIP scales: tiny-yet-effective measures of the big five factors of personality,” Psychol. Assess. 18, 192–203 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Donnelly, P.

B. N. Howie, P. Donnelly, and J. Marchini, “A flexible and accurate genotype imputation method for the next generation of genome-wide association studies,” PLoS Genet. 5, e1000529 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ericson, J.

E. Andersson, U. Tryggvason, Q. Deng, S. Friling, Z. Alekseenko, B. Robert, T. Perlmann, and J. Ericson, “Identification of intrinsic determinants of midbrain dopamine neurons,” Cell. 124, 393–405 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ermetici, F.

F. Ermetici, F. Donadio, L. Iorio, A. E. Malavazos, A. Dolci, E. Peverelli, A. M. Barbierri, L. Morricone, I. Chiodini, M. Arosio, A. Lania, P. Beck-Peccoz, B. Ambrosi, and S. Corbbetta, “Peripheral insulin-like factor 3 concentrations are reduced in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus: effect of glycemic control and visceral adiposity on Leydig cell function,” Eur. J. Endocrinol. 161, 853–859 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ferreira, M. A.

S. Purcell, B. Neale, K. Todd-Brown, L. Thomas, M. A. Ferreira, D. Bender, J. Maller, P. Sklar, P. I. de Bakker, M. J. Daly, and P. C. Sham, “PLINK: a tool set for whole-genome association and population-based linkage analyses,” Am. J. Hum. Genet. 81, 559–575 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Field, G. D.

G. D. Field, J. L. Gauthier, A. Sher, M. Greschner, T. A. Machado, L. H. Jepson, J. Shlens, D. E. Gunning, K. Mathieson, W. Dabrowski, L. Paninski, A. Litke, and E. J. Chichilnisky, “Functional connectivity in the retina at the resolution of photoreceptors,” Nature 467, 673–677 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Friling, S.

E. Andersson, U. Tryggvason, Q. Deng, S. Friling, Z. Alekseenko, B. Robert, T. Perlmann, and J. Ericson, “Identification of intrinsic determinants of midbrain dopamine neurons,” Cell. 124, 393–405 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fu, M.

E. Rampersaud, C. M. Damcott, M. Fu, H. Shen, P. McArdle, X. Shi, J. Shelton, J. Yin, Y.-P. C. Chang, S. H. Ott, L. Zhang, Y. Zhao, B. D. Mitchell, J. O’Connell, and A. R. Shuldiner, “Evidence for replication from diabetes-related quantitative traits and from independent populations,” Diabetes 56, 3053–3062 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, N.

D. An, T. Toyoda, E. B. Taylor, H. Yu, N. Fujii, M. F. Hirshman, and L. J. Goodyear, “TBC1D1 regulates insulin- and contraction-induced glucose transport in mouse skeletal muscle,” Diabetes 59, 1358–1365 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gamlin, P. D.

D. M. Dacey, H. W. Liao, B. B. Peterson, F. R. Robinson, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, K.-W. Yau, and P. D. Gamlin, “Melanopsin-expressing ganglion cells in primate retina signal colour and irradiance and project to the LGN,” Nature, 433, 749–754 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gasca, S.

E. A. Carroll, D. Gerrelli, S. Gasca, E. Berg, D. R. Beier, A. J. Copp, and J. Klingensmith, “Cordon-bleu is a conserved gene involved in neural tube formation,” Dev. Biol. 262, 16–31 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gauthier, J. L.

G. D. Field, J. L. Gauthier, A. Sher, M. Greschner, T. A. Machado, L. H. Jepson, J. Shlens, D. E. Gunning, K. Mathieson, W. Dabrowski, L. Paninski, A. Litke, and E. J. Chichilnisky, “Functional connectivity in the retina at the resolution of photoreceptors,” Nature 467, 673–677 (2010).
[CrossRef]

German, M.

M. German and J. Wang, “Localization of the genes encoding two transcription factors, LMX1 and CDX3, regulating insulin gene expression to human chromosomes 1 and 13,” Genomics 24, 403–404 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gerrelli, D.

E. A. Carroll, D. Gerrelli, S. Gasca, E. Berg, D. R. Beier, A. J. Copp, and J. Klingensmith, “Cordon-bleu is a conserved gene involved in neural tube formation,” Dev. Biol. 262, 16–31 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Goodbourn, P. T.

A. J. Lawrance-Owen, G. Bargary, J. M. Bosten, P. T. Goodbourn, R. E. Hogg, and J. D. Mollon, “Genetic association suggests that SMOC1 mediates between prenatal sex hormones and digit ratio,” Hum. Genet. 132, 415–421 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. T. Goodbourn, J. M. Bosten, R. E. Hogg, G. Bargary, A. J. Lawrance-Owen, and J. D. Mollon, “Do different ‘magnocellular tasks’ probe the same neural substrate?” Proc. R. Soc. B 279, 4263–4271 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Lawrance-Owen, J. M. Bosten, R. E. Hogg, G. Bargary, P. T. Goodbourn, and J. D. Mollon, “Counterphase flicker photometry: phenotypic and genotypic associations,” this issue of J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (to be published).

Goodyear, L. J.

D. An, T. Toyoda, E. B. Taylor, H. Yu, N. Fujii, M. F. Hirshman, and L. J. Goodyear, “TBC1D1 regulates insulin- and contraction-induced glucose transport in mouse skeletal muscle,” Diabetes 59, 1358–1365 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Greenstein, V. C.

V. C. Greenstein, A. Shapiro, D. C. Hood, and Q. Zaidi, “Chromatic and luminance sensitivity in diabetes and glaucoma,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1785–1791 (1993).
[CrossRef]

V. C. Greenstein, D. C. Hood, R. Ritch, D. Steinberger, and R. E. Carr, “S (blue) cone pathway vulnerability in retinitis pigmentosa, diabetes and glaucoma,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 30, 1732–1737 (1989).

Greschner, M.

G. D. Field, J. L. Gauthier, A. Sher, M. Greschner, T. A. Machado, L. H. Jepson, J. Shlens, D. E. Gunning, K. Mathieson, W. Dabrowski, L. Paninski, A. Litke, and E. J. Chichilnisky, “Functional connectivity in the retina at the resolution of photoreceptors,” Nature 467, 673–677 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Grigsby, S. S.

P. E. King-Smith, S. S. Grigsby, A. J. Vingrys, S. C. Benes, and A. Supowit, “Efficient and unbiased modifications of the QUEST threshold method: theory, simulations, experimental evaluation and practical implementation,” Vis. Res. 34, 885–912 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gualtieri, M.

D. F. Ventura, L. C. L. Silveria, A. R. Rodrigues, J. M. de Souza, M. Gualtieri, D. Bonci, and M. F. Costa, “Preliminary norms for the Cambridge colour test,” in Normal and Defective Colour Vision, J. D. Mollon, J. Pokomy, and K. Knoblauch, eds. (Oxford University, 2003) pp. 331–339.

Gunning, D. E.

G. D. Field, J. L. Gauthier, A. Sher, M. Greschner, T. A. Machado, L. H. Jepson, J. Shlens, D. E. Gunning, K. Mathieson, W. Dabrowski, L. Paninski, A. Litke, and E. J. Chichilnisky, “Functional connectivity in the retina at the resolution of photoreceptors,” Nature 467, 673–677 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gygi, S.

Y. Yu, S. O. Yoon, G. Poulogiannis, Q. Yang, X. M. Ma, J. Villén, N. Kubica, G. R. Hoffman, L. C. Cantley, S. Gygi, and J. Blenis, “Quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis identifies the adaptor protein Grb10 as an mTORC1 substrate that negatively regulates insulin signaling,” Science 332, 1322–1326 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hendrickson, A.

M. R. Roberts, A. Hendrickson, C. R. McGuire, and T. A. Reh, “Retinoid X receptor γ is necessary to establish the S-opsin gradient in cone photoreceptors of the developing mouse retina,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46, 2897–2904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Herr, S.

