Abstract

Carriers of red–green color-vision deficiencies are generally thought to behave like normal trichromats, although it is known that they may make errors on Ishihara plates. The aim here was to compare the performance of carriers with that of normal females on seven standard color-vision tests, including Ishihara plates. One hundred and twenty-six normal females, 14 protan carriers, and 29 deutan carriers aged 9–66 years were included in the study. Generally, deutan carriers performed worse than protan carriers and normal females on six out of the seven tests. The difference in performance between carriers and normal females was independent of age, but the proportion of carriers that made errors on pseudo-isochromatic tests increased with age. It was the youngest carriers, however, who made the most errors. There was considerable variation in performance among individuals in each group of females. The results are discussed in relation to variability in the number of different L-cone pigments.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013

M. V. Danilova, C. H. Chan, and J. D. Mollon, “Can spatial resolution reveal individual differences in the L:M cone ratio?” Vis. Res. 78, 26–38 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

E. Konstantakopoulou, M. Rodriguez-Carmona, and J. L. Barbur, “Processing of color signals in female carriers of color vision deficiency,” J. Vis. 12(2):11, 1035–1037 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. V. Paramei, “Color discrimination across four life decades assessed by the Cambridge Colour Test,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29, A290–A297 (2012).
[CrossRef]

I. J. Murray, N. R. A. Parry, D. J. McKeefry, and A. Panorgias, “Sex-related differences in peripheral human color vision: a color matching study,” J. Vis. 12(1):18, 1230–1236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

J. Neitz and M. Neitz, “The genetics of normal and defective color vision,” Vis. Res. 51, 633–651 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

A. Werner, A. Bayer, G. Schwarz, E. Zrenner, and W. Paulus, “Effects of ageing on postreceptoral short-wavelength gain control: transient tritanopia increases with age,” Vis. Res. 50, 1641–1648 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

S. J. Dain and B. Y. Ling, “Cognitive abilities of children on a gray seriation test,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 86, E701–E707 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Tait and J. Carroll, “Normality of colour vision in a compound heterozygous female carrying protan and deutan defects,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 92, 356–361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

R. C. Baraas, “Poorer color discrimination by females when tested with pseudoisochromatic plates containing vanishing designs on neutral backgrounds,” Vis. Neurosci. 25, 501–505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Rodríguez-Carmona, L. T. Sharpe, J. A. Harlow, and J. L. Barbur, “Sex-related differences in chromatic sensitivity,” Vis. Neurosci. 25, 433–440 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun and S. K. Shevell, “Rayleigh matches in carriers of inherited color vision defects: the contribution from the third L/M photopigment,” Vis. Neurosci. 25, 455–462 (2008).

2007

P. J. Pardo, A. L. Pérez, and M. I. Suero, “An example of sex-linked color vision differences,” Color Res. Appl. 32, 433–439 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

K. Bucher, T. Dietrich, V. L. Marcar, S. Brem, P. Halder, S. Boujraf, P. Summers, D. Brandeis, E. Martin, and T. Loenneker, “Maturation of luminance- and motion-defined form perception beyond adolescence: a combined ERP and fMRI study,” NeuroImage 31, 1625–1636 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Hood, J. D. Mollon, L. Purves, and G. Jordan, “Color discrimination in carriers of color deficiency,” Vis. Res. 46, 2894–2900 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Deeb, “Genetics of variation in human color vision and the retinal cone mosaic,” Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev. 16, 301–307 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. L. Cole, K.-Y. Lian, and C. Lakkis, “The new Richmond HRR pseudoisochromatic test for colour vision is better than the Ishihara test,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 89, 73–80 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

J. M. Bosten, J. D. Robinson, G. Jordan, and J. D. Mollon, “Multidimensional scaling reveals a color dimension unique to ‘color-deficient’ observers,” Curr. Biol. 15, R950–R952 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Harris and B. L. Cole, “Diagnosing protan heterozygosity using the Medmont C-100 colour vision test,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 88, 240–247 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Harris and B. L. Cole, “One of Australia’s greatest cricketers was a protanope: a genetic detective story solved with the help of Schmidt’s sign,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 88, 405–409 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Hofer, J. Carroll, J. Neitz, M. Neitz, and D. R. Williams, “Organization of the human trichromatic cone mosaic,” J. Neurosci. 25, 9669–9679 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

