Abstract

If unique hues have special status in phenomenological experience as perceptually pure, it seems reasonable to assume that they are represented more precisely by the visual system than are other colors. Following the method of Malkoc et al. (J. Opt. Soc. Am. A22, 2154 [2005]), we gathered unique and binary hue selections from 50 subjects. For these subjects we repeated the measurements in two separate sessions, allowing us to measure test–retest reliabilities (0.52≤ρ≤0.78; p≪0.01). We quantified the within-individual variability for selections of each hue. Adjusting for the differences in variability intrinsic to different regions of chromaticity space, we compared the within-individual variability for unique hues to that for binary hues. Surprisingly, we found that selections of unique hues did not show consistently lower variability than selections of binary hues. We repeated hue measurements in a single session for an independent sample of 58 subjects, using a different relative scaling of the cardinal axes of MacLeod–Boynton chromaticity space. Again, we found no consistent difference in adjusted within-individual variability for selections of unique and binary hues. Our finding does not depend on the particular scaling chosen for the Y axis of MacLeod–Boynton chromaticity space.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013 (2)

C. Witzel and K. R. Gegenfurtner, “Categorical sensitivity to color differences,” J. Vis. 13(7):1, 1–33 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Xiao, C. Fu, D. Mylonas, D. Karatzas, and S. Wuerger, “Unique hue data for colour appearance models. Part II: chromatic adaptation transform,” Color Res. Appl. 38, 22–29 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

K. Xiao, S. Wuerger, C. Fu, and D. Karatzas, “Unique hue data for colour appearance models. Part I: loci of unique hues and hue uniformity,” Color Res. Appl. 36, 316–323 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

J. Mollon, “A neural basis for unique hues?” Curr. Biol. 19, R441–R442 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

C. M. Stoughton and B. R. Conway, “Neural basis for unique hues,” Curr. Biol. 18, R698–R699 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2005 (7)

D. L. Bimler and G. V. Paramei, “Bezold–Brücke effect in normal trichromats and protanopes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 2120–2136 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Malkoc, P. Kay, and M. A. Webster, “Variations in normal color vision. IV. binary hues and hue scaling,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 2154–2168 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Kay, “Color categories are not arbitrary,” Cross-Cult. Res. 39, 39–55 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Hardin, “Explaining basic color categories,” Cross-Cult. Res. 39, 72–87 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Roberson, J. Davidoff, I. R. L. Davies, and L. R. Shapiro, “Color categories: evidence for the cultural relativity hypothesis,” Cogn. Psychol. 50, 378–411 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Kuehni, “Focal color variability and unique hue stimulus variability,” J. Cogn. Cult. 5, 409–426 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Wuerger, P. Atkinson, and S. Cropper, “The cone inputs to the unique-hue mechanisms,” Vis. Res. 45, 3210–3223 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

R. Kuehni, “Variability in unique hue selection: a surprising phenomenon,” Color Res. Appl. 29, 158–162 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

E. Miyahara, “Focal colors and unique hues,” Percept. Mot. Skills 97, 1038–1042 (2003).

P. Kay and T. Regier, “Resolving the question of color naming universals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 9085–9089 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2001 (2)

R. G. Kuehni, “Determination of unique hues using Munsell color chips,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 61–66 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Valberg, “Unique hues: an old problem for a new generation,” Vis. Res. 41, 1645–1657 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1999 (2)

R. W. Pridmore, “Bezold–Brucke hue-shift as functions of luminance level, luminance ratio, interstimulus interval and adapting white for aperture and object colors,” Vis. Res. 39, 3873–3891 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Pridmore, “Unique and binary hues as functions of luminance and illuminant color temperature, and relations with invariant hues,” Vis. Res. 39, 3892–3908 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

B. A. Saunders and J. van Brakel, “Are there nontrivial constraints on colour categorization?” Behav. Brain Sci. 20, 167–179 (1997).
[CrossRef]

V. J. Volbrecht, J. L. Nerger, and C. E. Harlow, “The bimodality of unique green revisited,” Vis. Res. 37, 407–416 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Birch, “Efficiency of the Ishihara test for identifying red–green colour deficiency,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 17, 403–408 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