K. Klug, S. Herr, I. T. Ngo, P. Sterling, and S. Schein, “Macaque retina contains an S-cone OFF midget pathway,” J. Neurosci. 23, 9881–9887 (2003).

Hirshman, M. F.

D. An, T. Toyoda, E. B. Taylor, H. Yu, N. Fujii, M. F. Hirshman, and L. J. Goodyear, “TBC1D1 regulates insulin- and contraction-induced glucose transport in mouse skeletal muscle,” Diabetes 59, 1358–1365 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hoffman, G. R.

Y. Yu, S. O. Yoon, G. Poulogiannis, Q. Yang, X. M. Ma, J. Villén, N. Kubica, G. R. Hoffman, L. C. Cantley, S. Gygi, and J. Blenis, “Quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis identifies the adaptor protein Grb10 as an mTORC1 substrate that negatively regulates insulin signaling,” Science 332, 1322–1326 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hogg, R. E.

A. J. Lawrance-Owen, G. Bargary, J. M. Bosten, P. T. Goodbourn, R. E. Hogg, and J. D. Mollon, “Genetic association suggests that SMOC1 mediates between prenatal sex hormones and digit ratio,” Hum. Genet. 132, 415–421 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. T. Goodbourn, J. M. Bosten, R. E. Hogg, G. Bargary, A. J. Lawrance-Owen, and J. D. Mollon, “Do different ‘magnocellular tasks’ probe the same neural substrate?” Proc. R. Soc. B 279, 4263–4271 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Lawrance-Owen, J. M. Bosten, R. E. Hogg, G. Bargary, P. T. Goodbourn, and J. D. Mollon, “Counterphase flicker photometry: phenotypic and genotypic associations,” this issue of J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (to be published).

Holman, G. D.

K. Sakamoto and G. D. Holman, “Emerging role for AS160/TBC1D4 and TBC1D1 in the regulation of GLUT4 traffic,” Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. 295, E29–E37 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hood, D. C.

V. C. Greenstein, A. Shapiro, D. C. Hood, and Q. Zaidi, “Chromatic and luminance sensitivity in diabetes and glaucoma,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1785–1791 (1993).
[CrossRef]

V. C. Greenstein, D. C. Hood, R. Ritch, D. Steinberger, and R. E. Carr, “S (blue) cone pathway vulnerability in retinitis pigmentosa, diabetes and glaucoma,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 30, 1732–1737 (1989).

Howie, B.

B. Howie, J. Marchini, and M. Stephens, “Genotype imputation with thousands of genomes,” G3: Genes, Genomes, Genet. 1, 457–470 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Howie, B. N.

B. N. Howie, P. Donnelly, and J. Marchini, “A flexible and accurate genotype imputation method for the next generation of genome-wide association studies,” PLoS Genet. 5, e1000529 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hughes, A.

Iorio, L.

F. Ermetici, F. Donadio, L. Iorio, A. E. Malavazos, A. Dolci, E. Peverelli, A. M. Barbierri, L. Morricone, I. Chiodini, M. Arosio, A. Lania, P. Beck-Peccoz, B. Ambrosi, and S. Corbbetta, “Peripheral insulin-like factor 3 concentrations are reduced in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus: effect of glycemic control and visceral adiposity on Leydig cell function,” Eur. J. Endocrinol. 161, 853–859 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jepson, L. H.

G. D. Field, J. L. Gauthier, A. Sher, M. Greschner, T. A. Machado, L. H. Jepson, J. Shlens, D. E. Gunning, K. Mathieson, W. Dabrowski, L. Paninski, A. Litke, and E. J. Chichilnisky, “Functional connectivity in the retina at the resolution of photoreceptors,” Nature 467, 673–677 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, C. A.

Kelly, D. H.

Kessels, M. M.

R. Ahuja, R. Pinyol, N. Reichenbach, L. Custer, J. Klingensmith, M. M. Kessels, and B. Qualmann, “Cordon-bleu is an actin nucleation factor and controls neuronal morphology,” Cell. 131, 337–350 (2007).
[CrossRef]

King-Smith, P. E.

P. E. King-Smith, S. S. Grigsby, A. J. Vingrys, S. C. Benes, and A. Supowit, “Efficient and unbiased modifications of the QUEST threshold method: theory, simulations, experimental evaluation and practical implementation,” Vis. Res. 34, 885–912 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Klingensmith, J.

R. Ahuja, R. Pinyol, N. Reichenbach, L. Custer, J. Klingensmith, M. M. Kessels, and B. Qualmann, “Cordon-bleu is an actin nucleation factor and controls neuronal morphology,” Cell. 131, 337–350 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Carroll, D. Gerrelli, S. Gasca, E. Berg, D. R. Beier, A. J. Copp, and J. Klingensmith, “Cordon-bleu is a conserved gene involved in neural tube formation,” Dev. Biol. 262, 16–31 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Klug, K.

K. Klug, S. Herr, I. T. Ngo, P. Sterling, and S. Schein, “Macaque retina contains an S-cone OFF midget pathway,” J. Neurosci. 23, 9881–9887 (2003).

Krauskopf, J.

J. Krauskopf and Q. Zaidi, “Induced desensitization,” Vis. Res. 26, 759–762 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Kubica, N.

Y. Yu, S. O. Yoon, G. Poulogiannis, Q. Yang, X. M. Ma, J. Villén, N. Kubica, G. R. Hoffman, L. C. Cantley, S. Gygi, and J. Blenis, “Quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis identifies the adaptor protein Grb10 as an mTORC1 substrate that negatively regulates insulin signaling,” Science 332, 1322–1326 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lania, A.

F. Ermetici, F. Donadio, L. Iorio, A. E. Malavazos, A. Dolci, E. Peverelli, A. M. Barbierri, L. Morricone, I. Chiodini, M. Arosio, A. Lania, P. Beck-Peccoz, B. Ambrosi, and S. Corbbetta, “Peripheral insulin-like factor 3 concentrations are reduced in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus: effect of glycemic control and visceral adiposity on Leydig cell function,” Eur. J. Endocrinol. 161, 853–859 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lawrance-Owen, A. J.

A. J. Lawrance-Owen, G. Bargary, J. M. Bosten, P. T. Goodbourn, R. E. Hogg, and J. D. Mollon, “Genetic association suggests that SMOC1 mediates between prenatal sex hormones and digit ratio,” Hum. Genet. 132, 415–421 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. T. Goodbourn, J. M. Bosten, R. E. Hogg, G. Bargary, A. J. Lawrance-Owen, and J. D. Mollon, “Do different ‘magnocellular tasks’ probe the same neural substrate?” Proc. R. Soc. B 279, 4263–4271 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Lawrance-Owen, J. M. Bosten, R. E. Hogg, G. Bargary, P. T. Goodbourn, and J. D. Mollon, “Counterphase flicker photometry: phenotypic and genotypic associations,” this issue of J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (to be published).

Lee, B. B.

D. M. Dacey and B. B. Lee, “The ‘blue-on’ opponent pathway in primate retina originates from a distinct bistratified ganglion cell type,” Nature 367, 731–735 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Valberg, B. B. Lee, and D. A. Tigwell, “Neurones with strong inhibitory S-cone inputs in the macaque lateral geniculate nucleus,” Vis. Res. 26, 1061–1064 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Lee, W. C.

W. Y. Lin and W. C. Lee, “Incorporating prior knowledge to facilitate discoveries in a genome-wide association study on age-related macular degeneration,” BMC Res. Notes 3, 26 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lennie, P.

C. Tailby, S. G. Solomon, and P. Lennie, “Functional asymmetries in visual pathways carrying S-cone signals in macaque,” J. Neurosci. 28, 4078–4087 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Leonova, A.

A. Leonova, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Spatial frequency processing in inferred PC- and MC-pathways,” Vis. Res. 43, 2133–2139 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Leung, A. Y.

