Abstract

The present study, an extension of Paramei [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A , 29, A290, 2012], provides normative data on chromatic discrimination, using the Cambridge Colour Test, for normal trichromats aged 10–88 years. Findings are in accord with a two-phase variation across the life span: chromatic sensitivity improves in adolescence, reaches a maximum around 30 years, and then undergoes a gradual decrease. Indicative parameters are Protan (P), Deutan (D), and Tritan (T) vector lengths and major axes and axis ratios of Ellipses. Trivector data are modeled as non-monotonic combinations of power functions, with goodness-of-fits RP2=0.23, RD2=0.23, and RT2=0.45. For advancing age, sensitivity decline in all chromatic systems was confirmed, though with a marked acceleration after 60 years (reflected by the power function exponent >1) and more pronounced for the tritan system.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013 (2)

S. Wuerger, “Colour constancy across the life span: evidence for compensatory mechanisms,” PLoS ONE 8, e63921 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Mateus, R. Lemos, M. F. Silva, A. Reis, P. Fonseca, B. Oliveiros, and M. Castelo-Branco, “Aging of low and high level vision: from chromatic and achromatic contrast sensitivity to local and 3D object motion perception,” PLoS ONE 8, e55348 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (1)

2011 (2)

A. Reis, C. Mateus, M. C. Macário, J. R. F. de Abreu, and M. Castelo-Branco, “Independent patterns of damage to retinocortical pathways in multiple sclerosis without a previous episode of optic neuritis,” J. Neurol. 258, 1695–1704 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Hovis, “Comparison of three computer based color vision tests,” Aviation Space Environ. Med. 82, 243 (2011).

2010 (3)

C. Feitosa-Santana, G. V. Paramei, M. Nishi, M. Gualtieri, M. F. Costa, and D. F. Ventura, “Color vision impairment in type 2 diabetes assessed by the D-15d test and the Cambridge Colour Test,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 30, 717–723 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Werner, A. Bayer, G. Schwarz, E. Zrenner, and W. Paulus, “Effects of ageing on postreceptoral short-wavelength gain control: transient tritanopia increases with age,” Vis. Res. 50, 1641–1648 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Wuerger, K. Xiao, C. Fu, and D. Karataz, “Colour-opponent mechanisms are not affected by age-related chromatic sensitivity changes,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 30, 653–659 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

P. R. K. Goulart, M. L. Bandeira, D. Tsubota, N. N. Oiwa, M. F. Costa, and D. F. Ventura, “A computer-controlled color vision test for children based on the Cambridge Colour Test,” Vis. Neurosci. 25, 1–6 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Feitosa-Santana, M. T. S. Barboni, N. N. Oiwa, G. V. Paramei, A. L. Simões, M. F. Costa, L. C. L. Silveira, and D. F. Ventura, “Irreversible color vision losses in patients with chronic mercury vapor intoxication,” Vis. Neurosci. 25, 487–491 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. L. D. A. Moura, R. A. A. Teixeira, N. N. Oiwa, M. F. Costa, C. Feitosa-Santana, D. Callegaro, R. D. Hamer, and D. F. Ventura, “Chromatic discrimination losses in multiple sclerosis patients with and without optic neuritis using the Cambridge Colour Test,” Vis. Neurosci. 25, 463–468 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

D. F. Ventura, M. Gualtieri, M. F. Costa, P. Quiros, F. Sadun, A. M. de Negri, S. R. Salomão, A. Berezovsky, J. Sherman, A. A. Sadun, and V. Carelli, “Male prevalence of acquired color vision defects in asymptomatic carriers of Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48, 2362–2370 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

M. F. Costa, D. F. Ventura, F. Perazzolo, M. Murakoshi, and L. C. L. Silveira, “Absence of binocular summation, eye dominance, and learning effects in color discrimination,” Vis. Neurosci. 23, 461–469 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

M. F. Silva, P. Faria, F. S. Regateiro, V. Forjaz, C. Januário, A. Freire, and M. Castelo-Branco, “Independent patterns of damage within magno-, parvo- and koniocellular pathways in Parkinson’s disease,” Brain 128, 2260–2271 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

M. Castelo-Branco, P. Faria, V. Forjaz, L. R. Kozak, and H. Azevedo, “Simultaneous comparison of relative damage to chromatic pathways in ocular hypertension and glaucoma: correlation with clinical measures,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45, 499–505 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

D. Nguyen-Tri, O. Overbury, and J. Faubert, “The role of lenticular senescence in age-related color vision changes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44, 3698–3704 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Zlatkova, E. Coulter, and R. S. Anderson, “Short-wavelength acuity: blue–yellow and achromatic resolution loss with age,” Vis. Res. 43, 109–115 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

D. de Fez, J. Luque, and V. Viqueira, “Enhancement of contrast sensitivity and losses of chromatic discrimination with tinted lenses,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 79, 590–597 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Kinnear and A. Sahraie, “New Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test norms of normal observers for each year of age 5–22 and for age decades 30–70,” Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 86, 1408–1411 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Ventura, A. R. Rodrigues, A. A. Moura, A. C. Vargas, M. F. Costa, J. M. de Souza, and L. L. Silveira, “Color discrimination measured by the Cambridge Colour Vision Test (CCVT) in children and adults,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43, E-Abstract 3796 (2002).