S. J. Dain, “Clinical colour vision tests,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 87, 276–293 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Bailey, M. Neitz, D. M. Tait, and J. Neitz, “Evaluation of an updated HRR color vision test,” Vis. Neurosci. 21, 431–436 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

J. K. Hovis, “Repeatability of the C-100 colour vision test,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 86, 173–178 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

K. L. Gunther and K. R. Dobkins, “Individual differences in chromatic (red/green) contrast sensitivity are constrained by the relative number of L- versus M-cones in the eye,” Vis. Res. 42, 1367–1378 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Kinnear and A. Sahraie, “New Farnsworth–Munsell 100 Hue test norms of normal observers for each year of age 5–22 and for age decades 30–70,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 86, 1408–1411 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

M. Neitz and J. Neitz, “A new mass screening test for color-vision deficiencies in children,” Color Res. Appl. 26, S239–S249 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Roorda, A. B. Metha, P. Lennie, and D. R. Williams, “Packing arrangement of the three cone classes in primate retina,” Vis. Res. 41, 1291–1306 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Lang and G. W. Good, “Color discrimiation in heterozygous deutan carriers,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 78, 584–588 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Knoblauch, F. Vital-Durand, and J. L. Barbur, “Variation of chromatic sensitivity across the life span,” Vis. Res. 41, 23–36 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

T. Hayashi, A. G. Motulsky, and S. S. Deeb, “Position of a ‘green–red’ hybrid gene in the visual pigment array determines colour-vision phenotype,” Nat. Genet. 22, 90–93 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, P. M. Smallwood, M. Cowan, D. Blesh, A. Lawler, and J. Nathans, “Mutually exclusive expression of human red and green visual pigment-reporter transgenes occurs at high frequency in murine cone photoreceptors,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96, 5251–5256 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Roorda and D. R. Williams, “The arrangement of the three cone classes in the living human eye,” Nature 397, 520–522 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

D. M. Hunt, K. S. Dulai, J. A. Cowing, C. Julliot, J. D. Mollon, J. K. Bowmaker, W.-H. Li, and D. Hewett-Emmett, “Molecular evolution of trichromacy in primates,” Vis. Res. 38, 3299–3306 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Neitz, T. W. Kraft, and J. Neitz, “Expression of L cone pigment gene subtypes in females,” Vis. Res. 38, 3221–3225 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. Miyahara, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, R. Baron, and E. Baron, “Color vision in two observers with highly biased LWS/MWS cone ratios,” Vis. Res. 38, 601–612 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Bieber, J. M. Kraft, and J. S. Werner, “Effects of known variations in photopigments on L/M cone ratios estimated from luminous efficiency functions,” Vis. Res. 38, 1961–1966 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. T. Sharpe, A. Stockman, H. Jägle, H. Knau, G. Klausen, A. Reitner, and J. Nathans, “Red, green, and red–green hybrid pigments in the human retina: correlations between deduced protein sequences and psychophysically measured spectral sensitivities,” J. Neurosci. 18, 10053–10069 (1998).

1994

A. B. Asenjo, J. Rim, and D. D. Oprian, “Molecular determinants of human red/green color discrimination,” Neuron 12, 1131–1138 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Regan, J. P. Reffin, and J. D. Mollon, “Luminance noise and the rapid determination of discrimination ellipses in colour deficiency,” Vis. Res. 34, 1279–1299 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

G. Jordan and J. D. Mollon, “A study of women heterozygous for colour deficiencies,” Vis. Res. 33, 1495–1508 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Neitz, M. Neitz, and G. H. Jacobs, “More than three different cone pigments among people with normal color vision,” Vis. Res. 33, 117–122 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

T. P. Piantanida and J. Gille, “Methodology-specific Rayleigh-match distributions,” Vis. Res. 32, 2375–2377 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Merbs and J. Nathans, “Absorption spectra of human cone pigments,” Nature 356, 433–435 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Winderickx, D. T. Lindsey, E. Sanocki, D. Y. Teller, A. G. Motulsky, and S. S. Deeb, “Polymorphism in red photopigment underlies variation in colour matching,” Nature 356, 431–433 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Metha and A. J. Vingrys, “The C-100: a new dichotomiser of colour vision defectives,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 75, 114–123 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Jørgensen, J. Philip, W. H. Raskind, M. Matsushita, B. Christensen, V. Dreyer, and A. G. Motulsky, “Different patterns of X inactivation in MZ twins disordant for red–green color-vision deficiency,” Am. J. Hum. Genet. 51, 291–298 (1992).