K. T. Mullen, A. Y. Leung, and A. Baxter, “Changes in S-cone increment and decrement sensitivity as a function of age and eccentricity,” J. Vision 8(17), 71 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liao, H. W.

D. M. Dacey, H. W. Liao, B. B. Peterson, F. R. Robinson, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, K.-W. Yau, and P. D. Gamlin, “Melanopsin-expressing ganglion cells in primate retina signal colour and irradiance and project to the LGN,” Nature, 433, 749–754 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lin, W. Y.

W. Y. Lin and W. C. Lee, “Incorporating prior knowledge to facilitate discoveries in a genome-wide association study on age-related macular degeneration,” BMC Res. Notes 3, 26 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Linfoot, J.

M. Schneck, A. Adams, V. Volbrecht, and J. Linfoot, “Acute changes in blood glucose and their effects on color vision function,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies XI, B. Drum, ed. (Kluwer Academic, 1993), pp. 165–173.

Litke, A.

G. D. Field, J. L. Gauthier, A. Sher, M. Greschner, T. A. Machado, L. H. Jepson, J. Shlens, D. E. Gunning, K. Mathieson, W. Dabrowski, L. Paninski, A. Litke, and E. J. Chichilnisky, “Functional connectivity in the retina at the resolution of photoreceptors,” Nature 467, 673–677 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lucas, R. E.

M. B. Donnellan, F. L. Oswalk, B. M. Baird, and R. E. Lucas, “The mini-IPIP scales: tiny-yet-effective measures of the big five factors of personality,” Psychol. Assess. 18, 192–203 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ma, X. M.

Y. Yu, S. O. Yoon, G. Poulogiannis, Q. Yang, X. M. Ma, J. Villén, N. Kubica, G. R. Hoffman, L. C. Cantley, S. Gygi, and J. Blenis, “Quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis identifies the adaptor protein Grb10 as an mTORC1 substrate that negatively regulates insulin signaling,” Science 332, 1322–1326 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Machado, T. A.

G. D. Field, J. L. Gauthier, A. Sher, M. Greschner, T. A. Machado, L. H. Jepson, J. Shlens, D. E. Gunning, K. Mathieson, W. Dabrowski, L. Paninski, A. Litke, and E. J. Chichilnisky, “Functional connectivity in the retina at the resolution of photoreceptors,” Nature 467, 673–677 (2010).
[CrossRef]

MacLeod, D. I. A.

J. M. Bosten and D. I. A. MacLeod, “Mechanisms of the dimming and brightening after-effects,” J. Vision 13(6), 11 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. I. A. MacLeod and R. M. Boynton, “Chromaticity diagram showing cone excitation by stimuli of equal luminance,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 69, 1183–1186 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Malavazos, A. E.

F. Ermetici, F. Donadio, L. Iorio, A. E. Malavazos, A. Dolci, E. Peverelli, A. M. Barbierri, L. Morricone, I. Chiodini, M. Arosio, A. Lania, P. Beck-Peccoz, B. Ambrosi, and S. Corbbetta, “Peripheral insulin-like factor 3 concentrations are reduced in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus: effect of glycemic control and visceral adiposity on Leydig cell function,” Eur. J. Endocrinol. 161, 853–859 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Maller, J.

S. Purcell, B. Neale, K. Todd-Brown, L. Thomas, M. A. Ferreira, D. Bender, J. Maller, P. Sklar, P. I. de Bakker, M. J. Daly, and P. C. Sham, “PLINK: a tool set for whole-genome association and population-based linkage analyses,” Am. J. Hum. Genet. 81, 559–575 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Marchini, J.

B. Howie, J. Marchini, and M. Stephens, “Genotype imputation with thousands of genomes,” G3: Genes, Genomes, Genet. 1, 457–470 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Howie, P. Donnelly, and J. Marchini, “A flexible and accurate genotype imputation method for the next generation of genome-wide association studies,” PLoS Genet. 5, e1000529 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mathieson, K.

G. D. Field, J. L. Gauthier, A. Sher, M. Greschner, T. A. Machado, L. H. Jepson, J. Shlens, D. E. Gunning, K. Mathieson, W. Dabrowski, L. Paninski, A. Litke, and E. J. Chichilnisky, “Functional connectivity in the retina at the resolution of photoreceptors,” Nature 467, 673–677 (2010).
[CrossRef]

McArdle, P.

E. Rampersaud, C. M. Damcott, M. Fu, H. Shen, P. McArdle, X. Shi, J. Shelton, J. Yin, Y.-P. C. Chang, S. H. Ott, L. Zhang, Y. Zhao, B. D. Mitchell, J. O’Connell, and A. R. Shuldiner, “Evidence for replication from diabetes-related quantitative traits and from independent populations,” Diabetes 56, 3053–3062 (2007).
[CrossRef]

McGuire, C. R.

M. R. Roberts, A. Hendrickson, C. R. McGuire, and T. A. Reh, “Retinoid X receptor γ is necessary to establish the S-opsin gradient in cone photoreceptors of the developing mouse retina,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46, 2897–2904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mercado, R. J.

J. DeGutis, J. Wilmer, R. J. Mercado, and S. Cohan, “Using regression to measure holistic face processing reveals a strong link with face recognition ability,” Cognition 126, 87–100 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Mihaylova, M. S.

A. Vassilev, M. S. Mihaylova, K. Racheva, M. Zlatkova, and R. S. Anderson, “Spatial summation of S-cone on and off signals: effects of retinal eccentricity,” Vis. Res. 43, 2875–2884 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, B. D.

E. Rampersaud, C. M. Damcott, M. Fu, H. Shen, P. McArdle, X. Shi, J. Shelton, J. Yin, Y.-P. C. Chang, S. H. Ott, L. Zhang, Y. Zhao, B. D. Mitchell, J. O’Connell, and A. R. Shuldiner, “Evidence for replication from diabetes-related quantitative traits and from independent populations,” Diabetes 56, 3053–3062 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mollon, J. D.

A. J. Lawrance-Owen, G. Bargary, J. M. Bosten, P. T. Goodbourn, R. E. Hogg, and J. D. Mollon, “Genetic association suggests that SMOC1 mediates between prenatal sex hormones and digit ratio,” Hum. Genet. 132, 415–421 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. T. Goodbourn, J. M. Bosten, R. E. Hogg, G. Bargary, A. J. Lawrance-Owen, and J. D. Mollon, “Do different ‘magnocellular tasks’ probe the same neural substrate?” Proc. R. Soc. B 279, 4263–4271 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Regan, J. P. Reffin, and J. D. Mollon, “Luminance noise and the rapid determination of discrimination ellipses in colour deficiency,” Vis. Res. 34, 1279–1299 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Lawrance-Owen, J. M. Bosten, R. E. Hogg, G. Bargary, P. T. Goodbourn, and J. D. Mollon, “Counterphase flicker photometry: phenotypic and genotypic associations,” this issue of J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (to be published).

Morricone, L.

F. Ermetici, F. Donadio, L. Iorio, A. E. Malavazos, A. Dolci, E. Peverelli, A. M. Barbierri, L. Morricone, I. Chiodini, M. Arosio, A. Lania, P. Beck-Peccoz, B. Ambrosi, and S. Corbbetta, “Peripheral insulin-like factor 3 concentrations are reduced in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus: effect of glycemic control and visceral adiposity on Leydig cell function,” Eur. J. Endocrinol. 161, 853–859 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mullen, K. T.

K. T. Mullen, A. Y. Leung, and A. Baxter, “Changes in S-cone increment and decrement sensitivity as a function of age and eccentricity,” J. Vision 8(17), 71 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Neale, B.

S. Purcell, B. Neale, K. Todd-Brown, L. Thomas, M. A. Ferreira, D. Bender, J. Maller, P. Sklar, P. I. de Bakker, M. J. Daly, and P. C. Sham, “PLINK: a tool set for whole-genome association and population-based linkage analyses,” Am. J. Hum. Genet. 81, 559–575 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ngo, I. T.