2001 (3)

K. Knoblauch, F. Vital-Durand, and J. L. Barbur, “Variation of chromatic sensitivity across the life span,” Vis. Res. 41, 23–36 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Okajima and M. Takase, “Computerized simulation and chromatic adaptation experiments on a model of aged human lens,” Opt. Rev. 8, 64–70 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Shinomori, B. E. Schefrin, and J. S. Werner, “Age-related changes in wavelength discrimination,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 310–318 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

G. Hagerstrom-Portnoy, M. E. Schneck, and J. A. Brabyn, “Seeing into old age: vision function beyond acuity,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 76, 141–158 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

B. C. Regan, N. Freudenthaler, R. Kolle, J. D. Mollon, and W. Paulus, “Colour discrimination thresholds in Parkinson’s disease: results obtained with a rapid computer-controlled colour vision test,” Vis. Res. 38, 3427–3431 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Simunovic, M. Votruba, B. C. Regan, and J. D. Mollon, “Colour discrimination ellipses in patients with dominant optic atrophy,” Vis. Res. 38, 3413–3419 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

J. S. Werner, “Visual problems of the retina during ageing: compensation mechanisms and colour constancy across the life span,” Prog. Retinal Eye Res. 15, 621–645 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

J. M. Kraft and J. S. Werner, “Spectral efficiency across the life span: flicker photometry and brightness matching,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 1213–1221 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Regan, J. P. Reffin, and J. D. Mollon, “Luminance noise and the rapid determination of discrimination ellipses in colour deficiency,” Vis. Res. 34, 1279–1299 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

J. S. Werner, D. H. Peterzell, and A. J. Scheetz, “Light, vision, and aging,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 67, 214–229 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988 (3)

1987 (1)

1984 (1)

K. J. Bowman, M. J. Collins, and C. J. Henry, “The effect of age on performance on the Panel D-15 and Desaturated D-15: a quantitative evaluation,” Doc. Ophthalmol. Proc. 39, 227–231 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

G. Verriest, J. Van Laethem, and A. Uvijls, “A new assessment of the normal ranges of the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue test scores,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 93, 635–642 (1982).

1978 (1)

P. Lanthony, “The Desaturated Panel D-15,” Doc. Ophthalmol. 46, 185–189 (1978).

1963 (1)

1943 (1)

1942 (1)

Adams, A. J.

Anderson, R. S.

M. B. Zlatkova, E. Coulter, and R. S. Anderson, “Short-wavelength acuity: blue–yellow and achromatic resolution loss with age,” Vis. Res. 43, 109–115 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Azevedo, H.

M. Castelo-Branco, P. Faria, V. Forjaz, L. R. Kozak, and H. Azevedo, “Simultaneous comparison of relative damage to chromatic pathways in ocular hypertension and glaucoma: correlation with clinical measures,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45, 499–505 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bandeira, M. L.

P. R. K. Goulart, M. L. Bandeira, D. Tsubota, N. N. Oiwa, M. F. Costa, and D. F. Ventura, “A computer-controlled color vision test for children based on the Cambridge Colour Test,” Vis. Neurosci. 25, 1–6 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Barboni, M. T. S.

C. Feitosa-Santana, M. T. S. Barboni, N. N. Oiwa, G. V. Paramei, A. L. Simões, M. F. Costa, L. C. L. Silveira, and D. F. Ventura, “Irreversible color vision losses in patients with chronic mercury vapor intoxication,” Vis. Neurosci. 25, 487–491 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Barbur, J. L.

K. Knoblauch, F. Vital-Durand, and J. L. Barbur, “Variation of chromatic sensitivity across the life span,” Vis. Res. 41, 23–36 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bayer, A.

A. Werner, A. Bayer, G. Schwarz, E. Zrenner, and W. Paulus, “Effects of ageing on postreceptoral short-wavelength gain control: transient tritanopia increases with age,” Vis. Res. 50, 1641–1648 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Berezovsky, A.

D. F. Ventura, M. Gualtieri, M. F. Costa, P. Quiros, F. Sadun, A. M. de Negri, S. R. Salomão, A. Berezovsky, J. Sherman, A. A. Sadun, and V. Carelli, “Male prevalence of acquired color vision defects in asymptomatic carriers of Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48, 2362–2370 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bieber, M. L.

Bonci, D.

D. F. Ventura, L. C. L. Silveira, A. R. Rodrigues, J. M. De Souza, M. Gualtieri, D. Bonci, and M. F. Costa, “Preliminary norms for the Cambridge Colour Test,” in Normal & Defective Colour Vision, J. D. Mollon, J. Pokorny, and K. Knoblauch, eds. (Oxford University, 2003), pp. 331–339.

Bowman, K. J.

K. J. Bowman, M. J. Collins, and C. J. Henry, “The effect of age on performance on the Panel D-15 and Desaturated D-15: a quantitative evaluation,” Doc. Ophthalmol. Proc. 39, 227–231 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Brabyn, J. A.

G. Hagerstrom-Portnoy, M. E. Schneck, and J. A. Brabyn, “Seeing into old age: vision function beyond acuity,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 76, 141–158 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Callegaro, D.

A. L. D. A. Moura, R. A. A. Teixeira, N. N. Oiwa, M. F. Costa, C. Feitosa-Santana, D. Callegaro, R. D. Hamer, and D. F. Ventura, “Chromatic discrimination losses in multiple sclerosis patients with and without optic neuritis using the Cambridge Colour Test,” Vis. Neurosci. 25, 463–468 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Carelli, V.

D. F. Ventura, M. Gualtieri, M. F. Costa, P. Quiros, F. Sadun, A. M. de Negri, S. R. Salomão, A. Berezovsky, J. Sherman, A. A. Sadun, and V. Carelli, “Male prevalence of acquired color vision defects in asymptomatic carriers of Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48, 2362–2370 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Castelo-Branco, M.

C. Mateus, R. Lemos, M. F. Silva, A. Reis, P. Fonseca, B. Oliveiros, and M. Castelo-Branco, “Aging of low and high level vision: from chromatic and achromatic contrast sensitivity to local and 3D object motion perception,” PLoS ONE 8, e55348 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Reis, C. Mateus, M. C. Macário, J. R. F. de Abreu, and M. Castelo-Branco, “Independent patterns of damage to retinocortical pathways in multiple sclerosis without a previous episode of optic neuritis,” J. Neurol. 258, 1695–1704 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Silva, P. Faria, F. S. Regateiro, V. Forjaz, C. Januário, A. Freire, and M. Castelo-Branco, “Independent patterns of damage within magno-, parvo- and koniocellular pathways in Parkinson’s disease,” Brain 128, 2260–2271 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Castelo-Branco, P. Faria, V. Forjaz, L. R. Kozak, and H. Azevedo, “Simultaneous comparison of relative damage to chromatic pathways in ocular hypertension and glaucoma: correlation with clinical measures,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45, 499–505 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Collins, M. J.