1988

M. Drummond-Borg, S. Deeb, and A. G. Motulsky, “Molecular basis of abnormal red–green colour vision: a family with three types of color vision defects,” Am. J. Hum. Genet. 43, 675–683 (1988).

J. S. Werner and V. G. Steele, “Sensitivity of human foveal color mechanisms throughout the life span,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 2122–2130 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987

1986

J. Neitz and G. H. Jacobs, “Polymorphism of the long-wavelength cone in normal human colour vision,” Nature 323, 623–625 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, and A. S. Pass, “Color-axis determination on the Farnsworth–Munsell 100-Hue test,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 100, 176–182 (1985).

1982

G. Verriest, J. V. Laethem, and A. Uvijls, “A new assessment of the normal ranges of the Farnsworth–Munsell 100-Hue test scores,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 93, 635–642 (1982).

1978

K. Feig and H.-H. Ropers, “On the incidence of unilateral and bilateral colour blindness in heterozygous females,” Hum. Genet. 41, 313–323 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1972

M. F. Lyon, “X-chromosome inactivation and developmental patterns in mammals,” Biol. Rev. 47, 1–35 (1972).
[CrossRef]

G. Verriest, “Chromaticity discrimination in protan and deutan heterozygotes,” Die Farbe 21, 7–16 (1972).

1969

A. E. Krill, “X-chromosomal-linked diseases affecting the eye: status of the heterozygote female,” Trans. Am. Ophthalmol. Soc. 67, 535–608 (1969).

1967

G. H. M. Waaler, “The heredity of normal and defective colour vision,” Avhandling Det norske videnskaps-akademi 9, 1–25 (1967).

1964

A. E. Krill and A. Schneiderman, “A Hue discrimination defect in so-called normal carriers of color vision defects,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 3, 445–450 (1964).

1959

R. A. Crone, “Spectral sensitivity in color-defective subjects and heterozygous carriers,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 48, 231–238 (1959).

1948

H. L. De Vries, “The luminosity curve of the eye as determined by measurements with the flickerphotometer,” Physica 14, 319–333 (1948).
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1934

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T. Hayashi, A. G. Motulsky, and S. S. Deeb, “Position of a ‘green–red’ hybrid gene in the visual pigment array determines colour-vision phenotype,” Nat. Genet. 22, 90–93 (1999).
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A. L. Jørgensen, J. Philip, W. H. Raskind, M. Matsushita, B. Christensen, V. Dreyer, and A. G. Motulsky, “Different patterns of X inactivation in MZ twins disordant for red–green color-vision deficiency,” Am. J. Hum. Genet. 51, 291–298 (1992).

J. Winderickx, D. T. Lindsey, E. Sanocki, D. Y. Teller, A. G. Motulsky, and S. S. Deeb, “Polymorphism in red photopigment underlies variation in colour matching,” Nature 356, 431–433 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Drummond-Borg, S. Deeb, and A. G. Motulsky, “Molecular basis of abnormal red–green colour vision: a family with three types of color vision defects,” Am. J. Hum. Genet. 43, 675–683 (1988).

Murray, I. J.

I. J. Murray, N. R. A. Parry, D. J. McKeefry, and A. Panorgias, “Sex-related differences in peripheral human color vision: a color matching study,” J. Vis. 12(1):18, 1230–1236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nathans, J.

Y. Wang, P. M. Smallwood, M. Cowan, D. Blesh, A. Lawler, and J. Nathans, “Mutually exclusive expression of human red and green visual pigment-reporter transgenes occurs at high frequency in murine cone photoreceptors,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96, 5251–5256 (1999).
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L. T. Sharpe, A. Stockman, H. Jägle, H. Knau, G. Klausen, A. Reitner, and J. Nathans, “Red, green, and red–green hybrid pigments in the human retina: correlations between deduced protein sequences and psychophysically measured spectral sensitivities,” J. Neurosci. 18, 10053–10069 (1998).

S. L. Merbs and J. Nathans, “Absorption spectra of human cone pigments,” Nature 356, 433–435 (1992).
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L. T. Sharpe, A. Stockman, H. Jägle, and J. Nathans, “Opsin genes, cone photopigments, color vision, and color blindness,” in Color Vision: From Genes to Perception, K. R. Gegenfurtner and L. T. Sharpe, eds. (Cambridge University, 1999), pp. 3–51.