K. Klug, S. Herr, I. T. Ngo, P. Sterling, and S. Schein, “Macaque retina contains an S-cone OFF midget pathway,” J. Neurosci. 23, 9881–9887 (2003).

O’Connell, J.

E. Rampersaud, C. M. Damcott, M. Fu, H. Shen, P. McArdle, X. Shi, J. Shelton, J. Yin, Y.-P. C. Chang, S. H. Ott, L. Zhang, Y. Zhao, B. D. Mitchell, J. O’Connell, and A. R. Shuldiner, “Evidence for replication from diabetes-related quantitative traits and from independent populations,” Diabetes 56, 3053–3062 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Oswalk, F. L.

M. B. Donnellan, F. L. Oswalk, B. M. Baird, and R. E. Lucas, “The mini-IPIP scales: tiny-yet-effective measures of the big five factors of personality,” Psychol. Assess. 18, 192–203 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ott, S. H.

E. Rampersaud, C. M. Damcott, M. Fu, H. Shen, P. McArdle, X. Shi, J. Shelton, J. Yin, Y.-P. C. Chang, S. H. Ott, L. Zhang, Y. Zhao, B. D. Mitchell, J. O’Connell, and A. R. Shuldiner, “Evidence for replication from diabetes-related quantitative traits and from independent populations,” Diabetes 56, 3053–3062 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Paninski, L.

G. D. Field, J. L. Gauthier, A. Sher, M. Greschner, T. A. Machado, L. H. Jepson, J. Shlens, D. E. Gunning, K. Mathieson, W. Dabrowski, L. Paninski, A. Litke, and E. J. Chichilnisky, “Functional connectivity in the retina at the resolution of photoreceptors,” Nature 467, 673–677 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Paramei, G. V.

Patterson, N. J.

A. L. Price, N. J. Patterson, R. M. Plenge, M. E. Weinblatt, N. A. Shadick, and D. Reich, “Principal components analysis corrects for stratification in genome-wide association studies,” Nat. Genet. 38, 904–909 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pelli, D.

D. Pelli, J. Robson, and A. Wilkins, “The design of a new letter chart for measuring contrast sensitivity,” Clin Vis. Sci. 2, 187–199 (1988).

Pelli, D. G.

A. B. Watson and D. G. Pelli, “QUEST: a Bayesian adaptive psychometric method,” Percept. Psychophys. 33, 113–120 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Perlmann, T.

E. Andersson, U. Tryggvason, Q. Deng, S. Friling, Z. Alekseenko, B. Robert, T. Perlmann, and J. Ericson, “Identification of intrinsic determinants of midbrain dopamine neurons,” Cell. 124, 393–405 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Peterson, B. B.

D. M. Dacey, H. W. Liao, B. B. Peterson, F. R. Robinson, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, K.-W. Yau, and P. D. Gamlin, “Melanopsin-expressing ganglion cells in primate retina signal colour and irradiance and project to the LGN,” Nature, 433, 749–754 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Peterzell, D. H.

D. H. Peterzell and D. Y. Teller, “Spatial frequency tuned covariance channels for red–green and luminance-modulated gratings: psychophysical data from human adults,” Vis. Res. 40, 417–430 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Peverelli, E.

F. Ermetici, F. Donadio, L. Iorio, A. E. Malavazos, A. Dolci, E. Peverelli, A. M. Barbierri, L. Morricone, I. Chiodini, M. Arosio, A. Lania, P. Beck-Peccoz, B. Ambrosi, and S. Corbbetta, “Peripheral insulin-like factor 3 concentrations are reduced in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus: effect of glycemic control and visceral adiposity on Leydig cell function,” Eur. J. Endocrinol. 161, 853–859 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pinckers, A. J. L. G.

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, G. Verriest, and A. J. L. G. Pinckers, Congenital and Acquired Color Vision Defects (Grune & Stratton, 1979).

Pinyol, R.

R. Ahuja, R. Pinyol, N. Reichenbach, L. Custer, J. Klingensmith, M. M. Kessels, and B. Qualmann, “Cordon-bleu is an actin nucleation factor and controls neuronal morphology,” Cell. 131, 337–350 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Plenge, R. M.

A. L. Price, N. J. Patterson, R. M. Plenge, M. E. Weinblatt, N. A. Shadick, and D. Reich, “Principal components analysis corrects for stratification in genome-wide association studies,” Nat. Genet. 38, 904–909 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pokorny, J.

D. M. Dacey, H. W. Liao, B. B. Peterson, F. R. Robinson, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, K.-W. Yau, and P. D. Gamlin, “Melanopsin-expressing ganglion cells in primate retina signal colour and irradiance and project to the LGN,” Nature, 433, 749–754 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Leonova, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Spatial frequency processing in inferred PC- and MC-pathways,” Vis. Res. 43, 2133–2139 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. C. Smith and J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500 nm,” Vis. Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, G. Verriest, and A. J. L. G. Pinckers, Congenital and Acquired Color Vision Defects (Grune & Stratton, 1979).

Poulogiannis, G.

Y. Yu, S. O. Yoon, G. Poulogiannis, Q. Yang, X. M. Ma, J. Villén, N. Kubica, G. R. Hoffman, L. C. Cantley, S. Gygi, and J. Blenis, “Quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis identifies the adaptor protein Grb10 as an mTORC1 substrate that negatively regulates insulin signaling,” Science 332, 1322–1326 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Price, A. L.

A. L. Price, N. J. Patterson, R. M. Plenge, M. E. Weinblatt, N. A. Shadick, and D. Reich, “Principal components analysis corrects for stratification in genome-wide association studies,” Nat. Genet. 38, 904–909 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Purcell, S.

S. Purcell, B. Neale, K. Todd-Brown, L. Thomas, M. A. Ferreira, D. Bender, J. Maller, P. Sklar, P. I. de Bakker, M. J. Daly, and P. C. Sham, “PLINK: a tool set for whole-genome association and population-based linkage analyses,” Am. J. Hum. Genet. 81, 559–575 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Qualmann, B.

R. Ahuja, R. Pinyol, N. Reichenbach, L. Custer, J. Klingensmith, M. M. Kessels, and B. Qualmann, “Cordon-bleu is an actin nucleation factor and controls neuronal morphology,” Cell. 131, 337–350 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Quigg, J. M.

Racheva, K.

A. Vassilev, M. S. Mihaylova, K. Racheva, M. Zlatkova, and R. S. Anderson, “Spatial summation of S-cone on and off signals: effects of retinal eccentricity,” Vis. Res. 43, 2875–2884 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rampersaud, E.

E. Rampersaud, C. M. Damcott, M. Fu, H. Shen, P. McArdle, X. Shi, J. Shelton, J. Yin, Y.-P. C. Chang, S. H. Ott, L. Zhang, Y. Zhao, B. D. Mitchell, J. O’Connell, and A. R. Shuldiner, “Evidence for replication from diabetes-related quantitative traits and from independent populations,” Diabetes 56, 3053–3062 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Reffin, J. P.

B. C. Regan, J. P. Reffin, and J. D. Mollon, “Luminance noise and the rapid determination of discrimination ellipses in colour deficiency,” Vis. Res. 34, 1279–1299 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Regan, B. C.

B. C. Regan, J. P. Reffin, and J. D. Mollon, “Luminance noise and the rapid determination of discrimination ellipses in colour deficiency,” Vis. Res. 34, 1279–1299 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Reh, T. A.

M. R. Roberts, A. Hendrickson, C. R. McGuire, and T. A. Reh, “Retinoid X receptor γ is necessary to establish the S-opsin gradient in cone photoreceptors of the developing mouse retina,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46, 2897–2904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Reich, D.

A. L. Price, N. J. Patterson, R. M. Plenge, M. E. Weinblatt, N. A. Shadick, and D. Reich, “Principal components analysis corrects for stratification in genome-wide association studies,” Nat. Genet. 38, 904–909 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Reichenbach, N.