K. J. Bowman, M. J. Collins, and C. J. Henry, “The effect of age on performance on the Panel D-15 and Desaturated D-15: a quantitative evaluation,” Doc. Ophthalmol. Proc. 39, 227–231 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Costa, M. F.

C. Feitosa-Santana, G. V. Paramei, M. Nishi, M. Gualtieri, M. F. Costa, and D. F. Ventura, “Color vision impairment in type 2 diabetes assessed by the D-15d test and the Cambridge Colour Test,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 30, 717–723 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. L. D. A. Moura, R. A. A. Teixeira, N. N. Oiwa, M. F. Costa, C. Feitosa-Santana, D. Callegaro, R. D. Hamer, and D. F. Ventura, “Chromatic discrimination losses in multiple sclerosis patients with and without optic neuritis using the Cambridge Colour Test,” Vis. Neurosci. 25, 463–468 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Feitosa-Santana, M. T. S. Barboni, N. N. Oiwa, G. V. Paramei, A. L. Simões, M. F. Costa, L. C. L. Silveira, and D. F. Ventura, “Irreversible color vision losses in patients with chronic mercury vapor intoxication,” Vis. Neurosci. 25, 487–491 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. R. K. Goulart, M. L. Bandeira, D. Tsubota, N. N. Oiwa, M. F. Costa, and D. F. Ventura, “A computer-controlled color vision test for children based on the Cambridge Colour Test,” Vis. Neurosci. 25, 1–6 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Ventura, M. Gualtieri, M. F. Costa, P. Quiros, F. Sadun, A. M. de Negri, S. R. Salomão, A. Berezovsky, J. Sherman, A. A. Sadun, and V. Carelli, “Male prevalence of acquired color vision defects in asymptomatic carriers of Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48, 2362–2370 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Costa, D. F. Ventura, F. Perazzolo, M. Murakoshi, and L. C. L. Silveira, “Absence of binocular summation, eye dominance, and learning effects in color discrimination,” Vis. Neurosci. 23, 461–469 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Ventura, A. R. Rodrigues, A. A. Moura, A. C. Vargas, M. F. Costa, J. M. de Souza, and L. L. Silveira, “Color discrimination measured by the Cambridge Colour Vision Test (CCVT) in children and adults,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43, E-Abstract 3796 (2002).

D. F. Ventura, L. C. L. Silveira, A. R. Rodrigues, J. M. De Souza, M. Gualtieri, D. Bonci, and M. F. Costa, “Preliminary norms for the Cambridge Colour Test,” in Normal & Defective Colour Vision, J. D. Mollon, J. Pokorny, and K. Knoblauch, eds. (Oxford University, 2003), pp. 331–339.

Coulter, E.

M. B. Zlatkova, E. Coulter, and R. S. Anderson, “Short-wavelength acuity: blue–yellow and achromatic resolution loss with age,” Vis. Res. 43, 109–115 (2003).
[CrossRef]

de Abreu, J. R. F.

A. Reis, C. Mateus, M. C. Macário, J. R. F. de Abreu, and M. Castelo-Branco, “Independent patterns of damage to retinocortical pathways in multiple sclerosis without a previous episode of optic neuritis,” J. Neurol. 258, 1695–1704 (2011).
[CrossRef]

de Fez, D.

D. de Fez, J. Luque, and V. Viqueira, “Enhancement of contrast sensitivity and losses of chromatic discrimination with tinted lenses,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 79, 590–597 (2002).
[CrossRef]

de Negri, A. M.

D. F. Ventura, M. Gualtieri, M. F. Costa, P. Quiros, F. Sadun, A. M. de Negri, S. R. Salomão, A. Berezovsky, J. Sherman, A. A. Sadun, and V. Carelli, “Male prevalence of acquired color vision defects in asymptomatic carriers of Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48, 2362–2370 (2007).
[CrossRef]

de Souza, J. M.

D. F. Ventura, A. R. Rodrigues, A. A. Moura, A. C. Vargas, M. F. Costa, J. M. de Souza, and L. L. Silveira, “Color discrimination measured by the Cambridge Colour Vision Test (CCVT) in children and adults,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43, E-Abstract 3796 (2002).

D. F. Ventura, L. C. L. Silveira, A. R. Rodrigues, J. M. De Souza, M. Gualtieri, D. Bonci, and M. F. Costa, “Preliminary norms for the Cambridge Colour Test,” in Normal & Defective Colour Vision, J. D. Mollon, J. Pokorny, and K. Knoblauch, eds. (Oxford University, 2003), pp. 331–339.

Faria, P.

M. F. Silva, P. Faria, F. S. Regateiro, V. Forjaz, C. Januário, A. Freire, and M. Castelo-Branco, “Independent patterns of damage within magno-, parvo- and koniocellular pathways in Parkinson’s disease,” Brain 128, 2260–2271 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Castelo-Branco, P. Faria, V. Forjaz, L. R. Kozak, and H. Azevedo, “Simultaneous comparison of relative damage to chromatic pathways in ocular hypertension and glaucoma: correlation with clinical measures,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45, 499–505 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Farnsworth, D.

Faubert, J.

D. Nguyen-Tri, O. Overbury, and J. Faubert, “The role of lenticular senescence in age-related color vision changes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44, 3698–3704 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Feitosa-Santana, C.

C. Feitosa-Santana, G. V. Paramei, M. Nishi, M. Gualtieri, M. F. Costa, and D. F. Ventura, “Color vision impairment in type 2 diabetes assessed by the D-15d test and the Cambridge Colour Test,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 30, 717–723 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. L. D. A. Moura, R. A. A. Teixeira, N. N. Oiwa, M. F. Costa, C. Feitosa-Santana, D. Callegaro, R. D. Hamer, and D. F. Ventura, “Chromatic discrimination losses in multiple sclerosis patients with and without optic neuritis using the Cambridge Colour Test,” Vis. Neurosci. 25, 463–468 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Feitosa-Santana, M. T. S. Barboni, N. N. Oiwa, G. V. Paramei, A. L. Simões, M. F. Costa, L. C. L. Silveira, and D. F. Ventura, “Irreversible color vision losses in patients with chronic mercury vapor intoxication,” Vis. Neurosci. 25, 487–491 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fonseca, P.