G. Jordan and J. D. Mollon, “Rayleigh matches and unique green,” Vis. Res. 35, 613–620 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

I. Abramov and J. Gordon, “Color appearance: on seeing red-or yellow, or green, or blue,” Annu. Rev. Psychol. 45, 451–485 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

R. L. De Valois and K. K. De Valois, “A multi-stage color model,” Vis. Res. 33, 1053–1065 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

1987 (1)

1984 (1)

S. Burns, A. Elsner, J. Pokorny, and V. Smith, “The Abney effect: chromaticity coordinates of unique and other constant hues,” Vis. Res. 24, 479–489 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

1967 (1)

1965 (1)

1961 (1)

1937 (1)

D. Purdy, “The Bezold–Brücke phenomenon and contours for constant hue,” Am. J. Psychol. 49, 313–315 (1937).
[CrossRef]

Abramov, I.

I. Abramov and J. Gordon, “Color appearance: on seeing red-or yellow, or green, or blue,” Annu. Rev. Psychol. 45, 451–485 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Atkinson, P.

S. M. Wuerger, P. Atkinson, and S. Cropper, “The cone inputs to the unique-hue mechanisms,” Vis. Res. 45, 3210–3223 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ayama, M.

Bharadwaj, S.

Bimler, D. L.

Birch, J.

J. Birch, “Efficiency of the Ishihara test for identifying red–green colour deficiency,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 17, 403–408 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Boynton, R.

Boynton, R. M.

Burns, S.

S. Burns, A. Elsner, J. Pokorny, and V. Smith, “The Abney effect: chromaticity coordinates of unique and other constant hues,” Vis. Res. 24, 479–489 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Cárdenas, L. M.

Cavonius, C.

J. Mollon and C. Cavonius, “The chromatic antagonisms of opponent process theory are not the same as those revealed in studies of detection and discrimination,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies VIII, G. Verriest, ed. (Junk, 1987).

Conway, B. R.

C. M. Stoughton and B. R. Conway, “Neural basis for unique hues,” Curr. Biol. 18, R698–R699 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cropper, S.

S. M. Wuerger, P. Atkinson, and S. Cropper, “The cone inputs to the unique-hue mechanisms,” Vis. Res. 45, 3210–3223 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D’Andrade, R. G.

K. A. Jameson and R. G. D’Andrade, “It’s not really red, green, yellow, blue: an inquiry into perceptual color space,” in Color Categories in Thought and Language, C. Hardin and L. Maffi, eds. (Cambridge University, 1997), pp. 295–319.

Davidoff, J.

D. Roberson, J. Davidoff, I. R. L. Davies, and L. R. Shapiro, “Color categories: evidence for the cultural relativity hypothesis,” Cogn. Psychol. 50, 378–411 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Davies, I. R. L.

D. Roberson, J. Davidoff, I. R. L. Davies, and L. R. Shapiro, “Color categories: evidence for the cultural relativity hypothesis,” Cogn. Psychol. 50, 378–411 (2005).
[CrossRef]

De Valois, K. K.

R. L. De Valois and K. K. De Valois, “A multi-stage color model,” Vis. Res. 33, 1053–1065 (1993).
[CrossRef]

De Valois, R. L.

R. L. De Valois and K. K. De Valois, “A multi-stage color model,” Vis. Res. 33, 1053–1065 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Elsner, A.

S. Burns, A. Elsner, J. Pokorny, and V. Smith, “The Abney effect: chromaticity coordinates of unique and other constant hues,” Vis. Res. 24, 479–489 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Fu, C.

K. Xiao, C. Fu, D. Mylonas, D. Karatzas, and S. Wuerger, “Unique hue data for colour appearance models. Part II: chromatic adaptation transform,” Color Res. Appl. 38, 22–29 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Xiao, S. Wuerger, C. Fu, and D. Karatzas, “Unique hue data for colour appearance models. Part I: loci of unique hues and hue uniformity,” Color Res. Appl. 36, 316–323 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gegenfurtner, K. R.

C. Witzel and K. R. Gegenfurtner, “Categorical sensitivity to color differences,” J. Vis. 13(7):1, 1–33 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, J.