R. Ahuja, R. Pinyol, N. Reichenbach, L. Custer, J. Klingensmith, M. M. Kessels, and B. Qualmann, “Cordon-bleu is an actin nucleation factor and controls neuronal morphology,” Cell. 131, 337–350 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ritch, R.

V. C. Greenstein, D. C. Hood, R. Ritch, D. Steinberger, and R. E. Carr, “S (blue) cone pathway vulnerability in retinitis pigmentosa, diabetes and glaucoma,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 30, 1732–1737 (1989).

Robert, B.

E. Andersson, U. Tryggvason, Q. Deng, S. Friling, Z. Alekseenko, B. Robert, T. Perlmann, and J. Ericson, “Identification of intrinsic determinants of midbrain dopamine neurons,” Cell. 124, 393–405 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, M. R.

M. R. Roberts, A. Hendrickson, C. R. McGuire, and T. A. Reh, “Retinoid X receptor γ is necessary to establish the S-opsin gradient in cone photoreceptors of the developing mouse retina,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46, 2897–2904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, F. R.

D. M. Dacey, H. W. Liao, B. B. Peterson, F. R. Robinson, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, K.-W. Yau, and P. D. Gamlin, “Melanopsin-expressing ganglion cells in primate retina signal colour and irradiance and project to the LGN,” Nature, 433, 749–754 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Robson, J.

D. Pelli, J. Robson, and A. Wilkins, “The design of a new letter chart for measuring contrast sensitivity,” Clin Vis. Sci. 2, 187–199 (1988).

Rodrigues, A. R.

D. F. Ventura, L. C. L. Silveria, A. R. Rodrigues, J. M. de Souza, M. Gualtieri, D. Bonci, and M. F. Costa, “Preliminary norms for the Cambridge colour test,” in Normal and Defective Colour Vision, J. D. Mollon, J. Pokomy, and K. Knoblauch, eds. (Oxford University, 2003) pp. 331–339.

Sakamoto, K.

K. Sakamoto and G. D. Holman, “Emerging role for AS160/TBC1D4 and TBC1D1 in the regulation of GLUT4 traffic,” Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. 295, E29–E37 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schein, S.

K. Klug, S. Herr, I. T. Ngo, P. Sterling, and S. Schein, “Macaque retina contains an S-cone OFF midget pathway,” J. Neurosci. 23, 9881–9887 (2003).

Schneck, M.

M. Schneck, A. Adams, V. Volbrecht, and J. Linfoot, “Acute changes in blood glucose and their effects on color vision function,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies XI, B. Drum, ed. (Kluwer Academic, 1993), pp. 165–173.

Shadick, N. A.

A. L. Price, N. J. Patterson, R. M. Plenge, M. E. Weinblatt, N. A. Shadick, and D. Reich, “Principal components analysis corrects for stratification in genome-wide association studies,” Nat. Genet. 38, 904–909 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sham, P. C.

S. Purcell, B. Neale, K. Todd-Brown, L. Thomas, M. A. Ferreira, D. Bender, J. Maller, P. Sklar, P. I. de Bakker, M. J. Daly, and P. C. Sham, “PLINK: a tool set for whole-genome association and population-based linkage analyses,” Am. J. Hum. Genet. 81, 559–575 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shapiro, A.

Shelton, J.

E. Rampersaud, C. M. Damcott, M. Fu, H. Shen, P. McArdle, X. Shi, J. Shelton, J. Yin, Y.-P. C. Chang, S. H. Ott, L. Zhang, Y. Zhao, B. D. Mitchell, J. O’Connell, and A. R. Shuldiner, “Evidence for replication from diabetes-related quantitative traits and from independent populations,” Diabetes 56, 3053–3062 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shen, H.

E. Rampersaud, C. M. Damcott, M. Fu, H. Shen, P. McArdle, X. Shi, J. Shelton, J. Yin, Y.-P. C. Chang, S. H. Ott, L. Zhang, Y. Zhao, B. D. Mitchell, J. O’Connell, and A. R. Shuldiner, “Evidence for replication from diabetes-related quantitative traits and from independent populations,” Diabetes 56, 3053–3062 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sher, A.

G. D. Field, J. L. Gauthier, A. Sher, M. Greschner, T. A. Machado, L. H. Jepson, J. Shlens, D. E. Gunning, K. Mathieson, W. Dabrowski, L. Paninski, A. Litke, and E. J. Chichilnisky, “Functional connectivity in the retina at the resolution of photoreceptors,” Nature 467, 673–677 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shi, X.

E. Rampersaud, C. M. Damcott, M. Fu, H. Shen, P. McArdle, X. Shi, J. Shelton, J. Yin, Y.-P. C. Chang, S. H. Ott, L. Zhang, Y. Zhao, B. D. Mitchell, J. O’Connell, and A. R. Shuldiner, “Evidence for replication from diabetes-related quantitative traits and from independent populations,” Diabetes 56, 3053–3062 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shinomori, K.

K. Shinomori, L. Spillmann, and J. S. Werner, “S-cone signals to temporal off-channels: asymmetrical connections to postreceptoral chromatic mechanisms,” Vis. Res. 39, 39–49 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shlens, J.

G. D. Field, J. L. Gauthier, A. Sher, M. Greschner, T. A. Machado, L. H. Jepson, J. Shlens, D. E. Gunning, K. Mathieson, W. Dabrowski, L. Paninski, A. Litke, and E. J. Chichilnisky, “Functional connectivity in the retina at the resolution of photoreceptors,” Nature 467, 673–677 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shuldiner, A. R.

E. Rampersaud, C. M. Damcott, M. Fu, H. Shen, P. McArdle, X. Shi, J. Shelton, J. Yin, Y.-P. C. Chang, S. H. Ott, L. Zhang, Y. Zhao, B. D. Mitchell, J. O’Connell, and A. R. Shuldiner, “Evidence for replication from diabetes-related quantitative traits and from independent populations,” Diabetes 56, 3053–3062 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Silveria, L. C. L.

D. F. Ventura, L. C. L. Silveria, A. R. Rodrigues, J. M. de Souza, M. Gualtieri, D. Bonci, and M. F. Costa, “Preliminary norms for the Cambridge colour test,” in Normal and Defective Colour Vision, J. D. Mollon, J. Pokomy, and K. Knoblauch, eds. (Oxford University, 2003) pp. 331–339.

Sklar, P.

S. Purcell, B. Neale, K. Todd-Brown, L. Thomas, M. A. Ferreira, D. Bender, J. Maller, P. Sklar, P. I. de Bakker, M. J. Daly, and P. C. Sham, “PLINK: a tool set for whole-genome association and population-based linkage analyses,” Am. J. Hum. Genet. 81, 559–575 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Smith, V. C.

D. M. Dacey, H. W. Liao, B. B. Peterson, F. R. Robinson, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, K.-W. Yau, and P. D. Gamlin, “Melanopsin-expressing ganglion cells in primate retina signal colour and irradiance and project to the LGN,” Nature, 433, 749–754 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Leonova, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Spatial frequency processing in inferred PC- and MC-pathways,” Vis. Res. 43, 2133–2139 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. C. Smith and J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500 nm,” Vis. Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, G. Verriest, and A. J. L. G. Pinckers, Congenital and Acquired Color Vision Defects (Grune & Stratton, 1979).

Solomon, S. G.

C. Tailby, S. G. Solomon, and P. Lennie, “Functional asymmetries in visual pathways carrying S-cone signals in macaque,” J. Neurosci. 28, 4078–4087 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Spillmann, L.

K. Shinomori, L. Spillmann, and J. S. Werner, “S-cone signals to temporal off-channels: asymmetrical connections to postreceptoral chromatic mechanisms,” Vis. Res. 39, 39–49 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Steele, V. G.

Steinberger, D.

V. C. Greenstein, D. C. Hood, R. Ritch, D. Steinberger, and R. E. Carr, “S (blue) cone pathway vulnerability in retinitis pigmentosa, diabetes and glaucoma,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 30, 1732–1737 (1989).

Stephens, M.