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J. Neitz and M. Neitz, “The genetics of normal and defective color vision,” Vis. Res. 51, 633–651 (2011).
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H. Hofer, J. Carroll, J. Neitz, M. Neitz, and D. R. Williams, “Organization of the human trichromatic cone mosaic,” J. Neurosci. 25, 9669–9679 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Bailey, M. Neitz, D. M. Tait, and J. Neitz, “Evaluation of an updated HRR color vision test,” Vis. Neurosci. 21, 431–436 (2004).
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M. Neitz and J. Neitz, “A new mass screening test for color-vision deficiencies in children,” Color Res. Appl. 26, S239–S249 (2001).
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M. Neitz, T. W. Kraft, and J. Neitz, “Expression of L cone pigment gene subtypes in females,” Vis. Res. 38, 3221–3225 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Neitz, M. Neitz, and G. H. Jacobs, “More than three different cone pigments among people with normal color vision,” Vis. Res. 33, 117–122 (1993).
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J. Neitz and G. H. Jacobs, “Polymorphism of the long-wavelength cone in normal human colour vision,” Nature 323, 623–625 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. Neitz and J. Neitz, “Molecular genetics and the biological basis of color vision,” in Color Vision: Perspectives from Different Disciplines, R. Kliegl, W. G. K. Backhaus, and J. S. Werner, eds. (Walter de Gruyter, 1998), pp. 101–119.

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J. Neitz and M. Neitz, “The genetics of normal and defective color vision,” Vis. Res. 51, 633–651 (2011).
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H. Hofer, J. Carroll, J. Neitz, M. Neitz, and D. R. Williams, “Organization of the human trichromatic cone mosaic,” J. Neurosci. 25, 9669–9679 (2005).
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J. E. Bailey, M. Neitz, D. M. Tait, and J. Neitz, “Evaluation of an updated HRR color vision test,” Vis. Neurosci. 21, 431–436 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Neitz and J. Neitz, “A new mass screening test for color-vision deficiencies in children,” Color Res. Appl. 26, S239–S249 (2001).
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M. Neitz, T. W. Kraft, and J. Neitz, “Expression of L cone pigment gene subtypes in females,” Vis. Res. 38, 3221–3225 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Neitz, M. Neitz, and G. H. Jacobs, “More than three different cone pigments among people with normal color vision,” Vis. Res. 33, 117–122 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Neitz and J. Neitz, “Molecular genetics and the biological basis of color vision,” in Color Vision: Perspectives from Different Disciplines, R. Kliegl, W. G. K. Backhaus, and J. S. Werner, eds. (Walter de Gruyter, 1998), pp. 101–119.

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A. M. Norcia and R. E. Manny, “Development of vision in infancy,” in Adler’s Physiology of the Eye, P. L. Kaufman and A. Alm, eds., 10th ed. (Mosby, 2003), pp. 713–724.

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I. J. Murray, N. R. A. Parry, D. J. McKeefry, and A. Panorgias, “Sex-related differences in peripheral human color vision: a color matching study,” J. Vis. 12(1):18, 1230–1236 (2012).
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P. J. Pardo, A. L. Pérez, and M. I. Suero, “An example of sex-linked color vision differences,” Color Res. Appl. 32, 433–439 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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J. K. Bowmaker, J. W. L. Parry, and J. D. Mollon, “The arrangement of L and M cones in human retina and a primate retina,” in Normal and Defective Colour Vision, J. D. Mollon, J. Pokorny, and K. Knoblauch, eds. (Oxford University, 2003), pp. 39–50.

Parry, N. R. A.

I. J. Murray, N. R. A. Parry, D. J. McKeefry, and A. Panorgias, “Sex-related differences in peripheral human color vision: a color matching study,” J. Vis. 12(1):18, 1230–1236 (2012).
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V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, and A. S. Pass, “Color-axis determination on the Farnsworth–Munsell 100-Hue test,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 100, 176–182 (1985).

Paulus, W.

A. Werner, A. Bayer, G. Schwarz, E. Zrenner, and W. Paulus, “Effects of ageing on postreceptoral short-wavelength gain control: transient tritanopia increases with age,” Vis. Res. 50, 1641–1648 (2010).
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P. J. Pardo, A. L. Pérez, and M. I. Suero, “An example of sex-linked color vision differences,” Color Res. Appl. 32, 433–439 (2007).
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A. L. Jørgensen, J. Philip, W. H. Raskind, M. Matsushita, B. Christensen, V. Dreyer, and A. G. Motulsky, “Different patterns of X inactivation in MZ twins disordant for red–green color-vision deficiency,” Am. J. Hum. Genet. 51, 291–298 (1992).