C. Mateus, R. Lemos, M. F. Silva, A. Reis, P. Fonseca, B. Oliveiros, and M. Castelo-Branco, “Aging of low and high level vision: from chromatic and achromatic contrast sensitivity to local and 3D object motion perception,” PLoS ONE 8, e55348 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Forjaz, V.

M. F. Silva, P. Faria, F. S. Regateiro, V. Forjaz, C. Januário, A. Freire, and M. Castelo-Branco, “Independent patterns of damage within magno-, parvo- and koniocellular pathways in Parkinson’s disease,” Brain 128, 2260–2271 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Castelo-Branco, P. Faria, V. Forjaz, L. R. Kozak, and H. Azevedo, “Simultaneous comparison of relative damage to chromatic pathways in ocular hypertension and glaucoma: correlation with clinical measures,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45, 499–505 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Freire, A.

M. F. Silva, P. Faria, F. S. Regateiro, V. Forjaz, C. Januário, A. Freire, and M. Castelo-Branco, “Independent patterns of damage within magno-, parvo- and koniocellular pathways in Parkinson’s disease,” Brain 128, 2260–2271 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Freudenthaler, N.

B. C. Regan, N. Freudenthaler, R. Kolle, J. D. Mollon, and W. Paulus, “Colour discrimination thresholds in Parkinson’s disease: results obtained with a rapid computer-controlled colour vision test,” Vis. Res. 38, 3427–3431 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fu, C.

S. Wuerger, K. Xiao, C. Fu, and D. Karataz, “Colour-opponent mechanisms are not affected by age-related chromatic sensitivity changes,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 30, 653–659 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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P. R. K. Goulart, M. L. Bandeira, D. Tsubota, N. N. Oiwa, M. F. Costa, and D. F. Ventura, “A computer-controlled color vision test for children based on the Cambridge Colour Test,” Vis. Neurosci. 25, 1–6 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gualtieri, M.

C. Feitosa-Santana, G. V. Paramei, M. Nishi, M. Gualtieri, M. F. Costa, and D. F. Ventura, “Color vision impairment in type 2 diabetes assessed by the D-15d test and the Cambridge Colour Test,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 30, 717–723 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Ventura, M. Gualtieri, M. F. Costa, P. Quiros, F. Sadun, A. M. de Negri, S. R. Salomão, A. Berezovsky, J. Sherman, A. A. Sadun, and V. Carelli, “Male prevalence of acquired color vision defects in asymptomatic carriers of Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48, 2362–2370 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Ventura, L. C. L. Silveira, A. R. Rodrigues, J. M. De Souza, M. Gualtieri, D. Bonci, and M. F. Costa, “Preliminary norms for the Cambridge Colour Test,” in Normal & Defective Colour Vision, J. D. Mollon, J. Pokorny, and K. Knoblauch, eds. (Oxford University, 2003), pp. 331–339.

Hagerstrom-Portnoy, G.

G. Hagerstrom-Portnoy, M. E. Schneck, and J. A. Brabyn, “Seeing into old age: vision function beyond acuity,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 76, 141–158 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hamer, R. D.

A. L. D. A. Moura, R. A. A. Teixeira, N. N. Oiwa, M. F. Costa, C. Feitosa-Santana, D. Callegaro, R. D. Hamer, and D. F. Ventura, “Chromatic discrimination losses in multiple sclerosis patients with and without optic neuritis using the Cambridge Colour Test,” Vis. Neurosci. 25, 463–468 (2008).
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K. J. Bowman, M. J. Collins, and C. J. Henry, “The effect of age on performance on the Panel D-15 and Desaturated D-15: a quantitative evaluation,” Doc. Ophthalmol. Proc. 39, 227–231 (1984).
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J. K. Hovis, “Comparison of three computer based color vision tests,” Aviation Space Environ. Med. 82, 243 (2011).

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S. Ishihara, Test for Colour-Blindness, 24 Plates Edition (Kanehra Shupan Co., Ltd., 1973).

Januário, C.

M. F. Silva, P. Faria, F. S. Regateiro, V. Forjaz, C. Januário, A. Freire, and M. Castelo-Branco, “Independent patterns of damage within magno-, parvo- and koniocellular pathways in Parkinson’s disease,” Brain 128, 2260–2271 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, C. A.

Karataz, D.

S. Wuerger, K. Xiao, C. Fu, and D. Karataz, “Colour-opponent mechanisms are not affected by age-related chromatic sensitivity changes,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 30, 653–659 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kinnear, P. R.

P. R. Kinnear and A. Sahraie, “New Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test norms of normal observers for each year of age 5–22 and for age decades 30–70,” Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 86, 1408–1411 (2002).
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Knoblauch, K.

K. Knoblauch, F. Vital-Durand, and J. L. Barbur, “Variation of chromatic sensitivity across the life span,” Vis. Res. 41, 23–36 (2001).
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K. Knoblauch and L. T. Maloney, Modeling Psychophysical Data in R (Springer, 2012), Chap. 2, pp. 45–56.

Kolle, R.

B. C. Regan, N. Freudenthaler, R. Kolle, J. D. Mollon, and W. Paulus, “Colour discrimination thresholds in Parkinson’s disease: results obtained with a rapid computer-controlled colour vision test,” Vis. Res. 38, 3427–3431 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kozak, L. R.

M. Castelo-Branco, P. Faria, V. Forjaz, L. R. Kozak, and H. Azevedo, “Simultaneous comparison of relative damage to chromatic pathways in ocular hypertension and glaucoma: correlation with clinical measures,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45, 499–505 (2004).
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Krishnamoorthy, K.

K. Krishnamoorthy, Handbook of Statistical Distributions with Applications (Chapman & Hall/CRC Press, 2006), pp. 323–324.

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P. Lanthony, “The Desaturated Panel D-15,” Doc. Ophthalmol. 46, 185–189 (1978).

Lemos, R.