B. Howie, J. Marchini, and M. Stephens, “Genotype imputation with thousands of genomes,” G3: Genes, Genomes, Genet. 1, 457–470 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sterling, P.

K. Klug, S. Herr, I. T. Ngo, P. Sterling, and S. Schein, “Macaque retina contains an S-cone OFF midget pathway,” J. Neurosci. 23, 9881–9887 (2003).

D. J. Calkins, Y. Tsukamoto, and P. Sterling, “Microcircuitry and mosaic of a blue–yellow ganglion cell in the primate retina,” J. Neurosci. 18, 3373–3385 (1994).

Supowit, A.

P. E. King-Smith, S. S. Grigsby, A. J. Vingrys, S. C. Benes, and A. Supowit, “Efficient and unbiased modifications of the QUEST threshold method: theory, simulations, experimental evaluation and practical implementation,” Vis. Res. 34, 885–912 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tailby, C.

C. Tailby, S. G. Solomon, and P. Lennie, “Functional asymmetries in visual pathways carrying S-cone signals in macaque,” J. Neurosci. 28, 4078–4087 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, E. B.

D. An, T. Toyoda, E. B. Taylor, H. Yu, N. Fujii, M. F. Hirshman, and L. J. Goodyear, “TBC1D1 regulates insulin- and contraction-induced glucose transport in mouse skeletal muscle,” Diabetes 59, 1358–1365 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Teller, D. Y.

D. H. Peterzell and D. Y. Teller, “Spatial frequency tuned covariance channels for red–green and luminance-modulated gratings: psychophysical data from human adults,” Vis. Res. 40, 417–430 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, L.

S. Purcell, B. Neale, K. Todd-Brown, L. Thomas, M. A. Ferreira, D. Bender, J. Maller, P. Sklar, P. I. de Bakker, M. J. Daly, and P. C. Sham, “PLINK: a tool set for whole-genome association and population-based linkage analyses,” Am. J. Hum. Genet. 81, 559–575 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Thouless, R. H.

R. H. Thouless, “Individual differences in perception and their significance in psychology,” in Essays in Psychology Dedicated to David Katz, G. Ekman, T. Husen, G. Johansson, and C. I. Sandstrom, eds. (Almqvist & Wiksells, 1951).

Tigwell, D. A.

A. Valberg, B. B. Lee, and D. A. Tigwell, “Neurones with strong inhibitory S-cone inputs in the macaque lateral geniculate nucleus,” Vis. Res. 26, 1061–1064 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Todd-Brown, K.

S. Purcell, B. Neale, K. Todd-Brown, L. Thomas, M. A. Ferreira, D. Bender, J. Maller, P. Sklar, P. I. de Bakker, M. J. Daly, and P. C. Sham, “PLINK: a tool set for whole-genome association and population-based linkage analyses,” Am. J. Hum. Genet. 81, 559–575 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Toyoda, T.

D. An, T. Toyoda, E. B. Taylor, H. Yu, N. Fujii, M. F. Hirshman, and L. J. Goodyear, “TBC1D1 regulates insulin- and contraction-induced glucose transport in mouse skeletal muscle,” Diabetes 59, 1358–1365 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tryggvason, U.

E. Andersson, U. Tryggvason, Q. Deng, S. Friling, Z. Alekseenko, B. Robert, T. Perlmann, and J. Ericson, “Identification of intrinsic determinants of midbrain dopamine neurons,” Cell. 124, 393–405 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tsukamoto, Y.

D. J. Calkins, Y. Tsukamoto, and P. Sterling, “Microcircuitry and mosaic of a blue–yellow ganglion cell in the primate retina,” J. Neurosci. 18, 3373–3385 (1994).

Twelker, J. D.

Valberg, A.

A. Valberg, B. B. Lee, and D. A. Tigwell, “Neurones with strong inhibitory S-cone inputs in the macaque lateral geniculate nucleus,” Vis. Res. 26, 1061–1064 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Vassilev, A.

A. Vassilev, M. S. Mihaylova, K. Racheva, M. Zlatkova, and R. S. Anderson, “Spatial summation of S-cone on and off signals: effects of retinal eccentricity,” Vis. Res. 43, 2875–2884 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ventura, D. F.

D. F. Ventura, L. C. L. Silveria, A. R. Rodrigues, J. M. de Souza, M. Gualtieri, D. Bonci, and M. F. Costa, “Preliminary norms for the Cambridge colour test,” in Normal and Defective Colour Vision, J. D. Mollon, J. Pokomy, and K. Knoblauch, eds. (Oxford University, 2003) pp. 331–339.

Verriest, G.

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, G. Verriest, and A. J. L. G. Pinckers, Congenital and Acquired Color Vision Defects (Grune & Stratton, 1979).

Villén, J.

Y. Yu, S. O. Yoon, G. Poulogiannis, Q. Yang, X. M. Ma, J. Villén, N. Kubica, G. R. Hoffman, L. C. Cantley, S. Gygi, and J. Blenis, “Quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis identifies the adaptor protein Grb10 as an mTORC1 substrate that negatively regulates insulin signaling,” Science 332, 1322–1326 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vingrys, A. J.

P. E. King-Smith, S. S. Grigsby, A. J. Vingrys, S. C. Benes, and A. Supowit, “Efficient and unbiased modifications of the QUEST threshold method: theory, simulations, experimental evaluation and practical implementation,” Vis. Res. 34, 885–912 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Volbrecht, V.

M. Schneck, A. Adams, V. Volbrecht, and J. Linfoot, “Acute changes in blood glucose and their effects on color vision function,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies XI, B. Drum, ed. (Kluwer Academic, 1993), pp. 165–173.

Wang, J.

M. German and J. Wang, “Localization of the genes encoding two transcription factors, LMX1 and CDX3, regulating insulin gene expression to human chromosomes 1 and 13,” Genomics 24, 403–404 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Watson, A. B.

A. B. Watson and D. G. Pelli, “QUEST: a Bayesian adaptive psychometric method,” Percept. Psychophys. 33, 113–120 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Weinblatt, M. E.

A. L. Price, N. J. Patterson, R. M. Plenge, M. E. Weinblatt, N. A. Shadick, and D. Reich, “Principal components analysis corrects for stratification in genome-wide association studies,” Nat. Genet. 38, 904–909 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Werner, J. S.

K. Shinomori, L. Spillmann, and J. S. Werner, “S-cone signals to temporal off-channels: asymmetrical connections to postreceptoral chromatic mechanisms,” Vis. Res. 39, 39–49 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Werner and V. G. Steele, “Sensitivity of human foveal color mechanisms throughout the life span,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 2122–2130 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Wilkins, A.

D. Pelli, J. Robson, and A. Wilkins, “The design of a new letter chart for measuring contrast sensitivity,” Clin Vis. Sci. 2, 187–199 (1988).

Wilmer, J.

J. DeGutis, J. Wilmer, R. J. Mercado, and S. Cohan, “Using regression to measure holistic face processing reveals a strong link with face recognition ability,” Cognition 126, 87–100 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wilmer, J. B.

J. B. Wilmer, “How to use individual differences to isolate functional organization, biology, and utility of visual functions; with illustrative proposals for stereopsis,” Spatial Vision 21, 561–579 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Q.

Y. Yu, S. O. Yoon, G. Poulogiannis, Q. Yang, X. M. Ma, J. Villén, N. Kubica, G. R. Hoffman, L. C. Cantley, S. Gygi, and J. Blenis, “Quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis identifies the adaptor protein Grb10 as an mTORC1 substrate that negatively regulates insulin signaling,” Science 332, 1322–1326 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yau, K.-W.

D. M. Dacey, H. W. Liao, B. B. Peterson, F. R. Robinson, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, K.-W. Yau, and P. D. Gamlin, “Melanopsin-expressing ganglion cells in primate retina signal colour and irradiance and project to the LGN,” Nature, 433, 749–754 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yin, J.