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A. B. Asenjo, J. Rim, and D. D. Oprian, “Molecular determinants of human red/green color discrimination,” Neuron 12, 1131–1138 (1994).
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J. M. Bosten, J. D. Robinson, G. Jordan, and J. D. Mollon, “Multidimensional scaling reveals a color dimension unique to ‘color-deficient’ observers,” Curr. Biol. 15, R950–R952 (2005).
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A. Werner, A. Bayer, G. Schwarz, E. Zrenner, and W. Paulus, “Effects of ageing on postreceptoral short-wavelength gain control: transient tritanopia increases with age,” Vis. Res. 50, 1641–1648 (2010).
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M. Rodríguez-Carmona, L. T. Sharpe, J. A. Harlow, and J. L. Barbur, “Sex-related differences in chromatic sensitivity,” Vis. Neurosci. 25, 433–440 (2008).
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L. T. Sharpe, A. Stockman, H. Jägle, and J. Nathans, “Opsin genes, cone photopigments, color vision, and color blindness,” in Color Vision: From Genes to Perception, K. R. Gegenfurtner and L. T. Sharpe, eds. (Cambridge University, 1999), pp. 3–51.

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Y. Sun and S. K. Shevell, “Rayleigh matches in carriers of inherited color vision defects: the contribution from the third L/M photopigment,” Vis. Neurosci. 25, 455–462 (2008).

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Y. Wang, P. M. Smallwood, M. Cowan, D. Blesh, A. Lawler, and J. Nathans, “Mutually exclusive expression of human red and green visual pigment-reporter transgenes occurs at high frequency in murine cone photoreceptors,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96, 5251–5256 (1999).
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E. Miyahara, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, R. Baron, and E. Baron, “Color vision in two observers with highly biased LWS/MWS cone ratios,” Vis. Res. 38, 601–612 (1998).
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V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, and A. S. Pass, “Color-axis determination on the Farnsworth–Munsell 100-Hue test,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 100, 176–182 (1985).

Steele, V. G.

Stockman, A.

L. T. Sharpe, A. Stockman, H. Jägle, H. Knau, G. Klausen, A. Reitner, and J. Nathans, “Red, green, and red–green hybrid pigments in the human retina: correlations between deduced protein sequences and psychophysically measured spectral sensitivities,” J. Neurosci. 18, 10053–10069 (1998).

L. T. Sharpe, A. Stockman, H. Jägle, and J. Nathans, “Opsin genes, cone photopigments, color vision, and color blindness,” in Color Vision: From Genes to Perception, K. R. Gegenfurtner and L. T. Sharpe, eds. (Cambridge University, 1999), pp. 3–51.

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P. J. Pardo, A. L. Pérez, and M. I. Suero, “An example of sex-linked color vision differences,” Color Res. Appl. 32, 433–439 (2007).
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D. M. Tait and J. Carroll, “Normality of colour vision in a compound heterozygous female carrying protan and deutan defects,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 92, 356–361 (2009).
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J. E. Bailey, M. Neitz, D. M. Tait, and J. Neitz, “Evaluation of an updated HRR color vision test,” Vis. Neurosci. 21, 431–436 (2004).
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J. Winderickx, D. T. Lindsey, E. Sanocki, D. Y. Teller, A. G. Motulsky, and S. S. Deeb, “Polymorphism in red photopigment underlies variation in colour matching,” Nature 356, 431–433 (1992).
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Verriest, G.

G. Verriest, J. V. Laethem, and A. Uvijls, “A new assessment of the normal ranges of the Farnsworth–Munsell 100-Hue test scores,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 93, 635–642 (1982).

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A. Roorda, A. B. Metha, P. Lennie, and D. R. Williams, “Packing arrangement of the three cone classes in primate retina,” Vis. Res. 41, 1291–1306 (2001).
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A. Roorda and D. R. Williams, “The arrangement of the three cone classes in the living human eye,” Nature 397, 520–522 (1999).
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J. Winderickx, D. T. Lindsey, E. Sanocki, D. Y. Teller, A. G. Motulsky, and S. S. Deeb, “Polymorphism in red photopigment underlies variation in colour matching,” Nature 356, 431–433 (1992).
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G. H. M. Waaler, “Über die erblichkeitsverhältnisse der verschiedenen arten von angeborener rotgrünblindheit,” Acta Ophthalmol. 5, 309–345 (1927).