I. Abramov and J. Gordon, “Color appearance: on seeing red-or yellow, or green, or blue,” Annu. Rev. Psychol. 45, 451–485 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. Boynton and J. Gordon, “Bezold–Brücke hue shift measured by color-naming technique,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 78–85 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Hardin, C. L.

C. L. Hardin, “Explaining basic color categories,” Cross-Cult. Res. 39, 72–87 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Harlow, C. E.

V. J. Volbrecht, J. L. Nerger, and C. E. Harlow, “The bimodality of unique green revisited,” Vis. Res. 37, 407–416 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hering, E.

E. Hering, Zur Lehre Vom Lichtsinne (Carl Gerold’s Sohn, 1878).

Hinks, D.

Jacobs, G.

Jaikumar, J.

Jameson, K. A.

K. A. Jameson, “Where in the World Color Survey is the support for the Hering primaries as the basis for color categorization?” in Color Ontology and Color Science, J. Cohen and M. Matthen, eds. (MIT, 2010), pp. 179–202.

K. A. Jameson and R. G. D’Andrade, “It’s not really red, green, yellow, blue: an inquiry into perceptual color space,” in Color Categories in Thought and Language, C. Hardin and L. Maffi, eds. (Cambridge University, 1997), pp. 295–319.

Jordan, G.

G. Jordan and J. D. Mollon, “Rayleigh matches and unique green,” Vis. Res. 35, 613–620 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, P. K.

Karatzas, D.

K. Xiao, C. Fu, D. Mylonas, D. Karatzas, and S. Wuerger, “Unique hue data for colour appearance models. Part II: chromatic adaptation transform,” Color Res. Appl. 38, 22–29 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Xiao, S. Wuerger, C. Fu, and D. Karatzas, “Unique hue data for colour appearance models. Part I: loci of unique hues and hue uniformity,” Color Res. Appl. 36, 316–323 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kay, P.

P. Kay, “Color categories are not arbitrary,” Cross-Cult. Res. 39, 39–55 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Malkoc, P. Kay, and M. A. Webster, “Variations in normal color vision. IV. binary hues and hue scaling,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 2154–2168 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Kay and T. Regier, “Resolving the question of color naming universals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 9085–9089 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Keene, B.

Kuehni, R.

R. Kuehni, “Focal color variability and unique hue stimulus variability,” J. Cogn. Cult. 5, 409–426 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Kuehni, “Variability in unique hue selection: a surprising phenomenon,” Color Res. Appl. 29, 158–162 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kuehni, R. G.

MacLeod, D. I.

Madan, G.

Malkoc, G.

Mathews, M.

Miyahara, E.

Mollon, J.

J. Mollon, “A neural basis for unique hues?” Curr. Biol. 19, R441–R442 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Mollon and C. Cavonius, “The chromatic antagonisms of opponent process theory are not the same as those revealed in studies of detection and discrimination,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies VIII, G. Verriest, ed. (Junk, 1987).

Mollon, J. D.

G. Jordan and J. D. Mollon, “Rayleigh matches and unique green,” Vis. Res. 35, 613–620 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Regan and J. D. Mollon, “The relative salience of the cardinal axes of colour space in normal and anomalous trichromats,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies XIII, C. R. Cavonius, ed. (Kluwer, 1997), pp. 261–270.

Mylonas, D.

K. Xiao, C. Fu, D. Mylonas, D. Karatzas, and S. Wuerger, “Unique hue data for colour appearance models. Part II: chromatic adaptation transform,” Color Res. Appl. 38, 22–29 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nakatsue, T.

Nerger, J. L.

V. J. Volbrecht, J. L. Nerger, and C. E. Harlow, “The bimodality of unique green revisited,” Vis. Res. 37, 407–416 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Paramei, G. V.

Parkes, L.

S. M. Wuerger and L. Parkes, “Unique hues: perception and brain imaging,” in New Directions in Colour Studies, C. Biggam, C. Hough, C. Kay, and D. Simmons, eds. (John Benjamin, 2011), pp. 445–455.

Pokorny, J.

S. Burns, A. Elsner, J. Pokorny, and V. Smith, “The Abney effect: chromaticity coordinates of unique and other constant hues,” Vis. Res. 24, 479–489 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Pridmore, R. W.