E. Rampersaud, C. M. Damcott, M. Fu, H. Shen, P. McArdle, X. Shi, J. Shelton, J. Yin, Y.-P. C. Chang, S. H. Ott, L. Zhang, Y. Zhao, B. D. Mitchell, J. O’Connell, and A. R. Shuldiner, “Evidence for replication from diabetes-related quantitative traits and from independent populations,” Diabetes 56, 3053–3062 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, S. O.

Y. Yu, S. O. Yoon, G. Poulogiannis, Q. Yang, X. M. Ma, J. Villén, N. Kubica, G. R. Hoffman, L. C. Cantley, S. Gygi, and J. Blenis, “Quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis identifies the adaptor protein Grb10 as an mTORC1 substrate that negatively regulates insulin signaling,” Science 332, 1322–1326 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yu, H.

D. An, T. Toyoda, E. B. Taylor, H. Yu, N. Fujii, M. F. Hirshman, and L. J. Goodyear, “TBC1D1 regulates insulin- and contraction-induced glucose transport in mouse skeletal muscle,” Diabetes 59, 1358–1365 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Y.

Y. Yu, S. O. Yoon, G. Poulogiannis, Q. Yang, X. M. Ma, J. Villén, N. Kubica, G. R. Hoffman, L. C. Cantley, S. Gygi, and J. Blenis, “Quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis identifies the adaptor protein Grb10 as an mTORC1 substrate that negatively regulates insulin signaling,” Science 332, 1322–1326 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zaidi, Q.

Zhang, L.

E. Rampersaud, C. M. Damcott, M. Fu, H. Shen, P. McArdle, X. Shi, J. Shelton, J. Yin, Y.-P. C. Chang, S. H. Ott, L. Zhang, Y. Zhao, B. D. Mitchell, J. O’Connell, and A. R. Shuldiner, “Evidence for replication from diabetes-related quantitative traits and from independent populations,” Diabetes 56, 3053–3062 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y.

E. Rampersaud, C. M. Damcott, M. Fu, H. Shen, P. McArdle, X. Shi, J. Shelton, J. Yin, Y.-P. C. Chang, S. H. Ott, L. Zhang, Y. Zhao, B. D. Mitchell, J. O’Connell, and A. R. Shuldiner, “Evidence for replication from diabetes-related quantitative traits and from independent populations,” Diabetes 56, 3053–3062 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zlatkova, M.

A. Vassilev, M. S. Mihaylova, K. Racheva, M. Zlatkova, and R. S. Anderson, “Spatial summation of S-cone on and off signals: effects of retinal eccentricity,” Vis. Res. 43, 2875–2884 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Hum. Genet.

S. Purcell, B. Neale, K. Todd-Brown, L. Thomas, M. A. Ferreira, D. Bender, J. Maller, P. Sklar, P. I. de Bakker, M. J. Daly, and P. C. Sham, “PLINK: a tool set for whole-genome association and population-based linkage analyses,” Am. J. Hum. Genet. 81, 559–575 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab.

K. Sakamoto and G. D. Holman, “Emerging role for AS160/TBC1D4 and TBC1D1 in the regulation of GLUT4 traffic,” Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. 295, E29–E37 (2008).
[CrossRef]

BMC Res. Notes

W. Y. Lin and W. C. Lee, “Incorporating prior knowledge to facilitate discoveries in a genome-wide association study on age-related macular degeneration,” BMC Res. Notes 3, 26 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cell.

R. Ahuja, R. Pinyol, N. Reichenbach, L. Custer, J. Klingensmith, M. M. Kessels, and B. Qualmann, “Cordon-bleu is an actin nucleation factor and controls neuronal morphology,” Cell. 131, 337–350 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Andersson, U. Tryggvason, Q. Deng, S. Friling, Z. Alekseenko, B. Robert, T. Perlmann, and J. Ericson, “Identification of intrinsic determinants of midbrain dopamine neurons,” Cell. 124, 393–405 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Clin Vis. Sci.

D. Pelli, J. Robson, and A. Wilkins, “The design of a new letter chart for measuring contrast sensitivity,” Clin Vis. Sci. 2, 187–199 (1988).

Cognition

J. DeGutis, J. Wilmer, R. J. Mercado, and S. Cohan, “Using regression to measure holistic face processing reveals a strong link with face recognition ability,” Cognition 126, 87–100 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Dev. Biol.

E. A. Carroll, D. Gerrelli, S. Gasca, E. Berg, D. R. Beier, A. J. Copp, and J. Klingensmith, “Cordon-bleu is a conserved gene involved in neural tube formation,” Dev. Biol. 262, 16–31 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Diabetes

D. An, T. Toyoda, E. B. Taylor, H. Yu, N. Fujii, M. F. Hirshman, and L. J. Goodyear, “TBC1D1 regulates insulin- and contraction-induced glucose transport in mouse skeletal muscle,” Diabetes 59, 1358–1365 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Rampersaud, C. M. Damcott, M. Fu, H. Shen, P. McArdle, X. Shi, J. Shelton, J. Yin, Y.-P. C. Chang, S. H. Ott, L. Zhang, Y. Zhao, B. D. Mitchell, J. O’Connell, and A. R. Shuldiner, “Evidence for replication from diabetes-related quantitative traits and from independent populations,” Diabetes 56, 3053–3062 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Eur. J. Endocrinol.

F. Ermetici, F. Donadio, L. Iorio, A. E. Malavazos, A. Dolci, E. Peverelli, A. M. Barbierri, L. Morricone, I. Chiodini, M. Arosio, A. Lania, P. Beck-Peccoz, B. Ambrosi, and S. Corbbetta, “Peripheral insulin-like factor 3 concentrations are reduced in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus: effect of glycemic control and visceral adiposity on Leydig cell function,” Eur. J. Endocrinol. 161, 853–859 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G3: Genes, Genomes, Genet.

B. Howie, J. Marchini, and M. Stephens, “Genotype imputation with thousands of genomes,” G3: Genes, Genomes, Genet. 1, 457–470 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Genomics

M. German and J. Wang, “Localization of the genes encoding two transcription factors, LMX1 and CDX3, regulating insulin gene expression to human chromosomes 1 and 13,” Genomics 24, 403–404 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hum. Genet.

A. J. Lawrance-Owen, G. Bargary, J. M. Bosten, P. T. Goodbourn, R. E. Hogg, and J. D. Mollon, “Genetic association suggests that SMOC1 mediates between prenatal sex hormones and digit ratio,” Hum. Genet. 132, 415–421 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.

V. C. Greenstein, D. C. Hood, R. Ritch, D. Steinberger, and R. E. Carr, “S (blue) cone pathway vulnerability in retinitis pigmentosa, diabetes and glaucoma,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 30, 1732–1737 (1989).

M. R. Roberts, A. Hendrickson, C. R. McGuire, and T. A. Reh, “Retinoid X receptor γ is necessary to establish the S-opsin gradient in cone photoreceptors of the developing mouse retina,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46, 2897–2904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Neurosci.

D. J. Calkins, Y. Tsukamoto, and P. Sterling, “Microcircuitry and mosaic of a blue–yellow ganglion cell in the primate retina,” J. Neurosci. 18, 3373–3385 (1994).

K. Klug, S. Herr, I. T. Ngo, P. Sterling, and S. Schein, “Macaque retina contains an S-cone OFF midget pathway,” J. Neurosci. 23, 9881–9887 (2003).

C. Tailby, S. G. Solomon, and P. Lennie, “Functional asymmetries in visual pathways carrying S-cone signals in macaque,” J. Neurosci. 28, 4078–4087 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Vision

J. M. Bosten and D. I. A. MacLeod, “Mechanisms of the dimming and brightening after-effects,” J. Vision 13(6), 11 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. T. Mullen, A. Y. Leung, and A. Baxter, “Changes in S-cone increment and decrement sensitivity as a function of age and eccentricity,” J. Vision 8(17), 71 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Genet.