C. Mateus, R. Lemos, M. F. Silva, A. Reis, P. Fonseca, B. Oliveiros, and M. Castelo-Branco, “Aging of low and high level vision: from chromatic and achromatic contrast sensitivity to local and 3D object motion perception,” PLoS ONE 8, e55348 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Luque, J.

D. de Fez, J. Luque, and V. Viqueira, “Enhancement of contrast sensitivity and losses of chromatic discrimination with tinted lenses,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 79, 590–597 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lutze, M.

MacAdam, D. L.

Macário, M. C.

A. Reis, C. Mateus, M. C. Macário, J. R. F. de Abreu, and M. Castelo-Branco, “Independent patterns of damage to retinocortical pathways in multiple sclerosis without a previous episode of optic neuritis,” J. Neurol. 258, 1695–1704 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Maloney, L. T.

K. Knoblauch and L. T. Maloney, Modeling Psychophysical Data in R (Springer, 2012), Chap. 2, pp. 45–56.

Mateus, C.

C. Mateus, R. Lemos, M. F. Silva, A. Reis, P. Fonseca, B. Oliveiros, and M. Castelo-Branco, “Aging of low and high level vision: from chromatic and achromatic contrast sensitivity to local and 3D object motion perception,” PLoS ONE 8, e55348 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Reis, C. Mateus, M. C. Macário, J. R. F. de Abreu, and M. Castelo-Branco, “Independent patterns of damage to retinocortical pathways in multiple sclerosis without a previous episode of optic neuritis,” J. Neurol. 258, 1695–1704 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mollon, J. D.

B. C. Regan, N. Freudenthaler, R. Kolle, J. D. Mollon, and W. Paulus, “Colour discrimination thresholds in Parkinson’s disease: results obtained with a rapid computer-controlled colour vision test,” Vis. Res. 38, 3427–3431 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Simunovic, M. Votruba, B. C. Regan, and J. D. Mollon, “Colour discrimination ellipses in patients with dominant optic atrophy,” Vis. Res. 38, 3413–3419 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Regan, J. P. Reffin, and J. D. Mollon, “Luminance noise and the rapid determination of discrimination ellipses in colour deficiency,” Vis. Res. 34, 1279–1299 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Mollon and B. C. Regan, Cambridge Colour Test Handbook (Cambridge Research Systems Ltd., 2000).

Moura, A. A.

D. F. Ventura, A. R. Rodrigues, A. A. Moura, A. C. Vargas, M. F. Costa, J. M. de Souza, and L. L. Silveira, “Color discrimination measured by the Cambridge Colour Vision Test (CCVT) in children and adults,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43, E-Abstract 3796 (2002).

Moura, A. L. D. A.

A. L. D. A. Moura, R. A. A. Teixeira, N. N. Oiwa, M. F. Costa, C. Feitosa-Santana, D. Callegaro, R. D. Hamer, and D. F. Ventura, “Chromatic discrimination losses in multiple sclerosis patients with and without optic neuritis using the Cambridge Colour Test,” Vis. Neurosci. 25, 463–468 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Murakoshi, M.

M. F. Costa, D. F. Ventura, F. Perazzolo, M. Murakoshi, and L. C. L. Silveira, “Absence of binocular summation, eye dominance, and learning effects in color discrimination,” Vis. Neurosci. 23, 461–469 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen-Tri, D.

D. Nguyen-Tri, O. Overbury, and J. Faubert, “The role of lenticular senescence in age-related color vision changes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44, 3698–3704 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nishi, M.

C. Feitosa-Santana, G. V. Paramei, M. Nishi, M. Gualtieri, M. F. Costa, and D. F. Ventura, “Color vision impairment in type 2 diabetes assessed by the D-15d test and the Cambridge Colour Test,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 30, 717–723 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Oiwa, N. N.

A. L. D. A. Moura, R. A. A. Teixeira, N. N. Oiwa, M. F. Costa, C. Feitosa-Santana, D. Callegaro, R. D. Hamer, and D. F. Ventura, “Chromatic discrimination losses in multiple sclerosis patients with and without optic neuritis using the Cambridge Colour Test,” Vis. Neurosci. 25, 463–468 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Feitosa-Santana, M. T. S. Barboni, N. N. Oiwa, G. V. Paramei, A. L. Simões, M. F. Costa, L. C. L. Silveira, and D. F. Ventura, “Irreversible color vision losses in patients with chronic mercury vapor intoxication,” Vis. Neurosci. 25, 487–491 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. R. K. Goulart, M. L. Bandeira, D. Tsubota, N. N. Oiwa, M. F. Costa, and D. F. Ventura, “A computer-controlled color vision test for children based on the Cambridge Colour Test,” Vis. Neurosci. 25, 1–6 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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K. Okajima and M. Takase, “Computerized simulation and chromatic adaptation experiments on a model of aged human lens,” Opt. Rev. 8, 64–70 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Oliveiros, B.

C. Mateus, R. Lemos, M. F. Silva, A. Reis, P. Fonseca, B. Oliveiros, and M. Castelo-Branco, “Aging of low and high level vision: from chromatic and achromatic contrast sensitivity to local and 3D object motion perception,” PLoS ONE 8, e55348 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Overbury, O.

D. Nguyen-Tri, O. Overbury, and J. Faubert, “The role of lenticular senescence in age-related color vision changes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44, 3698–3704 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Paramei, G. V.

G. V. Paramei, “Color discrimination across four life decades assessed by the Cambridge Colour Test,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29, A290–A297 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Feitosa-Santana, G. V. Paramei, M. Nishi, M. Gualtieri, M. F. Costa, and D. F. Ventura, “Color vision impairment in type 2 diabetes assessed by the D-15d test and the Cambridge Colour Test,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 30, 717–723 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Feitosa-Santana, M. T. S. Barboni, N. N. Oiwa, G. V. Paramei, A. L. Simões, M. F. Costa, L. C. L. Silveira, and D. F. Ventura, “Irreversible color vision losses in patients with chronic mercury vapor intoxication,” Vis. Neurosci. 25, 487–491 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Paulus, W.