R. W. Pridmore, “Bezold–Brucke hue-shift as functions of luminance level, luminance ratio, interstimulus interval and adapting white for aperture and object colors,” Vis. Res. 39, 3873–3891 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Pridmore, “Unique and binary hues as functions of luminance and illuminant color temperature, and relations with invariant hues,” Vis. Res. 39, 3892–3908 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Purdy, D.

D. Purdy, “The Bezold–Brücke phenomenon and contours for constant hue,” Am. J. Psychol. 49, 313–315 (1937).
[CrossRef]

Raker, V. E.

Regan, B. C.

B. C. Regan and J. D. Mollon, “The relative salience of the cardinal axes of colour space in normal and anomalous trichromats,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies XIII, C. R. Cavonius, ed. (Kluwer, 1997), pp. 261–270.

Regier, T.

P. Kay and T. Regier, “Resolving the question of color naming universals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 9085–9089 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Roberson, D.

D. Roberson, J. Davidoff, I. R. L. Davies, and L. R. Shapiro, “Color categories: evidence for the cultural relativity hypothesis,” Cogn. Psychol. 50, 378–411 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Saunders, B. A.

B. A. Saunders and J. van Brakel, “Are there nontrivial constraints on colour categorization?” Behav. Brain Sci. 20, 167–179 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schefrin, B. E.

Shamey, R.

Shapiro, L. R.

D. Roberson, J. Davidoff, I. R. L. Davies, and L. R. Shapiro, “Color categories: evidence for the cultural relativity hypothesis,” Cogn. Psychol. 50, 378–411 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Smith, V.

S. Burns, A. Elsner, J. Pokorny, and V. Smith, “The Abney effect: chromaticity coordinates of unique and other constant hues,” Vis. Res. 24, 479–489 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Stoughton, C. M.

C. M. Stoughton and B. R. Conway, “Neural basis for unique hues,” Curr. Biol. 18, R698–R699 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vaithilingham, E.

Valberg, A.

A. Valberg, “Unique hues: an old problem for a new generation,” Vis. Res. 41, 1645–1657 (2001).
[CrossRef]

van Brakel, J.

B. A. Saunders and J. van Brakel, “Are there nontrivial constraints on colour categorization?” Behav. Brain Sci. 20, 167–179 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Verma, R.

Vierling, F.

F. Vierling, Die Farbensinnprüfung bei der Deutschen Reichsbahn (Verlag Bernecker, 1935).

Volbrecht, V. J.

V. J. Volbrecht, J. L. Nerger, and C. E. Harlow, “The bimodality of unique green revisited,” Vis. Res. 37, 407–416 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Walraven, P.

Wascher, T.

Webster, M. A.

Webster, S. M.

Werner, J. S.

Witzel, C.

C. Witzel and K. R. Gegenfurtner, “Categorical sensitivity to color differences,” J. Vis. 13(7):1, 1–33 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wuerger, S.

K. Xiao, C. Fu, D. Mylonas, D. Karatzas, and S. Wuerger, “Unique hue data for colour appearance models. Part II: chromatic adaptation transform,” Color Res. Appl. 38, 22–29 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Xiao, S. Wuerger, C. Fu, and D. Karatzas, “Unique hue data for colour appearance models. Part I: loci of unique hues and hue uniformity,” Color Res. Appl. 36, 316–323 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wuerger, S. M.

S. M. Wuerger, P. Atkinson, and S. Cropper, “The cone inputs to the unique-hue mechanisms,” Vis. Res. 45, 3210–3223 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Wuerger and L. Parkes, “Unique hues: perception and brain imaging,” in New Directions in Colour Studies, C. Biggam, C. Hough, C. Kay, and D. Simmons, eds. (John Benjamin, 2011), pp. 445–455.

Xiao, K.

K. Xiao, C. Fu, D. Mylonas, D. Karatzas, and S. Wuerger, “Unique hue data for colour appearance models. Part II: chromatic adaptation transform,” Color Res. Appl. 38, 22–29 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Xiao, S. Wuerger, C. Fu, and D. Karatzas, “Unique hue data for colour appearance models. Part I: loci of unique hues and hue uniformity,” Color Res. Appl. 36, 316–323 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Psychol. (1)

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