A. L. Price, N. J. Patterson, R. M. Plenge, M. E. Weinblatt, N. A. Shadick, and D. Reich, “Principal components analysis corrects for stratification in genome-wide association studies,” Nat. Genet. 38, 904–909 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature

D. M. Dacey, H. W. Liao, B. B. Peterson, F. R. Robinson, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, K.-W. Yau, and P. D. Gamlin, “Melanopsin-expressing ganglion cells in primate retina signal colour and irradiance and project to the LGN,” Nature, 433, 749–754 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Field, J. L. Gauthier, A. Sher, M. Greschner, T. A. Machado, L. H. Jepson, J. Shlens, D. E. Gunning, K. Mathieson, W. Dabrowski, L. Paninski, A. Litke, and E. J. Chichilnisky, “Functional connectivity in the retina at the resolution of photoreceptors,” Nature 467, 673–677 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Dacey and B. B. Lee, “The ‘blue-on’ opponent pathway in primate retina originates from a distinct bistratified ganglion cell type,” Nature 367, 731–735 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Percept. Psychophys.

A. B. Watson and D. G. Pelli, “QUEST: a Bayesian adaptive psychometric method,” Percept. Psychophys. 33, 113–120 (1983).
[CrossRef]

PLoS Genet.

B. N. Howie, P. Donnelly, and J. Marchini, “A flexible and accurate genotype imputation method for the next generation of genome-wide association studies,” PLoS Genet. 5, e1000529 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Proc. R. Soc. B

P. T. Goodbourn, J. M. Bosten, R. E. Hogg, G. Bargary, A. J. Lawrance-Owen, and J. D. Mollon, “Do different ‘magnocellular tasks’ probe the same neural substrate?” Proc. R. Soc. B 279, 4263–4271 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Psychol. Assess.

M. B. Donnellan, F. L. Oswalk, B. M. Baird, and R. E. Lucas, “The mini-IPIP scales: tiny-yet-effective measures of the big five factors of personality,” Psychol. Assess. 18, 192–203 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Science

Y. Yu, S. O. Yoon, G. Poulogiannis, Q. Yang, X. M. Ma, J. Villén, N. Kubica, G. R. Hoffman, L. C. Cantley, S. Gygi, and J. Blenis, “Quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis identifies the adaptor protein Grb10 as an mTORC1 substrate that negatively regulates insulin signaling,” Science 332, 1322–1326 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Spatial Vision

J. B. Wilmer, “How to use individual differences to isolate functional organization, biology, and utility of visual functions; with illustrative proposals for stereopsis,” Spatial Vision 21, 561–579 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vis. Res.

D. H. Peterzell and D. Y. Teller, “Spatial frequency tuned covariance channels for red–green and luminance-modulated gratings: psychophysical data from human adults,” Vis. Res. 40, 417–430 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Vassilev, M. S. Mihaylova, K. Racheva, M. Zlatkova, and R. S. Anderson, “Spatial summation of S-cone on and off signals: effects of retinal eccentricity,” Vis. Res. 43, 2875–2884 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Valberg, B. B. Lee, and D. A. Tigwell, “Neurones with strong inhibitory S-cone inputs in the macaque lateral geniculate nucleus,” Vis. Res. 26, 1061–1064 (1986).
[CrossRef]

K. Shinomori, L. Spillmann, and J. S. Werner, “S-cone signals to temporal off-channels: asymmetrical connections to postreceptoral chromatic mechanisms,” Vis. Res. 39, 39–49 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Krauskopf and Q. Zaidi, “Induced desensitization,” Vis. Res. 26, 759–762 (1986).
[CrossRef]

A. Leonova, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Spatial frequency processing in inferred PC- and MC-pathways,” Vis. Res. 43, 2133–2139 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Regan, J. P. Reffin, and J. D. Mollon, “Luminance noise and the rapid determination of discrimination ellipses in colour deficiency,” Vis. Res. 34, 1279–1299 (1994).
[CrossRef]

V. C. Smith and J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500 nm,” Vis. Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
[CrossRef]

P. E. King-Smith, S. S. Grigsby, A. J. Vingrys, S. C. Benes, and A. Supowit, “Efficient and unbiased modifications of the QUEST threshold method: theory, simulations, experimental evaluation and practical implementation,” Vis. Res. 34, 885–912 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Other

D. F. Ventura, L. C. L. Silveria, A. R. Rodrigues, J. M. de Souza, M. Gualtieri, D. Bonci, and M. F. Costa, “Preliminary norms for the Cambridge colour test,” in Normal and Defective Colour Vision, J. D. Mollon, J. Pokomy, and K. Knoblauch, eds. (Oxford University, 2003) pp. 331–339.

A. J. Lawrance-Owen, J. M. Bosten, R. E. Hogg, G. Bargary, P. T. Goodbourn, and J. D. Mollon, “Counterphase flicker photometry: phenotypic and genotypic associations,” this issue of J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (to be published).

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, G. Verriest, and A. J. L. G. Pinckers, Congenital and Acquired Color Vision Defects (Grune & Stratton, 1979).

D. M. Dacey, “Origins of perception: retinal ganglion cell diversity and the creation of parallel visual pathways,” in The Cognitive Neurosciences, M. Gazzaniga, ed. (MIT, 2004), pp. 281–301.

R. H. Thouless, “Individual differences in perception and their significance in psychology,” in Essays in Psychology Dedicated to David Katz, G. Ekman, T. Husen, G. Johansson, and C. I. Sandstrom, eds. (Almqvist & Wiksells, 1951).

M. Schneck, A. Adams, V. Volbrecht, and J. Linfoot, “Acute changes in blood glucose and their effects on color vision function,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies XI, B. Drum, ed. (Kluwer Academic, 1993), pp. 165–173.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Representation of the stimulus used to measure sensitivity to S-cone increments and decrements. An S-cone increment appears violet (left) and an S-cone decrement appears chartreuse (right).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Histograms of thresholds for S-cone increments (left panel) and thresholds for S-cone decrements (right panel). The units are the difference in S/(L+M) value of the increment or decrement from that of the background. S/(L+M) is as defined in the standard MacLeod–Boynton chromaticity diagram [29].

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Test–retest reliabilities for our 105 returning participants for sensitivity to S-cone increments (left panel) and sensitivity to S-cone decrements (right panel). The units are the difference in S/(L+M) from that of the background. The gray lines show orthogonal linear regressions.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Correlation between sensitivity to S-cone increments and sensitivity to S-cone decrements across individuals. The units are the difference in S/(L+M) from that of the background. The gray line shows the orthogonal linear regression through the data.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Test–retest reliabilities of regression scores for incremental and decremental thresholds. Panels (a)–(d) show the residuals for incremental and decremental thresholds in sessions 1 and 2. All axes are ΔS/(L+M). Panels (a) and (b) show linear regressions of incremental thresholds on decremental thresholds, panel (a) for session 1, and panel (b) for session 2. Panels (c) and (d) show linear regressions of decremental thresholds on incremental thresholds; panel (c) for session 1, and panel (d) for session 2. Panel (e) shows the test–retest reliability of regression scores for incremental thresholds; the residuals shown in panel (b) are plotted against the residuals shown in panel (a). Panel (f) shows the test–retest reliability of regression scores for decremental thresholds: the residuals shown in panel (d) are plotted against the residuals shown in panel (c). The gray lines in panels (e) and (f) show orthogonal linear regressions through the data.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Regional Manhattan plot for the association between sensitivity to S-cone increments and the region around rs1891931. The association results for genotyped SNPs are shown with black borders, and results for imputed SNPs are shown without borders, with saturation indicating the imputation quality. The recombination rate is plotted with a solid blue line. The lower panel shows the genomic context of the region. Vertical green lines indicate exons. The dashed blue line in both panels indicates the clustered region identified by clumping analysis.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Correlations between Our Three Measures of Sensitivity to S-Cone Isolating Stimuli and Four Measures of Achromatic Contrast Sensitivity

Tables Icon

Table 2. Details of the 15 Suggestive Loci Identified by the GWAS

Metrics