A. Werner, A. Bayer, G. Schwarz, E. Zrenner, and W. Paulus, “Effects of ageing on postreceptoral short-wavelength gain control: transient tritanopia increases with age,” Vis. Res. 50, 1641–1648 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Regan, N. Freudenthaler, R. Kolle, J. D. Mollon, and W. Paulus, “Colour discrimination thresholds in Parkinson’s disease: results obtained with a rapid computer-controlled colour vision test,” Vis. Res. 38, 3427–3431 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Perazzolo, F.

M. F. Costa, D. F. Ventura, F. Perazzolo, M. Murakoshi, and L. C. L. Silveira, “Absence of binocular summation, eye dominance, and learning effects in color discrimination,” Vis. Neurosci. 23, 461–469 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Peterzell, D. H.

J. S. Werner, D. H. Peterzell, and A. J. Scheetz, “Light, vision, and aging,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 67, 214–229 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Pokorny, J.

Quigg, J. M.

Quiros, P.

D. F. Ventura, M. Gualtieri, M. F. Costa, P. Quiros, F. Sadun, A. M. de Negri, S. R. Salomão, A. Berezovsky, J. Sherman, A. A. Sadun, and V. Carelli, “Male prevalence of acquired color vision defects in asymptomatic carriers of Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48, 2362–2370 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Reffin, J. P.

B. C. Regan, J. P. Reffin, and J. D. Mollon, “Luminance noise and the rapid determination of discrimination ellipses in colour deficiency,” Vis. Res. 34, 1279–1299 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Regan, B. C.

B. C. Regan, N. Freudenthaler, R. Kolle, J. D. Mollon, and W. Paulus, “Colour discrimination thresholds in Parkinson’s disease: results obtained with a rapid computer-controlled colour vision test,” Vis. Res. 38, 3427–3431 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Simunovic, M. Votruba, B. C. Regan, and J. D. Mollon, “Colour discrimination ellipses in patients with dominant optic atrophy,” Vis. Res. 38, 3413–3419 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Regan, J. P. Reffin, and J. D. Mollon, “Luminance noise and the rapid determination of discrimination ellipses in colour deficiency,” Vis. Res. 34, 1279–1299 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Mollon and B. C. Regan, Cambridge Colour Test Handbook (Cambridge Research Systems Ltd., 2000).

Regateiro, F. S.

M. F. Silva, P. Faria, F. S. Regateiro, V. Forjaz, C. Januário, A. Freire, and M. Castelo-Branco, “Independent patterns of damage within magno-, parvo- and koniocellular pathways in Parkinson’s disease,” Brain 128, 2260–2271 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Reis, A.

C. Mateus, R. Lemos, M. F. Silva, A. Reis, P. Fonseca, B. Oliveiros, and M. Castelo-Branco, “Aging of low and high level vision: from chromatic and achromatic contrast sensitivity to local and 3D object motion perception,” PLoS ONE 8, e55348 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Reis, C. Mateus, M. C. Macário, J. R. F. de Abreu, and M. Castelo-Branco, “Independent patterns of damage to retinocortical pathways in multiple sclerosis without a previous episode of optic neuritis,” J. Neurol. 258, 1695–1704 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rodrigues, A. R.

D. F. Ventura, A. R. Rodrigues, A. A. Moura, A. C. Vargas, M. F. Costa, J. M. de Souza, and L. L. Silveira, “Color discrimination measured by the Cambridge Colour Vision Test (CCVT) in children and adults,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43, E-Abstract 3796 (2002).

D. F. Ventura, L. C. L. Silveira, A. R. Rodrigues, J. M. De Souza, M. Gualtieri, D. Bonci, and M. F. Costa, “Preliminary norms for the Cambridge Colour Test,” in Normal & Defective Colour Vision, J. D. Mollon, J. Pokorny, and K. Knoblauch, eds. (Oxford University, 2003), pp. 331–339.

Sadun, A. A.

D. F. Ventura, M. Gualtieri, M. F. Costa, P. Quiros, F. Sadun, A. M. de Negri, S. R. Salomão, A. Berezovsky, J. Sherman, A. A. Sadun, and V. Carelli, “Male prevalence of acquired color vision defects in asymptomatic carriers of Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48, 2362–2370 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sadun, F.

D. F. Ventura, M. Gualtieri, M. F. Costa, P. Quiros, F. Sadun, A. M. de Negri, S. R. Salomão, A. Berezovsky, J. Sherman, A. A. Sadun, and V. Carelli, “Male prevalence of acquired color vision defects in asymptomatic carriers of Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48, 2362–2370 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sahraie, A.

P. R. Kinnear and A. Sahraie, “New Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test norms of normal observers for each year of age 5–22 and for age decades 30–70,” Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 86, 1408–1411 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Salomão, S. R.

D. F. Ventura, M. Gualtieri, M. F. Costa, P. Quiros, F. Sadun, A. M. de Negri, S. R. Salomão, A. Berezovsky, J. Sherman, A. A. Sadun, and V. Carelli, “Male prevalence of acquired color vision defects in asymptomatic carriers of Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48, 2362–2370 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Scheetz, A. J.

J. S. Werner, D. H. Peterzell, and A. J. Scheetz, “Light, vision, and aging,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 67, 214–229 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Schefrin, B. E.

Schneck, M. E.

G. Hagerstrom-Portnoy, M. E. Schneck, and J. A. Brabyn, “Seeing into old age: vision function beyond acuity,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 76, 141–158 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schwarz, G.

A. Werner, A. Bayer, G. Schwarz, E. Zrenner, and W. Paulus, “Effects of ageing on postreceptoral short-wavelength gain control: transient tritanopia increases with age,” Vis. Res. 50, 1641–1648 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sherman, J.

D. F. Ventura, M. Gualtieri, M. F. Costa, P. Quiros, F. Sadun, A. M. de Negri, S. R. Salomão, A. Berezovsky, J. Sherman, A. A. Sadun, and V. Carelli, “Male prevalence of acquired color vision defects in asymptomatic carriers of Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48, 2362–2370 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shinomori, K.

Silva, M. F.