Am. J. Hum. Genet.

A. L. Jørgensen, J. Philip, W. H. Raskind, M. Matsushita, B. Christensen, V. Dreyer, and A. G. Motulsky, “Different patterns of X inactivation in MZ twins disordant for red–green color-vision deficiency,” Am. J. Hum. Genet. 51, 291–298 (1992).

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Am. J. Ophthalmol.

G. Verriest, J. V. Laethem, and A. Uvijls, “A new assessment of the normal ranges of the Farnsworth–Munsell 100-Hue test scores,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 93, 635–642 (1982).

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Appl. Opt.

Avhandling Det norske videnskaps-akademi

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Color Res. Appl.

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Curr. Biol.

J. M. Bosten, J. D. Robinson, G. Jordan, and J. D. Mollon, “Multidimensional scaling reveals a color dimension unique to ‘color-deficient’ observers,” Curr. Biol. 15, R950–R952 (2005).
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J. Neurosci.

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L. T. Sharpe, A. Stockman, H. Jägle, H. Knau, G. Klausen, A. Reitner, and J. Nathans, “Red, green, and red–green hybrid pigments in the human retina: correlations between deduced protein sequences and psychophysically measured spectral sensitivities,” J. Neurosci. 18, 10053–10069 (1998).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Vis.

I. J. Murray, N. R. A. Parry, D. J. McKeefry, and A. Panorgias, “Sex-related differences in peripheral human color vision: a color matching study,” J. Vis. 12(1):18, 1230–1236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. Konstantakopoulou, M. Rodriguez-Carmona, and J. L. Barbur, “Processing of color signals in female carriers of color vision deficiency,” J. Vis. 12(2):11, 1035–1037 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Klinische Monatsblätter für Augenheilkunde

I. Schmidt, “Über manifeste Heterozygotie bei Konduktorinnen für Farbensinnstörungen,” Klinische Monatsblätter für Augenheilkunde 92, 456–467 (1934).

Nat. Genet.

T. Hayashi, A. G. Motulsky, and S. S. Deeb, “Position of a ‘green–red’ hybrid gene in the visual pigment array determines colour-vision phenotype,” Nat. Genet. 22, 90–93 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nature

A. Roorda and D. R. Williams, “The arrangement of the three cone classes in the living human eye,” Nature 397, 520–522 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Winderickx, D. T. Lindsey, E. Sanocki, D. Y. Teller, A. G. Motulsky, and S. S. Deeb, “Polymorphism in red photopigment underlies variation in colour matching,” Nature 356, 431–433 (1992).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Percentage of participants who failed one or more of the pseudo-isochromatic (PIC) tests, Ishihara, HRR, and NTCV, presented for normal females (NT), protan carriers (PC), and deutan carriers (DC). The criteria for failing the Ishihara, HRR, and NTCV tests were three or more errors, two or more errors on the screening plates, and one or more errors, respectively.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Rayleigh MMPs presented for normal females (NT), protan carriers (PC), and deutan carriers (DC). Age is disregarded. The black circle represents the median values, each box shows the upper and lower quartiles, and the vertical lines show the full ranges of midpoints.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Medmont C-100 null-point settings presented for normal females (NT), protan carriers (PC), and deutan carriers (DC). Age is disregarded. The black circle represents the median values, each box shows the upper and lower quartiles, and the vertical lines show the full ranges of null-point settings.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

sqTES on FM100-Hue as a function of age for each observer. Results are presented for normal females (NT), protan carriers (PC), and deutan carriers (DC).

Tables (5)

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Table 1. Overview of Studies where Carriers have Made More Errors on Pseudo-isochromatic (PIC) Tests than Normal Trichromats

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Table 2. Age Demographics of Participants

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Table 3. Percentage of Participants Who Failed the PIC Tests Ishihara, HRR, or NTCV, for Normal Females (NT), Protan Carriers (PC), and Deutan Carriers (DC)

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Table 4. Rayleigh MMPs, MR, and Luminance Midpoint (LM); Medmont C-100 Null-Point Settings; and Square Root of Error Score (sqTES) on FM100-Hue Presented for Normal Females (NT), Protan Carriers (PC), and Deutan Carriers (DC)

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Table 5. CCT Trivector and Ellipse Test Results Presented for Normal Females (NT), Protan Carriers (PC), and Deutan Carriers (DC)

Metrics