C. Mateus, R. Lemos, M. F. Silva, A. Reis, P. Fonseca, B. Oliveiros, and M. Castelo-Branco, “Aging of low and high level vision: from chromatic and achromatic contrast sensitivity to local and 3D object motion perception,” PLoS ONE 8, e55348 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Silva, P. Faria, F. S. Regateiro, V. Forjaz, C. Januário, A. Freire, and M. Castelo-Branco, “Independent patterns of damage within magno-, parvo- and koniocellular pathways in Parkinson’s disease,” Brain 128, 2260–2271 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Silveira, L. C. L.

C. Feitosa-Santana, M. T. S. Barboni, N. N. Oiwa, G. V. Paramei, A. L. Simões, M. F. Costa, L. C. L. Silveira, and D. F. Ventura, “Irreversible color vision losses in patients with chronic mercury vapor intoxication,” Vis. Neurosci. 25, 487–491 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Costa, D. F. Ventura, F. Perazzolo, M. Murakoshi, and L. C. L. Silveira, “Absence of binocular summation, eye dominance, and learning effects in color discrimination,” Vis. Neurosci. 23, 461–469 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Ventura, L. C. L. Silveira, A. R. Rodrigues, J. M. De Souza, M. Gualtieri, D. Bonci, and M. F. Costa, “Preliminary norms for the Cambridge Colour Test,” in Normal & Defective Colour Vision, J. D. Mollon, J. Pokorny, and K. Knoblauch, eds. (Oxford University, 2003), pp. 331–339.

Silveira, L. L.

D. F. Ventura, A. R. Rodrigues, A. A. Moura, A. C. Vargas, M. F. Costa, J. M. de Souza, and L. L. Silveira, “Color discrimination measured by the Cambridge Colour Vision Test (CCVT) in children and adults,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43, E-Abstract 3796 (2002).

Simões, A. L.

C. Feitosa-Santana, M. T. S. Barboni, N. N. Oiwa, G. V. Paramei, A. L. Simões, M. F. Costa, L. C. L. Silveira, and D. F. Ventura, “Irreversible color vision losses in patients with chronic mercury vapor intoxication,” Vis. Neurosci. 25, 487–491 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Simunovic, M. P.

M. P. Simunovic, M. Votruba, B. C. Regan, and J. D. Mollon, “Colour discrimination ellipses in patients with dominant optic atrophy,” Vis. Res. 38, 3413–3419 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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P. R. K. Goulart, M. L. Bandeira, D. Tsubota, N. N. Oiwa, M. F. Costa, and D. F. Ventura, “A computer-controlled color vision test for children based on the Cambridge Colour Test,” Vis. Neurosci. 25, 1–6 (2008).
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C. Feitosa-Santana, G. V. Paramei, M. Nishi, M. Gualtieri, M. F. Costa, and D. F. Ventura, “Color vision impairment in type 2 diabetes assessed by the D-15d test and the Cambridge Colour Test,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 30, 717–723 (2010).
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A. L. D. A. Moura, R. A. A. Teixeira, N. N. Oiwa, M. F. Costa, C. Feitosa-Santana, D. Callegaro, R. D. Hamer, and D. F. Ventura, “Chromatic discrimination losses in multiple sclerosis patients with and without optic neuritis using the Cambridge Colour Test,” Vis. Neurosci. 25, 463–468 (2008).
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D. F. Ventura, L. C. L. Silveira, A. R. Rodrigues, J. M. De Souza, M. Gualtieri, D. Bonci, and M. F. Costa, “Preliminary norms for the Cambridge Colour Test,” in Normal & Defective Colour Vision, J. D. Mollon, J. Pokorny, and K. Knoblauch, eds. (Oxford University, 2003), pp. 331–339.

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G. Verriest, J. Van Laethem, and A. Uvijls, “A new assessment of the normal ranges of the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue test scores,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 93, 635–642 (1982).

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D. F. Ventura, A. R. Rodrigues, A. A. Moura, A. C. Vargas, M. F. Costa, J. M. de Souza, and L. L. Silveira, “Color discrimination measured by the Cambridge Colour Vision Test (CCVT) in children and adults,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43, E-Abstract 3796 (2002).

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[CrossRef]

D. F. Ventura, M. Gualtieri, M. F. Costa, P. Quiros, F. Sadun, A. M. de Negri, S. R. Salomão, A. Berezovsky, J. Sherman, A. A. Sadun, and V. Carelli, “Male prevalence of acquired color vision defects in asymptomatic carriers of Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48, 2362–2370 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Castelo-Branco, P. Faria, V. Forjaz, L. R. Kozak, and H. Azevedo, “Simultaneous comparison of relative damage to chromatic pathways in ocular hypertension and glaucoma: correlation with clinical measures,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45, 499–505 (2004).
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A. Reis, C. Mateus, M. C. Macário, J. R. F. de Abreu, and M. Castelo-Branco, “Independent patterns of damage to retinocortical pathways in multiple sclerosis without a previous episode of optic neuritis,” J. Neurol. 258, 1695–1704 (2011).
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R. A. Weale, “Age and the transmittance of the human crystalline lens,” J. Physiol. 395, 577–587 (1988).

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S. Wuerger, K. Xiao, C. Fu, and D. Karataz, “Colour-opponent mechanisms are not affected by age-related chromatic sensitivity changes,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 30, 653–659 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Feitosa-Santana, G. V. Paramei, M. Nishi, M. Gualtieri, M. F. Costa, and D. F. Ventura, “Color vision impairment in type 2 diabetes assessed by the D-15d test and the Cambridge Colour Test,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 30, 717–723 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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K. Okajima and M. Takase, “Computerized simulation and chromatic adaptation experiments on a model of aged human lens,” Opt. Rev. 8, 64–70 (2001).
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[CrossRef]

PLoS ONE (2)

C. Mateus, R. Lemos, M. F. Silva, A. Reis, P. Fonseca, B. Oliveiros, and M. Castelo-Branco, “Aging of low and high level vision: from chromatic and achromatic contrast sensitivity to local and 3D object motion perception,” PLoS ONE 8, e55348 (2013).
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P. R. K. Goulart, M. L. Bandeira, D. Tsubota, N. N. Oiwa, M. F. Costa, and D. F. Ventura, “A computer-controlled color vision test for children based on the Cambridge Colour Test,” Vis. Neurosci. 25, 1–6 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Feitosa-Santana, M. T. S. Barboni, N. N. Oiwa, G. V. Paramei, A. L. Simões, M. F. Costa, L. C. L. Silveira, and D. F. Ventura, “Irreversible color vision losses in patients with chronic mercury vapor intoxication,” Vis. Neurosci. 25, 487–491 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. L. D. A. Moura, R. A. A. Teixeira, N. N. Oiwa, M. F. Costa, C. Feitosa-Santana, D. Callegaro, R. D. Hamer, and D. F. Ventura, “Chromatic discrimination losses in multiple sclerosis patients with and without optic neuritis using the Cambridge Colour Test,” Vis. Neurosci. 25, 463–468 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Costa, D. F. Ventura, F. Perazzolo, M. Murakoshi, and L. C. L. Silveira, “Absence of binocular summation, eye dominance, and learning effects in color discrimination,” Vis. Neurosci. 23, 461–469 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vis. Res. (6)

B. C. Regan, N. Freudenthaler, R. Kolle, J. D. Mollon, and W. Paulus, “Colour discrimination thresholds in Parkinson’s disease: results obtained with a rapid computer-controlled colour vision test,” Vis. Res. 38, 3427–3431 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Simunovic, M. Votruba, B. C. Regan, and J. D. Mollon, “Colour discrimination ellipses in patients with dominant optic atrophy,” Vis. Res. 38, 3413–3419 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Knoblauch, F. Vital-Durand, and J. L. Barbur, “Variation of chromatic sensitivity across the life span,” Vis. Res. 41, 23–36 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Regan, J. P. Reffin, and J. D. Mollon, “Luminance noise and the rapid determination of discrimination ellipses in colour deficiency,” Vis. Res. 34, 1279–1299 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Zlatkova, E. Coulter, and R. S. Anderson, “Short-wavelength acuity: blue–yellow and achromatic resolution loss with age,” Vis. Res. 43, 109–115 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Werner, A. Bayer, G. Schwarz, E. Zrenner, and W. Paulus, “Effects of ageing on postreceptoral short-wavelength gain control: transient tritanopia increases with age,” Vis. Res. 50, 1641–1648 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

J. D. Mollon and B. C. Regan, Cambridge Colour Test Handbook (Cambridge Research Systems Ltd., 2000).

D. F. Ventura, L. C. L. Silveira, A. R. Rodrigues, J. M. De Souza, M. Gualtieri, D. Bonci, and M. F. Costa, “Preliminary norms for the Cambridge Colour Test,” in Normal & Defective Colour Vision, J. D. Mollon, J. Pokorny, and K. Knoblauch, eds. (Oxford University, 2003), pp. 331–339.

Cambridge Research Systems Ltd., http://www.crsltd.com/tools-for-vision-science/measuring-visual-functions/cambridge-colour-test/ .

K. Krishnamoorthy, Handbook of Statistical Distributions with Applications (Chapman & Hall/CRC Press, 2006), pp. 323–324.

STATGRAPHICS Centurion: http://www.statgraphics.com .

K. Knoblauch and L. T. Maloney, Modeling Psychophysical Data in R (Springer, 2012), Chap. 2, pp. 45–56.

S. Ishihara, Test for Colour-Blindness, 24 Plates Edition (Kanehra Shupan Co., Ltd., 1973).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Illustration of the chromatic targets, Landolt “C,” embedded in the luminance noise background [25, p. 4].

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) P, D, and T vectors (in CIE 1976 uv color space) along which the chromaticity is varied in the CCT Trivector test. The origin of the vectors indicates chromaticity coordinates of the neutral background (u=0.1977, v=0.4689). The monitor gamut is represented by the white triangle [33, p. 2265]. (b) Examples of chromatic discrimination ellipses for young adult NTs: Ellipse 1 (middle), Ellipse 2 (top), Ellipse 3 (bottom); crosses indicate raw discrimination vectors, fitted ellipses are shown by solid lines [25, Graph 1].

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Trivector test: ln of chromatic discrimination thresholds (104uv units) along the P (left), D (middle), and T (right) axes as a function of age. The solid curve is the best fit of Eq. (1) to the data. The values of R2 indicate variance accounted for by the fitted curves.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Trivector test: ln of chromatic discrimination thresholds (104uv units) along the (a) P, (b) D, and (c) T axes for the eight life decades. Significant differences between the age bands are indicated by horizontal lines accompanied by corresponding p-values.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Ellipses test, Ellipse 1: ln of the (a) length of the major axis (105uv units) and (b) major-to-minor axis ratio for the eight life decades. Horizontal lines indicate significant differences between the age bands and are accompanied by corresponding p-values.

Tables (8)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Participant Number of Both Genders (F=Females, M=Males) and Age Details (y.o.) for Each Age Band

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Table 2. Trivector (104uv Units): Median, Half-Interquartile Range (IQR/2) and Tolerance Limits for Eight Life Decades

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Table 3. Summary of Parameter Fits to Eq. (1)

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Table 4. Ellipses Test, Length of the Major Axis (105uv units): Median, Half-Interquartile Range (IQR/2) and Tolerance Limits for Eight Life Decades

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Table 5. Ellipses Test, Major-to-Minor Axis Ratio: Median, Half-Interquartile Range (IQR/2) and Tolerance Limits for Eight Life Decades

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Table 6. Ellipses Test, Angle of the Major Axis (deg): Median, Half-Interquartile Range (IQR/2) and Tolerance Limits for Eight Life Decades

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Table 7. Ellipses Test, Length of the Major Axis: Mann–Whitney U for First Significant Difference between Life Decadesa

Tables Icon

Table 8. Ellipses Test, Major-to-Minor Axis Ratio: Mann–Whitney U for First Significant Difference between Life Decadesa

Equations (1)

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T=ln(aAα+bAβ),

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